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  • It was November 1, 2002,

    2002 年十一月一日

  • my first day as a principal,

    是我當校長的第一天,

  • but hardly my first day in the school district of Philadelphia.

    但那天不是我在費城學區的第一天。

  • I graduated from Philadelphia public schools,

    我從費城的公立學校畢業,

  • and I went on to teach special education for 20 years

    接著教了特殊教育 20 年,

  • in a low-income, low-performing school

    那是一所低收入、低水準的學校,

  • in North Philadelphia,

    位於北費城,

  • where crime is rampant

    那裡犯罪猖獗,

  • and deep poverty is among the highest in the nation.

    收入不及聯邦貧窮線一半的人 居全國之冠。

  • Shortly after I walked into my new school,

    就在我走進我的新學校後不久,

  • a huge fight broke out among the girls.

    有一群女生大打出手,

  • After things were quickly under control,

    情況快速得到控制後,

  • I immediately called a meeting

    我立刻召集眾人

  • in the school's auditorium

    在學校的禮堂開會,

  • to introduce myself as the school's new principal.

    介紹我自己是這學校的新校長。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • I walked in angry,

    我走進去的時候懷著怒氣,

  • a little nervous --

    還有點緊張──

  • (Laughter) --

    (笑聲)──

  • but I was determined

    但我下定決心

  • to set the tone for my new students.

    要給我的新學生下點馬威。

  • I started listing as forcefully as I could

    我以我最強硬的聲調

  • my expectations for their behavior

    開始列出我對他們行為的期望,

  • and my expectations for what they would learn in school.

    對他們要在學校學什麼的期望。

  • When, all of a sudden,

    突然,有個女孩

  • a girl way in the back of the auditorium,

    在禮堂很後面的地方,

  • she stood up

    她站了起來,

  • and she said, "Miss!

    然後她說:「校長!校長!」

  • Miss!"

    我們的目光鎖定後,她說:

  • When our eyes locked, she said,

    「妳為什麼一直叫這裡學校?

  • "Why do you keep calling this a school?

    這裡不是學校。」

  • This is not a school."

    艾希莉用這句大爆發的話,

  • In one outburst,

    表達了我曾有過的感受

  • Ashley had expressed what I felt

    及那難以言喻的親身經驗,

  • and never quite was able to articulate

    當時我唸的學校水準不高,

  • about my own experience when I attended a low-performing school

    就位在同一個社區, 那是很久以前的事了。

  • in the same neighborhood, many, many, many years earlier.

    那所學校絕對稱不上是學校。

  • That school was definitely not a school.

    時間快轉十年到 2012 年,

  • Fast forwarding a decade later to 2012,

    我第三度到低水準學校當校長。

  • I was entering my third low-performing school as principal.

    我是草莓屋高中 四年來的第四個校長。

  • I was to be Strawberry Mansion's fourth principal in four years.

    它被標為「低水準且持續危險」,

  • It was labeled "low-performing and persistently dangerous"

    因為其低測驗分數、

  • due to its low test scores

    高武器持有率、

  • and high number of weapons,

    藥物持有率、施暴及逮捕率。

  • drugs, assaults and arrests.

    就在我走近我新學校的大門

  • Shortly as I approached the door of my new school

    並想要進入的時候,

  • and attempted to enter,

    我立刻發現門是用鐵鍊鎖住的,

  • and found the door locked with chains,

    我似乎可以聽見艾希莉的聲音

  • I could hear Ashley's voice in my ears

    在我耳中迴繞:「校長!校長!

  • going, "Miss! Miss!

    這不是學校!」

  • This is not a school."

    學校的走廊又黑又暗, 因為照明不足。

  • The halls were dim and dark from poor lighting.

    數不清的破舊辦公室傢俱

  • There were tons of piles of broken old furniture

    和課桌椅堆在教室裡,

  • and desks in the classrooms,

    還有成千上萬 未用過的教材及物品。

  • and there were thousands of unused materials and resources.

    這不是學校。

  • This was not a school.

    隨著學年推移,

  • As the year progressed,

    我注意到教室幾乎空無一人。

  • I noticed that the classrooms were nearly empty.

    學生都嚇死了:

  • The students were just scared:

    嚇得不敢排排坐, 因為怕有什麼狀況發生;

  • scared to sit in rows in fear that something would happen;

    嚇壞了因為他們常常在學校餐廳 被人譏笑吃免費食物。

  • scared because they were often teased in the cafeteria for eating free food.

    他們怕死了那些打架,那些霸凌。

  • They were scared from all the fighting and all the bullying.

    這不是學校。

  • This was not a school.

    此外,還有老師,

  • And then, there were the teachers,

    他們對自身的安危都嚇得要命,

  • who were incredibly afraid for their own safety,

    所以他們對學生、 對自己的期望都很低,

  • so they had low expectations for the students and themselves,

    他們也完全不知道自己的角色

  • and they were totally unaware of their role

    能對這個崩壞的學校文化做什麼。

  • in the destruction of the school's culture.

    這是最令人頭疼的部分。

  • This was the most troubling of all.

    你看,艾希莉是對的,

  • You see, Ashley was right,

    她說對的不僅是她的學校。

  • and not just about her school.

    對太多太多的學校而言,

  • For far too many schools,

    對活在貧窮的孩子而言,

  • for kids who live in poverty,

    他們的學校真的稱不上是學校。

  • their schools are really not schools at all.

    但是這可以改變。

  • But this can change.

    讓我告訴你們在草莓屋高中 我們是怎麼做的。

  • Let me tell you how it's being done at Strawberry Mansion High School.

    每個跟我共事過的人都會告訴你們

  • Anybody who's ever worked with me will tell you

    我以口號著稱。

  • I am known for my slogans.

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    所以今天,我要說三個口號,

  • So today, I am going to use three

    是我們在尋求改變時的最高原則。

  • that have been paramount in our quest for change.

    第一個口號是:

  • My first slogan is:

    如果你要領導,就好好領導。

  • if you're going to lead, lead.

    我總是相信

  • I always believed

    學校要做什麼、不要做什麼

  • that what happens in a school and what does not happen in a school

    是由校長全權決定。

  • is up to the principal.

    我是校長,

  • I am the principal,

    既然有那樣的頭銜就要領導。

  • and having that title required me to lead.

    我不要呆坐在辦公室裡,

  • I was not going to stay in my office,

    我不要授權我的工作,

  • I was not going to delegate my work,

    而我也不怕去處理

  • and I was not going to be afraid to address anything

    對孩子不好的任何事情,

  • that was not good for children,

    無論這是否讓我受歡迎。

  • whether that made me liked or not.

    我是領導人,

  • I am a leader,

    因此我知道我不能孤軍奮戰。

  • so I know I cannot do anything alone.

    所以我組了一個頂尖的領導團隊,

  • So, I assembled a top-notch leadership team

    這個團隊相信學童無窮的可能性,

  • who believed in the possibility of all the children,

    我們一同合作解決一些小事,

  • and together, we tackled the small things,

    像是親手重設 每一個衣物櫃的號碼鎖,

  • like resetting every single locker combination by hand

    所以每個學生都有能上鎖的衣物櫃,

  • so that every student could have a secure locker.

    我們布置了那座建築物裡的 每一面布告欄,

  • We decorated every bulletin board in that building

    放上明亮鮮豔的色彩 及正面積極的話語。

  • with bright, colorful, and positive messages.

    我們把學校前門的鎖鍊拿掉。

  • We took the chains off the front doors of the school.

    我們更換燈泡,

  • We got the lightbulbs replaced,

    我們還把每間教室 都打掃得乾乾淨淨,

  • and we cleaned every classroom to its core,

    回收每一本、每一本 用不到的教科書,

  • recycling every, every textbook that was not needed,

    並丟棄成千上萬的舊教材及傢俱。

  • and discarded thousands of old materials and furniture.

    我們每天都裝滿兩大箱垃圾。

  • We used two dumpsters per day.

    而且,理所當然,

  • And, of course, of course,

    我們也處理大問題,

  • we tackled the big stuff,

    像是重新編列學校的所有預算,

  • like rehauling the entire school budget

    讓我們能重新分配專款 聘請更多老師及支援職員。

  • so that we can reallocate funds to have more teachers and support staff.

    我們重新建立學校的日課表,

  • We rebuilt the entire school day schedule from scratch

    增加了不同的開始及結束時間、

  • to add a variety of start and end times,

    補救課程、 優異學生預修大專院校課程、

  • remediation, honors courses,

    課外活動及輔導,

  • extracurricular activities, and counseling,

    這些都在學校上課的時間完成。

  • all during the school day.

    都在學校上課的時間完成。

  • All during the school day.

    我們還做了一個調度表,

  • We created a deployment plan

    指定每一個職員及警察

  • that specified where every single support person and police officer would be

    每一天每一分鐘的崗位,

  • every minute of the day,

    我們還監控每一天每一秒鐘的狀況,

  • and we monitored at every second of the day,

    還有,我們最棒的發明

  • and, our best invention ever,

    就是設計了一套全校紀律計畫,

  • we devised a schoolwide discipline program

    名為「絕不妥協」。

  • titled "Non-negotiables."

    這是一套行為系統——

  • It was a behavior system --

    這是一套行為系統

  • designed to promote positive behavior at all times.

    旨在隨時促進積極正面的行為。

  • The results?

    結果如何?

  • Strawberry Mansion was removed from the Persistently Dangerous List

    草莓屋高中 從持續危險的名單上除名,

  • our first year after being --

    這是第一年──

  • (Applause) --

    (掌聲)──

  • after being on the Persistently Dangerous List for five consecutive years.

    是我們在持續危險名單上 五年之後的第一年。

  • Leaders make the impossible possible.

    領導者讓不可能成為可能。

  • That brings me to my second slogan:

    這帶出我的第二個口號:

  • So what? Now what?

    那又怎樣?現在要怎麼辦?

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • When we looked at the data,

    在我們看數據,

  • and we met with the staff,

    並與職員會談的時候,

  • there were many excuses

    會聽到好多藉口,

  • for why Strawberry Mansion was low-performing and persistently dangerous.

    為什麼草莓屋高中 低水準又持續危險。

  • They said that only 68 percent of the kids come to school on a regular basis,

    他們說只有 68% 的孩子 規律的到校上課,

  • 100 percent of them live in poverty,

    100% 家境窮困,

  • only one percent of the parents participate,

    只有 1% 的家長會來學校,

  • many of the children

    許多孩子

  • come from incarceration and single-parent homes,

    來自受刑人家庭及單親家庭,

  • 39 percent of the students have special needs,

    39% 的學生為特殊兒童,

  • and the state data revealed

    而州政府的數據顯示

  • that six percent of the students were proficient in algebra,

    只有 6% 的學生熟練代數,

  • and 10 were proficient in literature.

    10% 的學生熟練文學。

  • After they got through telling us all the stories

    在他們滔滔不絕的對我們說完

  • of how awful the conditions and the children were,

    家庭及學生狀況有多慘的故事之後,

  • I looked at them,

    我看著他們,

  • and I said, "So what. Now what?

    然後我說: 「那又怎樣?現在要怎麼辦?」

  • What are we gonna do about it?"

    「我們要怎麼做?」

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • Eliminating excuses at every turn became my primary responsibility.

    處處排除藉口成了我的主要責任。

  • We addressed every one of those excuses

    我們在強制的專業發展計畫中 討論每一項藉口的解決法,

  • through a mandatory professional development,

    為全神貫注的教書及學習鋪路。

  • paving the way for intense focus on teaching and learning.

    在多次觀察後,

  • After many observations,

    我們判定老師知道要教什麼,

  • what we determined was that teachers knew what to teach

    但是他們不知道要怎麼教

  • but they did not know how to teach

    這麼多良莠不齊學生。

  • so many children with so many vast abilities.

    所以,我們發展了一套教學法

  • So, we developed a lesson delivery model for instruction

    專注在小組教學,

  • that focused on small group instruction,

    想辦法在課堂裡 對所有的學生因材施教。

  • making it possible for all the students to get their individual needs met

    結果如何?

  • in the classroom.

    一年後,州政府數據顯示,

  • The results?

    我們的代數分數成長了 171%,

  • After one year, state data revealed

    文學分數成長了 107%。

  • that our scores have grown by 171 percent in Algebra

    (掌聲)

  • and 107 percent in literature.

    我們還有很長的路要走,

  • (Applause)

    非常遙遠的路,但是我們現在用

  • We have a very long way to go,

    「那又怎樣?現在要怎麼辦?」的心態 面對所有障礙。

  • a very long way to go,

    這又帶出我的第三個 也是最後的口號。

  • but we now approach every obstacle with a "So What. Now What?" attitude.

    (笑聲)

  • And that brings me to my third and final slogan.

    如果今天沒有人告訴你他們愛你,

  • (Laughter)

    你要記得我愛你, 而且我永遠都愛你。

  • If nobody told you they loved you today,

    我的學生有很多問題:

  • you remember I do, and I always will.

    社交、情緒、經濟上的各種問題,

  • My students have problems:

    你想也想不到。

  • social, emotional and economic problems

    有些學生已經是父母了,

  • you could never imagine.

    有些則完全獨自生活。

  • Some of them are parents themselves,

    如果有人問我我真正的秘密,

  • and some are completely alone.

    到底我是怎麼 讓草莓屋高中繼續前進,

  • If someone asked me my real secret

    我會說是因為我愛我的學生,

  • for how I truly keep Strawberry Mansion moving forward,

    而且我相信他們的無限可能,

  • I would have to say that I love my students

    無條件相信!

  • and I believe in their possibilities

    當我看著他們,

  • unconditionally.

    我眼裡只看見他們能成為什麼,

  • When I look at them,

    那是因為我也走過他們的路。

  • I can only see what they can become,

    我也在貧窮的北費城長大。

  • and that is because I am one of them.

    我知道去上一所 稱不上學校的學校是什麼感覺。

  • I grew up poor in North Philadelphia too.

    我知道那種總是懷疑

  • I know what it feels like to go to a school that's not a school.

    到底有沒有辦法擺脫窮困的感覺。

  • I know what it feels like to wonder

    但是因為我偉大的母親,

  • if there's ever going to be any way out of poverty.

    我還能夢想,

  • But because of my amazing mother,

    儘管我身在貧窮的環境之中。

  • I got the ability to dream

    所以──

  • despite the poverty that surrounded me.

    (掌聲)──

  • So --

    如果我要督促我的學生

  • (Applause) --

    朝著夢想及人生的標竿邁進,

  • if I'm going to push my students

    我一定要了解他們的一切。

  • toward their dream and their purpose in life,

    所以我得要花時間與他們相處,

  • I've got to get to know who they are.

    所以我每天都去管理學校餐廳。

  • So I have to spend time with them,

    (笑聲)

  • so I manage the lunchroom every day.

    我在那裡的時候,

  • (Laughter)

    我與他們談談非常私人的話題,

  • And while I'm there,

    在他們生日的時候,

  • I talk to them about deeply personal things,

    我就唱「生日快樂」,

  • and when it's their birthday,

    即使我根本不會唱歌。

  • I sing "Happy Birthday"

    (笑聲)

  • even though I cannot sing at all.

    我常問他們,

  • (Laughter)

    「你為什麼要我唱歌? 我根本不會唱歌啊?」

  • I often ask them,

    (笑聲)

  • "Why do you want me to sing when I cannot sing at all?"

    他們就會說:

  • (Laughter)

    「因為我們喜歡受到 特殊待遇的感覺。」

  • And they respond by saying,

    我們每個月都開一次全員大會,

  • "Because we like feeling special."

    聽聽他們的苦惱,

  • We hold monthly town hall meetings

    找出他們心中的想法,

  • to listen to their concerns,

    他們會問我們問題,像是: 「為什麼我們要遵守規定?」

  • to find out what is on their minds.

    「為什麼有那麼多懲罰?」

  • They ask us questions like, "Why do we have to follow rules?"

    「為什麼我們不能隨心所欲?」

  • "Why are there so many consequences?"

    (笑聲)

  • "Why can't we just do what we want to do?"

    他們問問題, 我就誠實的一一回答,

  • (Laughter)

    而這種聆聽的交流 幫助我們澄清任何誤解。

  • They ask, and I answer each question honestly,

    每一刻都是機會教育。

  • and this exchange in listening helps to clear up any misconceptions.

    我得到的回饋,

  • Every moment is a teachable moment.

    我得到的回饋,

  • My reward,

    我對規則及懲罰 絕不妥協的態度上得到的回饋,

  • my reward

    就是贏得他們的尊重。

  • for being non-negotiable in my rules and consequences

    我在這方面很堅持,

  • is their earned respect.

    而正因為如此, 我們能一同完成許多事。

  • I insist on it,

    他們很清楚我對他們的期望,

  • and because of this, we can accomplish things together.

    而我也每天透過學校廣播 重複著那些期望,

  • They are clear about my expectations for them,

    我提醒他們──

  • and I repeat those expectations every day over the P.A. system.

    (笑聲)

  • I remind them --

    我提醒他們那些核心價值,

  • (Laughter)

    就是專注、傳統、傑出、

  • I remind them of those core values

    正直及堅毅,

  • of focus, tradition, excellence,

    我也每天提醒他們

  • integrity and perseverance,

    教育如何能真正改變他們的生活。

  • and I remind them every day

    我總是用同樣的話結束我的廣播:

  • how education can truly change their lives.

    「如果今天沒有人告訴你他們愛你,

  • And I end every announcement the same:

    你要記得我愛你,

  • "If nobody told you they loved you today,

    而且我永遠愛你。」

  • you remember I do,

    艾希莉的話,

  • and I always will."

    那句「校長!校長!

  • Ashley's words

    這不是學校。」

  • of "Miss, Miss,

    永遠都烙印在我心上。

  • this is not a school,"

    如果我們真的要在

  • is forever etched in my mind.

    解決貧窮上取得實質的進展,

  • If we are truly going to make real progress

    那麼我們必須確保