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  • Wars are a tragic part of our history

    戰爭是我們歷史悲劇的一部分

  • and will almost certainly be a tragic part of our future.

    幾乎可以肯定的是 它也是我們未來悲劇的一部分

  • Since the establishment of the United Nations,

    自聯合國成立以來

  • wars of aggression have been outlawed

    侵略戰爭已被禁止

  • and multilateral conventions refer to armed conflict

    多邊公約指的是武裝衝突

  • instead of war.

    而不是戰爭

  • But the wars of the future

    但未來的戰爭

  • won't be like the wars of our past.

    將和我們以往經歷過的戰爭不同

  • Alongside traditional warfare,

    除了傳統的戰爭

  • our future will include cyberwarfare,

    我們的未來將包括網路戰

  • remotely fighting our enemies

    在遠端打擊我們的敵人

  • through the use of a new class of weapons,

    透過對新武器的使用

  • including computer viruses

    包括電腦病毒

  • and programs to alter the enemy's ability to operate.

    和程式來改變敵人的應變能力

  • And not only is cyberwarfare not covered

    不只網路戰

  • by existing legal frameworks,

    不被現有的法律框架所管轄

  • but the question of what exactly constitutes cyberwarfare

    對於什麼才算構成網路戰

  • is still highly debated.

    仍然眾說紛紜

  • So, how can we deal with cyberwarfare

    如果我們甚至不知道 網路戰的定義為何

  • if we can't even agree on what it means?

    我們要如何面對它呢?

  • One way forward is to envision situations

    一個方式是,設想

  • where new international laws may be needed.

    我們可能需要新的國際法的情況

  • Imagine a new kind of assassin,

    想像一種新的殺手

  • one that could perpetrate a crime

    一種沒開一槍

  • without firing a single shot

    就可能犯罪的殺手

  • or even being in the same country.

    或甚至在同一個國家

  • For example, an individual working for the government

    例如,一名為政府工作的個人

  • uses a wireless device to send a signal

    使用無線設備發送一組信號

  • to another foreign leader's pacemaker.

    到一名外國領導人的心搏器中

  • This device directs the pacemaker to malfunction,

    這個設備使心搏器發生故障

  • ultimately resulting in the foreign leader's death.

    最終導致外國領導人死亡

  • Would this cyber assassination

    這種網路暗殺事件

  • constitute an act of war?

    算是構成一種戰爭行為嗎?

  • As a second example,

    第二個例子

  • imagine an allied group of nations

    想像一個聯合幾國的集團

  • cooperatively infiltrating the computer systems

    合作侵入敵國核軍艦

  • of an enemy nation's nuclear warship.

    的電腦系統

  • This attack results in a nuclear-powered aircraft carrier

    這次攻擊幾乎導致核動力航母

  • almost melting down,

    爆炸熔解

  • which was stopped just short

    它只是簡單地被終結

  • of killing thousands of soldiers and civilians.

    而不以殺害成千上萬的 士兵和平民為代價

  • As a defensive measure,

    作為一種防禦措施

  • the enemy country responds

    敵國發動防禦性攻擊

  • by unleashing a defensive cyberattack

    作為回應

  • that results in the allied nations' power grids going down.

    這導致盟國國內的電網癱瘓

  • Hospitals can no longer treat patients,

    這使得醫院無法治療病患

  • entire regions without heat or clean water,

    整個地區缺乏熱的或乾淨的水源

  • all ultimately causing tens of thousands civilian deaths.

    最終會造成數萬名平民死亡

  • The origin of the power failure

    電源故障的起因

  • was the counterattack,

    便是反擊

  • but the fragile infrastructure,

    但脆弱的基礎設施

  • feeble cybersecurity,

    脆弱的網路安全

  • and the antiquated state of the power grid

    和陳舊的電網設施

  • all contributed to the deaths of the civilians.

    都是導致平民死亡的原因

  • Could the country fight back?

    該國應該反擊嗎?

  • Who would they fight?

    他們將對誰而戰?

  • And would their retaliation be considered an act of war?

    他們的報復行動 應該被視為一種戰爭行為嗎?

  • Do they constitute war crimes against humanity?

    他們構成危害人類罪的戰爭罪嗎?

  • Who is to be held responsible?

    誰應該負責?

  • The computer programmers who wrote the code?

    是寫程式的電腦工程師?

  • The military project manager

    還是監督寫程式的

  • who oversaw the creation of the code?

    軍事專案管理者?

  • The commander who hit the button,

    還是按下按鈕

  • setting off the event?

    引爆這起事件的指揮官?

  • The hardware engineer who created the computers,

    是那些知道他們要啟動攻擊

  • knowing that they were intended to enable an attack?

    而製造電腦硬體的工程師嗎?

  • Because war has been with us for so long,

    因為我們與戰爭相處了許久

  • we have laws to deal with figuring out

    我們有法律來釐清

  • who should be held accountable

    誰應為他們在戰鬥中的行動

  • for their actions in combat.

    承擔責任

  • These legal frameworks aim to contain

    這些法律框架的目標是

  • and prevent atrocities from being more atrocious.

    要管制,並防止更殘暴的暴行

  • Commandeering civilian planes

    強行徵募民用飛機

  • and using them as weapons,

    並將它們用作武器

  • dropping atomic bombs,

    投放原子彈

  • the use of gas chambers or poisonous gas in conflict,

    使用毒氣室,或在衝突中施放有毒氣體

  • all of these actions, if committed,

    如果犯下所有這些行動

  • constitute acts of war and war crimes

    便構成了戰爭行為與罪責

  • under customary international law

    這些事根據國際習慣法

  • and the Hague conventions.

    和海牙公約

  • Again, the current legal framework stays silent

    再次,目前的法律框架

  • on hypothetical questions and countless others

    對這些假設性問題 和無數其他的問題不聞不問

  • because there are no easy answers,

    因為簡單的答案並不存在

  • and there are only two ways

    若要在這些問題上取得進展

  • to make progress on these questions:

    只有兩種方法:

  • peace or new laws.

    和平,或是新法律

  • So, what hypothetical but plausible scenarios

    那麼,在不斷衍生的網路戰定義中

  • can you imagine falling under

    你可以想像有哪些

  • the burgeoning definition of cyberwarfare,

    合理的新方案嗎?

  • and how might you design

    你要如何設計

  • an international legal framework

    一套國際法框架

  • to deter these activities?

    來阻止這些活動?

Wars are a tragic part of our history

戰爭是我們歷史悲劇的一部分

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 戰爭 法律 框架 平民 電腦

【TED-Ed】定義網路戰……以避免它發生 (Defining cyberwarfare...in hopes of preventing it - Daniel Garrie)

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    稲葉白兎 發佈於 2015 年 04 月 14 日
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