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  • In 1959, the Soviet spacecraft Luna 3 beamed back images of something Earthlings had never

    1959年,蘇聯太空船月球三號傳回了地球人未曾見過的影像:

  • before seen: the far side of the moon.

    月球的背面

  • We always see the same old side of the moon because the moon rotates exactly once on its

    我們總是看到同一面的月球,因為月球自轉一圈的時間恰等於公轉地球一周

  • axis each time it orbits Earth. If it weren’t spinning at all, we’d get at least one 360

    如果它完全不自轉,每次月球公轉一周我們都能至少看到一次月亮的全貌

  • degree view of its surface with each lap. If it were spinning twice as fast, we’d

    如果月球以兩倍速自轉

  • also see the moon’s entire surface more than once per orbit. But instead, our moon’s

    那每次月球公轉一周時,我們可以看到月球全貌不只一次

  • motionslike the spin and orbit of most other moons in our solar systemare, remarkably,

    然而,月球的運行—正如太陽系中大多數衛星的自轉公轉週期—

  • in perfect sync.

    非常完美地同步

  • This wasn’t always the case: our best guess is that our own moon formed due to a massive

    但這情況不是絕對:目前最佳的推測是,我們的月球是由小行星撞擊而形成的

  • asteroid impact, and its initial spin and dizzying 10-hour orbit were almost certainly

    而它最初的自轉週期和極快的10小時/次公轉週期

  • not in sync with each otherthough we don’t know which was faster.

    兩者基本上並未同步,但我們不知道哪個比較快

  • At such close range, Earth’s gravity deformed the moon into a slight oval, with one of its

    在如此近的距離下,地球引力使月球變形、略顯橢圓,其中一端突起朝向地球

  • bulges facing Earth. Those bulges quickly swung out of alignment, thanks to the moon's

    這兩端突起因為自轉公轉不同步而被甩離地球

  • asynchronous spin and orbit, but Earth’s gravity continually squeezed them back again.

    但地球引力又不斷將它拉回來

  • What’s more, this gravitational tugging would have influenced the moon’s rotation

    更重要的是,這引力拉扯影響了月球的自轉頻率:

  • rate: if it was spinning more than once per orbit, earth would pull at a slight angle

    若它公轉一周內自轉超過一次,則地球會輕微地

  • against the moon’s direction of rotation, slowing its spin; if the moon was spinning

    以月球自轉的反方向拉扯它,以減低其轉速

  • less than once per orbit, Earth would have pulled the other way, speeding its rotation.

    若是月球公轉一周內自轉少於一次,地球會順著月球自轉方向拉扯、增加轉速

  • Whatever the case, it took just 1000 years for the Earth’s pull to adjust the moon’s

    無論如何,地球只花了一千年就以拉扯的方式

  • spin enough that one rotation of the moon corresponded to one trip around the earth,

    將月亮調整為自轉一圈等於公轉一周

  • leaving one side forever locked facing away.

    使月亮另一邊永遠被固定在背面

  • We do end up seeing slightly more than that one side, because the moon’s elliptical

    我們最後其實能看到比一面多一點的月球,因為月球的橢圓軌道

  • orbit gives us peeks beyond its average eastern and western horizons, and its tilted axis

    讓我們能窺見比平均的東(西)半球更多一點的地方

  • causesmoon-seasonsrevealing more of the lunar north or south poles. But those

    而它傾斜的自轉軸造成了「月亮季節」,使得月亮的南北極露出更多部分

  • glimpses only add up to an extra 9%, leaving 41% of the moon hidden from earth. Satellites,

    但是這些驚鴻一瞥只能讓我們多看到9%的月亮,仍有41%無法從地球看見

  • starting with Luna 3, have allowed us to map the rest, but it’s safe to say that our

    從月球三號開始,人造衛星讓我們可以描繪原本不可見的月亮

  • relationship with the moon is still pretty one-sided.

    然而我們與月亮的關係仍舊如單戀般「片面」

In 1959, the Soviet spacecraft Luna 3 beamed back images of something Earthlings had never

1959年,蘇聯太空船月球三號傳回了地球人未曾見過的影像:

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 月球 月亮 地球 拉扯 引力 轉速

為什麼我們只能看到月球的一面? (Why Do We Only See One Side of the Moon?)

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    cathy~ 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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