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  • Our planet's diverse thriving ecosystems may seem like permanent fixtures,

    地球上繁茂多樣的生態系 看起來像不變的固定裝置

  • but they're actually vulnerable to collapse.

    但是其實它們很容易崩解

  • Jungles can become deserts,

    叢林可能變成沙漠

  • and reefs can become lifeless rocks,

    珊瑚礁可能變成無生命的石頭

  • even without cataclysmic events, like volcanoes and asteroids.

    甚至無需發生劇變 如火山爆發或隕石撞擊

  • What makes one ecosystem strong and another weak in the face of change?

    在面對變化時是什麼造成 某種生態系變強,另一種生態系變弱呢?

  • The answer, to a large extent, is biodiversity.

    從大範圍看 答案是生物多樣性

  • Biodiversity is built out of three intertwined features:

    生物多樣性由三種交織的部分建構

  • ecosystem diversity,

    生態系多樣性

  • species diversity,

    物種多樣性 (種歧度)

  • and genetic diversity.

    及基因多樣性

  • The more intertwining there is between these features,

    這三部分交織愈緊密

  • the denser and more resilient the weave becomes.

    所織出的網就愈密愈有韌性

  • Take the Amazon rainforest,

    拿亞馬遜雨林為例

  • one of the most biodiverse regions on Earth

    這是地球上極富多樣化的地區

  • due to its complex ecosystems,

    因為它擁有複雜的生態系

  • huge mix of species,

    大量雜交的物種

  • and the genetic variety within those species.

    以及這些物種的基因變異

  • Here are tangled liana vines,

    看看這些纏繞的藤蔓

  • which crawl up from the forest floor to the canopy,

    從森林地表一直爬到林冠

  • intertwining with treetops

    纏著樹梢

  • and growing thick wooden stems that support these towering trees.

    長出粗大的木質莖 支持這些高聳的樹

  • Helped along by the vines,

    藉由藤蔓的幫助

  • trees provide the seeds, fruits and leaves to herbivores,

    草食動物可以順著藤蔓爬上樹 取食種子、果實及葉片

  • such as the tapir and the agouti,

    例如貘及刺鼠

  • which disperse their seeds throughout the forest so they can grow.

    牠們在森林內處處散播種子 讓樹得以生長

  • Leftovers are consumed by the millions of insects

    殘存物則由數不清的昆蟲吃掉

  • that decompose and recycle nutrients to create rich soil.

    分解、回收營養素 來產生肥沃的土壤

  • The rainforest is a huge system filled with many smaller systems, like this,

    雨林是個很大的系統 充滿許多像這樣的小型系統

  • each packed with interconnected species.

    每個小系統都塞滿相連的物種

  • Every link provides stability to the next,

    每個環節都為緊鄰的環節提供穩定性

  • strengthening biodiversity's weave.

    強化生物多樣性的網絡

  • That weave is further reinforced

    這張網會進一步

  • by the genetic diversity within individual species,

    因個別物種的基因多樣性而強化

  • which allows them to cope with changes.

    使牠們能因應變化

  • Species that lack genetic diversity due to isolation

    由於隔離而缺乏基因多樣性的物種

  • or low population numbers,

    或族群數量少的物種

  • are much more vulnerable to fluctuations

    就更容易因氣候變遷

  • caused by climate change, disease or habitat fragmentation.

    疾病或棲地碎裂而產生波動

  • Whenever a species disappears because of its weakened gene pool,

    無論何時只要有一種物種 因基因庫弱化而消失

  • a knot is untied and parts of the net disintegrate.

    結就鬆了 部分的網子也就瓦解

  • So, what if we were to remove one species from the rainforest?

    如果去除雨林中的 某物種會怎樣呢?

  • Would the system fall apart?

    系統會不會隨之分崩離析?

  • Probably not.

    大概不會

  • The volume of species,

    物種的數量

  • their genetic diversity,

    他們的基因多樣性

  • and the complexity of the ecosystems

    及生態系本身的複雜度

  • form such rich biodiversity in this forest

    在此森林中形成 如此豐富的生物多樣性

  • that one species gap in the weave won't cause it to unravel.

    某物種消失造成的洞 並不會使這張網就此崩解

  • The forest can stay resilient and recover from change.

    這座森林仍可維持韌性 並從變化中恢復

  • But that's not true in every case.

    但這並非放諸天下皆準

  • In some environments, taking away just one important component

    在某些環境下 就算只拿走一種重要的成分

  • can undermine the entire system.

    都能破壞整個系統

  • Take coral reefs, for instance.

    拿珊瑚礁為例

  • Many organisms in a reef are dependent on the coral.

    在珊瑚礁中 有許多生物要靠珊瑚為生

  • It provides key microhabitats, shelter and breeding grounds

    它提供關鍵的微棲所 遮蔽處及繁殖地

  • for thousand of species of fish, crustaceans and mollusks.

    成千上萬的魚類、甲殼類 及軟體動物都以珊瑚為生

  • Corals also form interdependent relationships with fungi and bacteria.

    珊瑚也與真菌類及細菌 形成相互依存的關係

  • The coral itself is a loom

    珊瑚本身是織布機

  • that allows the tangled net of biodiversity to be woven.

    織出生物多樣性的複雜網絡

  • That makes coral a keystone organism,

    這使珊瑚成為關鍵生物

  • one that many others depend on for their suvival.

    其他生物靠其存活

  • So what happens when destructive fishing practices,

    所以當破壞性的捕撈行為

  • pollution and ocean acidification

    汙染及海洋酸化

  • weaken coral or even kill it altogether?

    使珊瑚弱化甚至死亡時 會發生什麼事?

  • Exactly what you might think.

    就是你想的那樣

  • The loss of this keystone species leaves its dependents at a loss, too,

    這種關鍵物種消失 會使依靠它的物種也無所適從

  • threatening the entire fabric of the reef.

    威脅整個珊瑚礁的結構

  • Ecosystem, species and genetic diversity

    生態系、物種及基因多樣性

  • together form the complex tangled weave of biodiversity

    共同形成複雜交纏的 生物多樣性網絡

  • that is vital for the survival of organisms on Earth.

    這對地球生物的生存極為重要

  • We humans are woven into this biodiversity, too.

    我們人類也是生物多樣性 這團網絡的一部分

  • When just a few strands are lost,

    就算只有少數幾股線消失

  • our own well-being is threatened.

    我們自身的安康也受到威脅

  • Cut too many links, and we risk unraveling it all.

    切斷太多環節 我們就面臨解體的風險

  • What the future brings is unpredictable,

    未來如何不可預測

  • but biodiversity can give us an insurance policy,

    但生物多樣性就是保險

  • Earth's own safety net to safeguard our survival.

    是地球自身的安全網 保障我們的生存

Our planet's diverse thriving ecosystems may seem like permanent fixtures,

地球上繁茂多樣的生態系 看起來像不變的固定裝置

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 多樣性 物種 生物 珊瑚礁 基因

【TED-Ed】為什麼生物多樣性如此重要? (Why is biodiversity so important? - Kim Preshoff)

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    稲葉白兎 發佈於 2015 年 06 月 09 日
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