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  • You probably know the feeling.

    你可能知道這種感覺。

  • Your phone utters its final plaintive "bleep"

    你的手機發出最後一聲平淡的"嗶嗶聲&quot。

  • and cuts out in the middle of your call.

    並在你的電話中切斷了。

  • In that moment, you may feel more like throwing your battery across the room

    在那一刻,你可能會覺得更想把電池扔到對面去

  • than singing its praises,

    比歌頌它。

  • but batteries are a triumph of science.

    但電池是科學的勝利。

  • They allow smartphones and other technologies to exist

    它們允許智能手機和其他技術存在

  • without anchoring us to an infernal tangle of power cables.

    而不需要把我們固定在無盡的電線上。

  • Yet even the best batteries will diminish daily,

    然而,即使是最好的電池也會日漸減少。

  • slowly losing capacity until they finally die.

    慢慢失去能力,直到最後死亡。

  • So why does this happen,

    那麼為什麼會出現這種情況。

  • and how do our batteries even store so much charge in the first place?

    而我們的電池又是如何首先儲存這麼多電荷的呢?

  • It all started in the 1780s with two Italian scientists,

    這一切都始於1780年代的兩位意大利科學家。

  • Luigi Galvani and Alessandro Volta,

    Luigi Galvani和Alessandro Volta,

  • and a frog.

    和一隻青蛙。

  • Legend has it that as Galvani was studying a frog's leg,

    傳說,當加爾瓦尼在研究一隻青蛙'的腿時。

  • he brushed a metal instrument up against one of its nerves,

    他用一個金屬儀器抵住了它的一根神經。

  • making the leg muscles jerk.

    使得腿部肌肉抽搐。

  • Galvani called this animal electricity,

    加爾瓦尼稱這種動物為電。

  • believing that a type of electricity was stored in the very stuff of life.

    相信一種電是儲存在生命之物中的。

  • But Volta disagreed,

    但沃爾塔不同意。

  • arguing that it was the metal itself that made the leg twitch.

    辯稱是金屬本身讓腿部抽搐。

  • The debate was eventually settled with Volta's groundbreaking experiment.

    這場爭論最終以沃爾塔'的突破性實驗而得到解決。

  • He tested his idea with a stack of alternating layers of zinc and copper,

    他用一疊交替的鋅和銅層來測試他的想法。

  • separated by paper or cloth soaked in a salt water solution.

    用紙或布浸泡在鹽水溶液中分離。

  • What happened in Volta's cell is something chemists now call oxidation and reduction.

    Volta'的細胞中發生的是化學家們現在所說的氧化和還原。

  • The zinc oxidizes, which means it loses electrons,

    鋅會氧化,也就是失去電子。

  • which are, in turn, gained by the ions in the water in a process called reduction,

    而這些物質又被水中的離子在一個叫做還原的過程中獲得。

  • producing hydrogen gas.

    生產氫氣。

  • Volta would have been shocked to learn that last bit.

    沃爾塔如果知道最後一點,一定會很震驚。

  • He thought the reaction was happening in the copper,

    他認為反應發生在銅裡。

  • rather than the solution.

    而不是溶液。

  • None the less, we honor Volta's discovery today

    儘管如此,我們今天對沃爾塔的發現表示敬意。

  • by naming our standard unit of electric potential "the volt."

    命名我們的電動勢標準單位"伏特&quot。

  • This oxidation-reduction cycle creates a flow of electrons between two substances

    這種氧化-還原循環在兩種物質之間形成電子流。

  • and if you hook a lightbulb or vacuum cleaner up between the two,

    如果你把燈泡或吸塵器掛在兩者之間。

  • you'll give it power.

    你'會給它力量。

  • Since the 1700s, scientists have improved on Volta's design.

    自17世紀以來,科學家們對沃爾塔的設計進行了改進。

  • They've replaced the chemical solution with dry cells filled with chemical paste,

    他們'已經用填充有化學漿料的乾燥細胞代替了化學溶液。

  • but the principle is the same.

    但原理是一樣的。

  • A metal oxidizes, sending electrons to do some work

    金屬氧化,送出電子來做一些工作

  • before they are regained by a substance being reduced.

    在它們被減少的物質重新獲得之前。

  • But any battery has a finite supply of metal,

    但任何電池的金屬供應量都是有限的。

  • and once most of it has oxidized, the battery dies.

    而一旦大部分氧化了,電池就會失效。

  • So rechargeable batteries give us a temporary solution to this problem

    所以充電電池給我們暫時解決了這個問題

  • by making the oxidation-reduction process reversible.

    通過使氧化-還原過程可逆。

  • Electrons can flow back in the opposite direction

    電子可以向相反的方向迴流。

  • with the application of electricity.

    隨著電力的應用。

  • Plugging in a charger draws the electricity from a wall outlet

    插上充電器從牆上的插座中取電。

  • that drives the reaction to regenerate the metal,

    促使該反應再生金屬。

  • making more electrons available for oxidation the next time you need them.

    使更多的電子在下次需要的時候可以用於氧化。

  • But even rechargeable batteries don't last forever.

    但即使是充電電池也不會永遠持續下去。

  • Over time, the repetition of this process causes imperfections

    隨著時間的推移,這一過程的重複會導致不完美的情況發生

  • and irregularities in the metal's surface that prevent it from oxidizing properly.

    和金屬表面的不規則,使其無法正常氧化。

  • The electrons are no longer available to flow through a circuit

    電子已經不能在電路中流動。

  • and the battery dies.

    而電池沒電了。

  • Some everyday rechargeable batteries

    一些日常充電電池

  • will die after only hundreds of discharge-recharge cycles,

    只需經過數百次的放電-充電循環就會死機。

  • while newer, advanced batteries can survive and function for thousands.

    而較新的、先進的電池則可以存活下來,並可運行數千次。

  • Batteries of the future may be light, thin sheets

    未來的電池可能是輕薄的薄片。

  • that operate on the principles of quantum physics

    運作的量子物理學的原理的

  • and last for hundreds of thousands of charge cycles.

    並可持續幾十萬次充電週期。

  • But until scientists find a way to take advantage of motion

    但是,在科學家們找到利用運動的方法之前。

  • to recharge your cell battery, like cars do,

    來給你的電池充電,就像汽車一樣。

  • or fit solar panels somewhere on your device,

    或在你的設備上某處安裝太陽能電池板。

  • plugging your charger into the wall,

    將充電器插入牆壁。

  • rather than expending one battery to charge another

    而不是用一個電池去給另一個電池充電

  • is your best bet to forestall that fatal "bleep."

    是你防止致命的最佳選擇。

You probably know the feeling.

你可能知道這種感覺。

字幕與單字
自動翻譯

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B2 中高級 中文 TED-Ed 電池 金屬 還原 溶液 電子

【TED-Ed】電池運作的原理 (How batteries work - Adam Jacobson)

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    稲葉白兎 發佈於 2015 年 05 月 22 日
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