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  • This is the Large Hadron Collider.

    這就是大強子對撞機 This is the Large Hadron Collider.

  • It's 27 kilometers in circumference;

    周長27公里 It's 27 kilometers in circumference;

  • it's the biggest scientific experiment ever attempted.

    它是前所未有最大的科學實驗 it's the biggest scientific experiment ever attempted.

  • Over 10,000 physicists and engineers

    超過一萬名物理學家與工程師 Over 10,000 physicists and engineers

  • from 85 countries around the world

    來自全世界八十五個國家 from 85 countries around the world

  • have come together over several decades

    費時數十年 齊聚一堂 have come together over several decades

  • to build this machine.

    建造這個機器 to build this machine.

  • What we do is we accelerate protons --

    我們將質子的運動 What we do is we accelerate protons --

  • so, hydrogen nuclei --

    也就是氫的原子核 so, hydrogen nuclei --

  • around 99.999999

    加速到光速的 around 99.999999

  • percent the speed of light.

    100.00% percent the speed of light.

  • Right? At that speed, they go around

    每秒繞行27公里的 Right? At that speed, they go around

  • that 27 kilometers 11,000 times a second.

    軌道一萬一千次 that 27 kilometers 11,000 times a second.

  • And we collide them with another beam of protons

    然後用另一道反向行進的質子束 And we collide them with another beam of protons

  • going in the opposite direction.

    使他們對撞 going in the opposite direction.

  • We collide them inside giant detectors.

    質子在巨大的偵測器內對撞 We collide them inside giant detectors.

  • They're essentially digital cameras.

    這些偵測器其實就是數位相機 They're essentially digital cameras.

  • And this is the one that I work on, ATLAS.

    這是我負責的部份: 超導環場探測器 And this is the one that I work on, ATLAS.

  • You get some sense of the size --

    你可以感覺一下它有多大 You get some sense of the size --

  • you can just see these EU standard-size

    看看站在底下的 you can just see these EU standard-size

  • people underneath.

    標準尺寸的歐洲人 people underneath.

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲) (Laughter)

  • You get some sense of the size: 44 meters wide,

    感覺一下超導環場探測器的大小 寬44公尺 You get some sense of the size: 44 meters wide,

  • 22 meters in diameter, 7,000 tons.

    直徑22公尺 七千噸重 22 meters in diameter, 7,000 tons.

  • And we re-create the conditions that were present

    我們重現宇宙形成後 And we re-create the conditions that were present

  • less than a billionth of a second after the universe began --

    一百萬分之一秒內的情形 less than a billionth of a second after the universe began --

  • up to 600 million times a second

    也就是在偵測器內 一秒鐘發生 up to 600 million times a second

  • inside that detector -- immense numbers.

    高達六億次 很可觀的數字 inside that detector -- immense numbers.

  • And if you see those metal bits there --

    看看那些金屬片 And if you see those metal bits there --

  • those are huge magnets that bend

    那是巨大的磁鐵 those are huge magnets that bend

  • electrically-charged particles,

    用來彎曲帶電粒子 electrically-charged particles,

  • so it can measure how fast they're traveling.

    探測器測量質子運動速率 so it can measure how fast they're traveling.

  • This is a picture about a year ago.

    這張照片是大約一年前拍的 This is a picture about a year ago.

  • Those magnets are in there.

    磁鐵在那裡 Those magnets are in there.

  • And, again, an EU standard-size real person,

    底下站了一位標準尺寸的歐洲人 And, again, an EU standard-size real person,

  • so you get some sense of the scale.

    可以想像這對撞器有多大 so you get some sense of the scale.

  • And it's in there that those mini-Big Bangs will be created,

    今年夏天迷你大爆炸實驗 And it's in there that those mini-Big Bangs will be created,

  • sometime in the summer this year.

    就是在這裡進行 sometime in the summer this year.

  • And actually, this morning, I got an email

    今天一早我收到一封電子郵件 And actually, this morning, I got an email

  • saying that we've just finished, today,

    通知我今天ATLAS saying that we've just finished, today,

  • building the last piece of ATLAS.

    最後一個零件已經完成安裝 building the last piece of ATLAS.

  • So as of today, it's finished. I'd like to say

    就像是為了今天的演講而完工的 So as of today, it's finished. I'd like to say

  • that I planned that for TED,

    我想說是特地為了TED安排的 that I planned that for TED,

  • but I didn't. So it's been completed as of today.

    但其實不是 好,今天完工了 but I didn't. So it's been completed as of today.

  • (Applause)

    (眾人鼓掌) (Applause)

  • Yeah, it's a wonderful achievement.

    這是個了不起的的成就 Yeah, it's a wonderful achievement.

  • So, you might be asking, "Why?

    但你們也許會問:為什麼? So, you might be asking, "Why?

  • Why create the conditions that were present

    為什麼要重現宇宙形成後 Why create the conditions that were present

  • less than a billionth of a second after the universe began?"

    十億分之一秒內的狀態? less than a billionth of a second after the universe began?"

  • Well, particle physicists are nothing if not ambitious.

    少了雄心壯志, 粒子物理學家就什麼也不是 Well, particle physicists are nothing if not ambitious.

  • And the aim of particle physics is to understand

    粒子物理學的目標是要了解 And the aim of particle physics is to understand

  • what everything's made of, and how everything sticks together.

    萬物是怎麼產生的? 如何形成的? what everything's made of, and how everything sticks together.

  • And by "everything" I mean, of course,

    當然, 所謂的萬物是指 And by "everything" I mean, of course,

  • me and you, the Earth, the Sun,

    你, 我, 這個地球, 太陽 me and you, the Earth, the Sun,

  • the hundred billion suns in our galaxy

    我們身處的銀河系中數不盡的太陽 the hundred billion suns in our galaxy

  • and the hundred billion galaxies

    數不盡的銀河系 and the hundred billion galaxies

  • in the observable universe.

    在我們能觀察到範圍 in the observable universe.

  • Absolutely everything.

    這一切就是萬物 Absolutely everything.

  • Now you might say, "Well, OK, but why not just look at it?

    你可能會想, "好吧, 幹嘛不直接用看的就好?" Now you might say, "Well, OK, but why not just look at it?

  • You know? If you want to know what I'm made of, let's look at me."

    如果你想知道我是什麼東西做的, 直接看我就好了" You know? If you want to know what I'm made of, let's look at me."

  • Well, we found that as you look back in time,

    回顧過去, 我們發現 Well, we found that as you look back in time,

  • the universe gets hotter and hotter,

    宇宙越來越熱 the universe gets hotter and hotter,

  • denser and denser, and simpler and simpler.

    密度越來越高, 越來越單一 denser and denser, and simpler and simpler.

  • Now, there's no real reason I'm aware of for that,

    我無法解釋為什麼 Now, there's no real reason I'm aware of for that,

  • but that seems to be the case.

    但是事實似乎就是如此 but that seems to be the case.

  • So, way back in the early times of the universe,

    回到宇宙形成之初 So, way back in the early times of the universe,

  • we believe it was very simple and understandable.

    我們認為宇宙是簡單易懂的 we believe it was very simple and understandable.

  • All this complexity, all the way to these wonderful things --

    一切複雜, 美好的事物 All this complexity, all the way to these wonderful things --

  • human brains -- are a property of an old

    例如人的大腦, 都是古老蒼涼的宇宙 human brains -- are a property of an old

  • and cold and complicated universe.

    所演化出來的產物 and cold and complicated universe.

  • Back at the start, in the first billionth of a second,

    回到起點, 在那十億分之一秒的瞬間 Back at the start, in the first billionth of a second,

  • we believe, or we've observed, it was very simple.

    我們認為, 或說我們觀察到, 是非常簡單的狀態 we believe, or we've observed, it was very simple.

  • It's almost like ...

    就像是... It's almost like ...

  • imagine a snowflake in your hand,

    你手中有一片雪花 imagine a snowflake in your hand,

  • and you look at it, and it's an incredibly complicated,

    看著它, 你覺得它既精緻 and you look at it, and it's an incredibly complicated,

  • beautiful object. But as you heat it up,

    又漂亮, 當你把它加熱 beautiful object. But as you heat it up,

  • it'll melt into a pool of water,

    雪花就融化成水 it'll melt into a pool of water,

  • and you would be able to see that actually it was just made

    你可以看到雪花實際上是由 and you would be able to see that actually it was just made

  • of H20, water.

    H2O, 水形成的 of H20, water.

  • So it's in that same sense that we look back in time

    我們用同樣的概念, 同樣的方法 So it's in that same sense that we look back in time

  • to understand what the universe is made of.

    來瞭解宇宙是由什麼所組成 to understand what the universe is made of.

  • And as of today, it's made of these things.

    現在我們知道是由這些物質組成 And as of today, it's made of these things.

  • Just 12 particles of matter,

    12種物質粒子 Just 12 particles of matter,

  • stuck together by four forces of nature.

    四種自然力共同形成 stuck together by four forces of nature.

  • The quarks, these pink things, are the things that make up protons and neutrons

    夸克, 這些粉紅的東西, 構成質子與中子 The quarks, these pink things, are the things that make up protons and neutrons

  • that make up the atomic nuclei in your body.

    也就是你身體裡的原子核 that make up the atomic nuclei in your body.

  • The electron -- the thing that goes around

    電子, 環繞著 The electron -- the thing that goes around

  • the atomic nucleus --

    原子核 the atomic nucleus --

  • held around in orbit, by the way, by the electromagnetic force

    靠著電磁力, 依循軌道繞行 held around in orbit, by the way, by the electromagnetic force

  • that's carried by this thing, the photon.

    電磁力是來自於光子 that's carried by this thing, the photon.

  • The quarks are stuck together by other things called gluons.

    膠子把夸克聚合在一起 The quarks are stuck together by other things called gluons.

  • And these guys, here, they're the weak nuclear force,

    這些粒子含有弱核力 And these guys, here, they're the weak nuclear force,

  • probably the least familiar.

    這也許是我們最不熟悉的 probably the least familiar.

  • But without it the sun wouldn't shine.

    但是沒有它就不會有陽光 But without it the sun wouldn't shine.

  • And when the sun shines, you get copious quantities

    當陽光出現時, 會放射出 And when the sun shines, you get copious quantities

  • of these things called neutrinos pouring out.

    大量的微中子 of these things called neutrinos pouring out.

  • Actually, if you just look at your thumbnail --

    如果你看著你大姆指的指甲 Actually, if you just look at your thumbnail --

  • about a square centimeter -- there are something

    大概一平方公分 每秒有 about a square centimeter -- there are something

  • there are something like 60 billion neutrinos per second

    大約600億個來自太陽 there are something like 60 billion neutrinos per second

  • from the sun, passing

    的微中子穿過 from the sun, passing

  • through every square centimeter of your body.

    你身上的每一平方公分 through every square centimeter of your body.

  • But you don't feel them because the weak force

    但你沒會有任何感覺, But you don't feel them because the weak force

  • is correctly named.

    因為弱核力名副其實 is correctly named.

  • Very short range and very weak,

    極為短暫且微弱 Very short range and very weak,

  • so they just fly through you.

    直接穿透你 so they just fly through you.

  • And these particles have been discovered

    這些粒子在上個世紀就 And these particles have been discovered

  • over the last century, pretty much.

    己經被發現了 over the last century, pretty much.

  • The first one, the electron, was discovered in 1897,

    首先是電子, 在1897年被發現 The first one, the electron, was discovered in 1897,

  • and the last one, this thing called the tau neutrino,

    最後一個則是濤微中子(tau neutrino) and the last one, this thing called the tau neutrino,

  • in the year 2000. Actually just --

    在2000年被發現 in the year 2000. Actually just --

  • I was going to say, just up the road in Chicago. I know it's a big country,

    在芝加哥的馬路邊, 我突然想到美國超大的 I was going to say, just up the road in Chicago. I know it's a big country,

  • America, isn't it?

    對吧? America, isn't it?

  • Just up the road.

    就在馬路邊 Just up the road.

  • Relative to the universe, it's just up the road.

    相對於整個宇宙, 我們就在馬路邊 Relative to the universe, it's just up the road.

  • (Laughter)

    笑 (Laughter)

  • So, this thing was discovered in the year 2000,

    好, 這些粒子在2000年被發現 So, this thing was discovered in the year 2000,

  • so it's a relatively recent picture.

    還不算太久 so it's a relatively recent picture.

  • One of the wonderful things, actually, I find,

    奇妙的是我們發現他們了 One of the wonderful things, actually, I find,

  • is that we've discovered any of them, when you realize how tiny they are.

    想想它們有多麼微小 is that we've discovered any of them, when you realize how tiny they are.

  • You know, they're a step in size

    就尺寸而言, 相對於宇宙 You know, they're a step in size

  • from the entire observable universe.

    它們只有一步的距離那麼大 from the entire observable universe.

  • So 100 billion galaxies,

    一千億個銀河系 So 100 billion galaxies,

  • 13.7 billion light years away --

    137億光年的距離 13.7 billion light years away --

  • a step in size from that to Monterey, actually,

    這些粒子只有一步的距離的大小 a step in size from that to Monterey, actually,

  • is about the same as from Monterey to these things.

    就像拿蒙特雷和整個美國比 is about the same as from Monterey to these things.

  • Absolutely, exquisitely minute,

    的的確確小的不得了 Absolutely, exquisitely minute,

  • and yet we've discovered pretty much the full set.

    但是這些粒子幾乎全被我們發現了 and yet we've discovered pretty much the full set.

  • So, one of my most illustrious forebears

    我的一位很傑出的前輩 So, one of my most illustrious forebears

  • at Manchester University, Ernest Rutherford,

    曼徹斯特大學的歐尼斯特‧拉瑟福 at Manchester University, Ernest Rutherford,

  • discoverer of the atomic nucleus,

    原子核發現者 discoverer of the atomic nucleus,

  • once said, "All science is either physics

    他曾說 "科學不是物理 once said, "All science is either physics

  • or stamp collecting."

    就是收集郵票" or stamp collecting."

  • Now, I don't think he meant to insult

    我並不認為他在羞辱 Now, I don't think he meant to insult

  • the rest of science,

    物理之外的科學領域 the rest of science,

  • although he was from New Zealand, so it's possible.

    不過他是紐西蘭人, 所以蠻有有可能的喔 although he was from New Zealand, so it's possible.

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲) (Laughter)

  • But what he meant was that what we've done, really,

    他的意思是我們所做的一切 But what he meant was that what we've done, really,

  • is stamp collect there --

    就不過是收集郵票而己 is stamp collect there --

  • OK, we've discovered the particles,

    好, 我們己經發現粒子 OK, we've discovered the particles,

  • but unless you understand the underlying

    但除非了解這模式背後隱含的理由— but unless you understand the underlying

  • reason for that pattern -- you know, why it's built the way it is --

    萬事萬物之所以形成的方式, reason for that pattern -- you know, why it's built the way it is --

  • really you've done stamp collecting -- you haven't done science.

    那麼我們只不過是在集郵票, 並不是做科學研究 really you've done stamp collecting -- you haven't done science.

  • Fortunately, we have

    很幸運的我們有或許是二十世紀 Fortunately, we have

  • probably one of the greatest scientific achievements of the 20th century

    最偉大的科學成就之一 probably one of the greatest scientific achievements of the 20th century

  • that underpins that pattern.

    為這個模式奠定了基礎 that underpins that pattern.

  • It's the Newton's laws, if you want,

    可以說這是粒子物理的 It's the Newton's laws, if you want,

  • of particle physics.

    牛頓定理 of particle physics.

  • It's called the "standard model" -- beautifully simple mathematical equation.

    這模式叫"標準模型" — 美妙又簡單的數學公式 It's called the "standard model" -- beautifully simple mathematical equation.

  • You could stick it on the front of a t-shirt,

    你可以把它印在T恤前面 You could stick it on the front of a t-shirt,

  • which is always the sign of elegance.

    看起來會很考究、好看 which is always the sign of elegance.

  • This is it.

    沒錯 This is it.

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲) (Laughter)

  • I've been a little disingenuous, because I've expanded it out

    我有點不老實, 因為我揭露了 I've been a little disingenuous, because I've expanded it out

  • in all it's gory detail.

    血淋淋的細節 in all it's gory detail.

  • This equation, though, allows you to calculate everything --

    這個方程式可以計算宇宙中 This equation, though, allows you to calculate everything --

  • other than gravity -- that happens in the universe.

    除了重力之外的任何東西 other than gravity -- that happens in the universe.

  • So you want to know why the sky is blue, why atomic nuclei stick together --

    想知道為天空什麼是藍的, 原子核為什麼能聚在一起 So you want to know why the sky is blue, why atomic nuclei stick together --

  • in principle, you've got a big enough computer --

    你需要一台夠強力的電腦 in principle, you've got a big enough computer --

  • why DNA is the shape it is.

    DNA為什麼會是那種形狀 why DNA is the shape it is.

  • In principle, you should be able to calculate it from that equation.

    你可以用這個方程式去計算 In principle, you should be able to calculate it from that equation.

  • But there's a problem.

    但是有個問題 But there's a problem.

  • Can anyone see what it is?

    有人知道嗎? Can anyone see what it is?

  • A bottle of champagne for anyone that tells me.

    我會送一瓶香檳給告訴我答案的人 A bottle of champagne for anyone that tells me.

  • I'll make it easier, actually, by blowing one of the lines up.

    把這一行放大, 這樣會簡單一點 I'll make it easier, actually, by blowing one of the lines up.

  • Basically, each of these terms

    基本上, 公式裡每一項參數 Basically, each of these terms

  • refers to some of the particles.

    代表一種粒子 refers to some of the particles.

  • So those Ws there refer to the Ws, and how they stick together.

    這些W代表弱作用力, 還有粒子如何結合 So those Ws there refer to the Ws, and how they stick together.

  • These carriers of the weak force, the Zeds, the same.

    Z攜帶弱作用力, 也是如此 These carriers of the weak force, the Zeds, the same.

  • But there's an extra symbol in this equation: H.

    但是這方程式多一個符號: H But there's an extra symbol in this equation: H.

  • Right, H.

    對, H Right, H.

  • H stands for Higgs particle.

    H代表希格斯粒子 H stands for Higgs particle.

  • Higgs particles have not been discovered.

    希格斯粒子現在還沒被發現 Higgs particles have not been discovered.

  • But they're necessary -- they're necessary

    但是這個方程式要成立 But they're necessary -- they're necessary

  • to make that mathematics work.

    希格斯粒子是必要的 to make that mathematics work.

  • So all the exquisitely detailed calculations we can do

    所有運用這個神奇的方程式 So all the exquisitely detailed calculations we can do

  • with that wonderful equation

    做的精密計算 with that wonderful equation

  • wouldn't be possible without an extra bit.

    沒有H, 就沒戲唱了 wouldn't be possible without an extra bit.

  • So it's a prediction --

    這是個預測 So it's a prediction --

  • a prediction of a new particle.

    對一種新粒子的預測 a prediction of a new particle.

  • What does it do?

    那H是用來幹嘛的? What does it do?

  • Well, we had a long time to come up with good analogies.

    嗯, 我們花了很長時間才想出絕佳的比喻 Well, we had a long time to come up with good analogies.

  • And back in the 1980s, when we wanted the money

    1980年代, 當我們想從英國政府 And back in the 1980s, when we wanted the money

  • for the LHC from the UK government,

    那裡申請經費做大強子對撞機的研究 for the LHC from the UK government,

  • Margaret Thatcher, at the time, said,

    佘契爾夫人說, Margaret Thatcher, at the time, said,

  • "If you guys can explain, in language

    "如果你們能用政治家能夠 "If you guys can explain, in language

  • a politician can understand,

    理解的語言來解釋 a politician can understand,

  • what the hell it is that you're doing, you can have the money.

    你們到底在幹嘛, 我就撥錢給你們 what the hell it is that you're doing, you can have the money.

  • I want to know what this Higgs particle does."

    我想知道希格斯粒子是做什麼的" I want to know what this Higgs particle does."

  • And we came up with this analogy and it seemed to work.

    我們找到了比喻, 看來是成功了 And we came up with this analogy and it seemed to work.

  • Well, what the Higgs does is, it gives mass to the fundamental particles.

    希格斯粒子的功能是讓基礎粒子具有質量 Well, what the Higgs does is, it gives mass to the fundamental particles.

  • And the picture is that the whole universe --

    整個宇宙— And the picture is that the whole universe --

  • and that doesn't mean just space, it means me as well, and inside you --

    不只是外太空, 包含了我, 還有你— and that doesn't mean just space, it means me as well, and inside you --

  • the whole universe is full of something called a Higgs field.

    整個宇宙就是一個希格斯場 the whole universe is full of something called a Higgs field.

  • Higgs particles, if you will.

    也就是希格斯粒子 Higgs particles, if you will.

  • The analogy is that these people in a room

    打個比方, 這個房間裡的人 The analogy is that these people in a room

  • are the Higgs particles.

    是希格斯粒子 are the Higgs particles.

  • Now when a particle moves through the universe,

    當某個粒子在宇宙中移動 Now when a particle moves through the universe,

  • it can interact with these Higgs particles.

    它可以跟希格斯粒子互動 it can interact with these Higgs particles.

  • But imagine someone who's not very popular moves through the room.

    想像一下, 房間裡有某個人不太受歡迎 But imagine someone who's not very popular moves through the room.

  • Then everyone ignores them. They can just pass through the room very quickly,

    其它人都忽略他, 他以光速很快的 Then everyone ignores them. They can just pass through the room very quickly,

  • essentially at the speed of light. They're massless.

    穿越過房間, 因為沒有質量 essentially at the speed of light. They're massless.

  • And imagine someone incredibly important

    好, 有某個非常重要的人 And imagine someone incredibly important

  • and popular and intelligent

    很受歡迎又很聰明 and popular and intelligent

  • walks into the room.

    走進了房間 walks into the room.

  • They're surrounded by people, and their passage through the room is impeded.

    就被其他人團團包圍, 走起路來障礙重重 They're surrounded by people, and their passage through the room is impeded.

  • It's almost like they get heavy. They get massive.

    感覺就像變重了, 因為有質量 It's almost like they get heavy. They get massive.

  • And that's exactly the way the Higgs mechanism works.

    這就是希格斯粒子運作機制 And that's exactly the way the Higgs mechanism works.

  • The picture is that the electrons and the quarks

    這也說明你體內及我們周遭的世界 The picture is that the electrons and the quarks

  • in your body and in the universe that we see around us

    的電子與夸克這些粒子 in your body and in the universe that we see around us

  • are heavy, in a sense, and massive,

    之所以有重量, 有質量 are heavy, in a sense, and massive,

  • because they're surrounded by Higgs particles.

    是因為它們被希格斯粒子包圍 because they're surrounded by Higgs particles.

  • They're interacting with the Higgs field.

    與希格斯場互動 They're interacting with the Higgs field.

  • If that picture's true,

    如果這個預測是正確的 If that picture's true,

  • then we have to discover those Higgs particles at the LHC.

    那麼我們必須靠LHC來發現希格斯粒子 then we have to discover those Higgs particles at the LHC.

  • If it's not true -- because it's quite a convoluted mechanism,

    如果這個預測是錯誤的, 因為這很錯綜複雜 If it's not true -- because it's quite a convoluted mechanism,

  • although it's the simplest we've been able to think of --

    雖然這是我們能想出來的最簡單的了— although it's the simplest we've been able to think of --

  • then whatever does the job of the Higgs particles

    不管H是希格斯粒子或是其他的東西 then whatever does the job of the Higgs particles

  • we know have to turn up

    我們確信它會在 we know have to turn up

  • at the LHC.

    LHC裡會出現 at the LHC.

  • So that's one of the prime reasons we built this giant machine.

    這是我們建造這個龐然大物的主要原因之一 So that's one of the prime reasons we built this giant machine.

  • I'm glad you recognize Margaret Thatcher.

    很高興你們認出了佘契爾夫人 I'm glad you recognize Margaret Thatcher.

  • Actually, I thought about making it more culturally relevant, but --

    事實上, 我想要讓它看起來更有文化氣息, 但是 Actually, I thought about making it more culturally relevant, but --

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲) (Laughter)

  • anyway.

    總之 anyway.

  • So that's one thing.

    重點是 So that's one thing.

  • That's essentially a guarantee of what the LHC will find.

    這是LHC保證一定會找到的 That's essentially a guarantee of what the LHC will find.

  • There are many other things. You've heard

    還會有其它的東西, 你一定聽說過 There are many other things. You've heard

  • many of the big problems in particle physics.

    粒子物理學的中諸多難題 many of the big problems in particle physics.

  • One of them you heard about: dark matter, dark energy.

    其中一個是暗物質, 暗能源 One of them you heard about: dark matter, dark energy.

  • There's another issue,

    這是另一個課題— There's another issue,

  • which is that the forces in nature -- it's quite beautiful, actually --

    就是自然力, 事實上是很奇妙的 which is that the forces in nature -- it's quite beautiful, actually --

  • seem, as you go back in time,

    如果回溯過去 seem, as you go back in time,

  • they seem to change in strength.

    自然力在強度上似乎有改變 they seem to change in strength.

  • Well, they do change in strength.

    真的有改變 Well, they do change in strength.

  • So the electromagnetic force, the force that holds us together,

    把我們聚在一起的電磁力 So the electromagnetic force, the force that holds us together,

  • gets stronger as you go to higher temperatures.

    溫度越高變得越強 gets stronger as you go to higher temperatures.

  • The strong force, the strong nuclear force, which sticks nuclei together,

    而強作用力, 也就是強核力, 能把原子核聚在一起 The strong force, the strong nuclear force, which sticks nuclei together,

  • gets weaker. And what you see is the standard model --

    卻會變弱, 標準模型 gets weaker. And what you see is the standard model --

  • you can calculate how these change -- is the forces --

    可以計算這些的力變化 you can calculate how these change -- is the forces --

  • the three forces, other than gravity --

    除了重力以外的三種力— the three forces, other than gravity --

  • almost seem to come together at one point.

    幾乎在同一點上交會 almost seem to come together at one point.

  • It's almost as if there was one beautiful

    就像有一種美麗的 It's almost as if there was one beautiful

  • kind of super-force, back at the beginning of time.

    超級力量, 從宇宙形成之際就存在 kind of super-force, back at the beginning of time.

  • But they just miss.

    但它們還是沒能交會在同一點 But they just miss.

  • Now there's a theory called supersymmetry,

    有個超對稱理論 Now there's a theory called supersymmetry,