中級 美國腔 112065 分類 收藏
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¿Hablas Español? Parlez-vous Français? 你會說中文嗎?
If you answered, "sí", "oui", or "會" and you're watching this in English, chances are you belong to the world's bilingual and multilingual majority.
And besides having an easier time traveling, or watching movies without subtitles,
knowing two or more languages means that your brain may actually look and work differently than those of your monolingual friends.
So what does it really mean to know a language?
Language ability is typically measured in two active parts, speaking and writing, and two passive parts, listening and reading.
While a balanced bilingual has near equal abilities across the board in two languages, most bilinguals around the world know and use their languages in varying proportions.
And depending on their situation and how they acquired each language, they can be classified into three general types.
For example, let's take Gabriella, whose family immigrates to the US from Peru when she's two-years old.
As a compound bilingual, Gabriella develops two linguistic codes simultaneously with a single set of concepts,
learning both English and Spanish as she begins to process the world around her.
Her teenage brother, on the other hand, might be a coordinate bilingual, working with two sets of concepts, learning English in school,
while continuing to speak Spanish at home and with friends.
Finally, Gabriella's parents are likely to be subordinate bilinguals who learn a secondary language by filtering it through their primary language.
Because all types of bilingual people can become fully proficient in a language regardless of accent or pronunciation, the difference may not be apparent to a casual observer.
But recent advances in brain imaging technology have given neurolinguists a glimpse into how specific aspects of language learning affect the bilingual brain.
It's well known that the brain's left hemisphere is more dominant and analytical in logical processes,
while the right hemisphere is more active in emotional and social ones, though this is a matter of degree, not an absolute split.
The fact that language involves both types of functions while lateralization develops gradually with age, has led to the critical period hypothesis.
According to this theory, children learn languages more easily because the plasticity of their developing brains lets them use both hemispheres in language acquisition,
while in most adults, language is lateralized to one hemisphere, usually the left.
If this is true, learning a language in childhood may give you a more holistic grasp of its social and emotional contexts.
Conversely, recent research showed that people who learned a second language in adulthood exhibit less emotional bias and a more rational approach
when confronting problems in the second language than in their native one.
But regardless of when you acquire additional languages, being multilingual gives your brain some remarkable advantages.
Some of these are even visible, such as higher density of the grey matter that contains most of your brain's neurons and synapses,
and more activity in certain regions when engaging a second language.
The heightened workout a bilingual brain receives throughout its life can also help delay the onset of diseases, like Alzheimer's and dementia, by as much as five years.
The idea of major cognitive benefits to bilingualism may seem intuitive now, but it would have surprised earlier experts.
Before the 1960s, bilingualism was considered a handicap that slowed a child's development,
by forcing them to spend too much energy distinguishing between languages, a view based largely on flawed studies.
And while a more recent study did show that reaction times and errors increase for some bilingual students in cross-language tests,
it also showed that the effort and attention needed to switch between languages triggered more activity in, and potentially strengthened, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.
This is the part of the brain that plays a large role in executive function, problem solving, switching between tasks, and focusing while filtering out irrelevant information.
So, while bilingualism may not necessarily make you smarter, it does make your brain more healthy, complex and actively engaged,
And even if you didn't have the good fortune of learning a second language as a child, it's never too late to do yourself a favor.
And make the linguistic leap from, "Hello," to, "Hola," "Bonjour" or "您好" because when it comes to our brains, a little exercise can go a long way.
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雙語腦的好處 (The Benefits of a Bilingual Brain)

112065 分類 收藏
稲葉白兎 發佈於 2015 年 8 月 18 日

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大家在 VoiceTube 看影片學英文無非是想要提升外語能力,但你知道除了看電影不用看字幕、跟外國人能順利溝通外,會講多種語言跟只會講一種語言對我們大腦也會有顯著的影響!就讓 TED-Ed 帶我們一窺雙語腦的奧秘!

1
bilingual0:20
bilingual 就是雙語的。它的字首 bi 指的就是「兩個」的意思,而後面的 lingual 則代表「語言的」,合在一起就是「雙語的」意思!英文字常常可以用字首來判斷大概的意思,而影片中提到的 monolingual (只會說一種語言的)還有 multilingual (會用多種語言的)也是一樣可以用字首知道意思。 這三個字首都很常用,一起來認識幾個它們的變化吧!
mono- : monorail(單軌鐵路)、monopoly(壟斷、專賣)
bi- : bipolar(兩極的,bipolar disorder 就是躁鬱症,因為患者有亢奮跟抑鬱兩極化的現象)
multi- : multitasking (一心多用)、multicultural(多元文化的)

2
plasticity2:33
很多人都知道 plastic 是塑膠,但是它其實可以做形容詞,當成「可塑的」意思。而 plasticity 就是 plastic 變成名詞,變成「可塑性」。影片中的用法 plasticity of their developing brains 就是指小孩發育期間大腦的可塑性。plastic 也還有另一個常見用法就是 plastic surgery ,它就是「整形外科手術」的意思,比較傾向重建外觀(例如燒燙傷重建)、修復功能。而相似詞 cosmetic surgery 則是「醫美手術 」,偏向讓外觀更好看,比較是大家印象中的整形手術。

3
Alzheimer’s / dementia3:30
Alzheimer’s 就是阿茲海默症,是一種進程緩慢的神經功能障礙。而 dementia 則是廣泛的失智、癡呆現象。這兩個字外國人也常常混用、誤用,但它們的意思其實不同,阿茲海默症是引發失智的主要原因之一,但是有失智現象的人並不一定有阿茲海默症,還有多種疾病、損傷會引發 dementia!

*同場加映
TED-Ed:一窺阿茲海默症的秘密 What is Alzheimer's disease? - Ivan Seah Yu Jun


4
handicap3:43
handicap 指的就是「身心障礙」或是「不利的條件」。但是想要有禮貌地說「身心障礙者」的時候,用 handicapped 其實是帶有歧視的意味,所以最有禮貌的說法其實是 physically challenged (身體上受到挑戰的) 。我們也可以用 visually-impaired 代替 blind、hearing-impaired 代替 deaf ,這樣的用字顯得比較尊重、委婉。

*同場加映
少了一隻腳、少了一隻手,卻激勵人心的男孩 (The Inspirational Story Of 9-Year-Old Ezra Frech)


5
go a long way4:47
go a long way 字面上可能像「走很長一段路」,但是它也有「大有幫助」的意思。影片中 when it comes to our brains, a little exercise can go a long way 就是指對大腦來說,一點點小訓練就對它的運作大有幫助。
Eating right and exercising regularly can go a long way towards living a healthy lifestyle.
均衡飲食和規律運動對於建立健康生活形態大有幫助。


看完影片之後有沒有更有動力學英文了呢?要精通一種外語並不簡單,但是學的過程能訓練腦力,學完又多一項實用的技能!學英文終究是要靠自己努力,但 VoiceTube 會在學習路上助你一臂之力!

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  1. UrbanDictionary 俚語字典整合查詢。一般字典查詢不到你滿意的解譯,不妨使用「俚語字典」,或許會讓你有滿意的答案喔