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  • If someone asked you who the richest people in history were,

    如果有人問你誰是歷史上最富有的人,

  • who would you name?

    你會想起誰?

  • Perhaps a billionaire banker or corporate mogul,

    或許是一個銀行億萬富翁又或者是商業富豪,

  • like Bill Gates or John D. Rockefeller.

    像是比爾蓋茲或是約翰·戴維森·洛克菲勒。

  • How about African King Musa Keita I?

    那曼薩·穆薩那呢?

  • Ruling the Mali Empire in the 14th century CE,

    在14世紀時,治理了馬里帝國,

  • Mansa Musa, or the King of Kings,

    曼薩·穆薩,也稱為王中之王,

  • amassed a fortune that possibly made him one of the wealthiest people who ever lived.

    擁有的財富可能使他成為在世上最富有的人。

  • But his vast wealth was only one piece of his rich legacy.

    但是這樣龐大的財富只是他的一部分的傳奇。

  • When Mansa Musa came to power in 1312,

    當1312年曼薩·穆薩掌權時,

  • much of Europe was racked by famine and civil wars.

    大部分歐洲都陷入饑荒和內戰中。

  • But many African kingdoms and the Islamic world were flourishing,

    但多數非洲國家和伊斯蘭世界正在崛起,

  • and Mansa Musa played a great role in bringing the fruits of this flourishing to his own realm.

    在馬里帝國的崛起中,曼薩·穆薩就是一位非常重要的人物。

  • By strategically annexing the city of Timbuktu,

    藉著有策略性的合併Timbuktu城市,

  • and reestablishing power over the city of Gao,

    和重建對Gao城市的控制權,

  • he gained control over important trade routes between the Mediterranean and the West African Coast,

    他得以控制地中海和西非海岸間的重要貿易路線,

  • continuing a period of expansion, which dramatically increased Mali's size.

    這樣持續的擴張貿易路線而擴張了馬里的版圖。

  • The territory of the Mali Empire was rich in natural resources,

    馬里帝國的領土有豐富的自然資源,

  • such as gold and salt.

    像是金和鹽。

  • The world first witnessed the extent of Mansa Musa's wealth in 1324 when he took his pilgrimage to Mecca.

    世人第一次見識到曼薩·穆薩的富有程度,是在他1324年前往麥加的朝聖之旅,

  • Not one to travel on a budget,

    不需要考慮旅行預算,

  • he brought a caravan stretching as far as the eye could see.

    他帶著綿綿不斷的旅行隊。

  • Accounts of this journey are mostly based on an oral testimony and differing written records,

    這個旅程主要是根據口頭證明和不同的書面紀錄,

  • so it's difficult to determine the exact details.

    所以無法知道確切的細節。

  • But what most agree on is the extravagant scale of the excursion.

    但是唯一可以同意的是,是個奢侈的旅程。

  • Chroniclers describe an entourage of tens of thousands of soldiers, civilians, and slaves,

    編年史家記載的隨從有成千上萬的軍人,平民,和奴隸,

  • 500 heralds bearing gold staffs and dressed in fine silks,

    500位使者擔著金子,身穿上等絲綢,

  • and many camels and horses bearing an abundance of gold bars.

    許多駱駝和馬也扛著無數金條。

  • Stopping in cities such as Cairo,

    在開羅等城市停留時,

  • Mansa Musa is said to have spent massive quantities of gold,

    據說曼薩·穆薩已花重金,

  • giving to the poor, buying souvenirs,

    在救濟貧困和買紀念品,

  • and even having mosques built along the way.

    甚至在一路上建立許多的清真寺。

  • In fact, his spending may have destabilized the regional economy,

    事實上,他的花費可能使得地方經濟不穩定,

  • causing mass inflation.

    造成嚴重的通貨膨脹。

  • This journey reportedly took over a year, and by the time Mansa Musa returned,

    這個旅程據說費時超過一年。而當曼薩·穆薩回國時,

  • tales of his amazing wealth had spread to the ports of the Mediterranean.

    他的故事已傳遍了地中海的港口。

  • Mali and its king were elevated to near legendary status, cemented by their inclusion on the 1375 Catalan Atlas.

    在1375年的Catalan Atlas地圖中,馬里和曼薩·穆薩成了個傳奇,

  • One of the most important world maps of Medieval Europe,

    一份中世紀歐洲最重要的世界地圖中,

  • it depicted the King holding a scepter and a gleaming gold nugget.

    描繪了曼薩·穆薩拿著權杖和一個閃亮的金塊。

  • Mansa Musa had literally put his empire and himself on the map.

    曼薩·穆薩把他的帝國和他自己放在地圖上,

  • But material riches weren't the king's only concern.

    但物質的富有並不是國王唯一的顧慮。

  • As a devout Muslim, he took a particular interest in Timbuktu,

    作為一個虔誠的穆斯林,曼薩·穆薩對於Timbuktu特別有興趣,

  • already a center of religion and learning prior to its annexation.

    Timbuktu已是一個宗教和學習中心。

  • Upon returning from his pilgrimage,

    在從朝聖之旅回來之前,

  • he had the great Djinguereber Mosque built there with the help of an Andalusian architect.

    在一位安達魯西亞建築師的幫助下,曼薩·穆薩在那建了宏偉的Djinguereber清真寺。

  • He also established a major university, further elevating the city's reputation,

    曼薩·穆薩也建了一間主要的大學,進一步的提升城市的名聲,

  • and attracting scholars and students from all over the Islamic world.

    吸引世界各地的伊斯蘭學者和學生。

  • Under Mansa Musa, the Empire became urbanized,

    在曼薩·穆薩治理下,帝國成功都市化,

  • with schools and mosques in hundreds of densely populated towns.

    在上百個人口高度密集的城鎮中有學校和清真寺。

  • The king's rich legacy persisted for generations and to this day,

    國王富裕的傳奇傳到至今,

  • there are mausoleums, libraries and mosques

    有壯麗的墳墓,圖書館,和清真寺

  • that stand as a testament to this golden age of Mali's history.

    這些就像是去證明馬里歷史上的黃金時期。

If someone asked you who the richest people in history were,

如果有人問你誰是歷史上最富有的人,

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B2 中高級 中文 TED-Ed 帝國 清真寺 富有 傳奇 城市

【TED-Ed】曼薩-穆薩,有史以來最富有的人之一--傑西卡-史密斯。 (【TED-Ed】Mansa Musa, one of the wealthiest people who ever lived - Jessica Smith)

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    稲葉白兎 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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