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  • "Some are born great,

    「有些人生而偉大」

  • some achieve greatness,

    「有些人成就偉大」

  • and others have greatness thrust upon them", quoth William Shakespeare.

    「還有些人則被迫偉大」 莎士比亞如是說

  • Or did he?

    他真的說過嗎?

  • Some people question whether Shakespeare really wrote the works that bear his name,

    有些人質疑莎士比亞是否 真的寫了聲稱他所著的劇本

  • or whether he even existed at all.

    以及是否真有其人

  • They speculate that Shakespeare was a pseudonym for another writer,

    他們懷疑莎士比亞 是另一位作家的筆名

  • or a group of writers.

    或是一群作家的筆名

  • Proposed candidates for the real Shakespeare

    他們提出莎士比亞的本尊候選人

  • include other famous playwrights, politicians and even some prominent women.

    應為其他知名劇作家、政治家 甚至是某些地位顯赫的女性

  • Could it be true that the greatest writer in the English language

    難道這位英語系最偉大的作家

  • was as fictional as his plays?

    就像他的作品一樣是虛構的?

  • Most Shakespeare scholars dismiss these theories

    大部分的莎士比亞學者

  • based on historical and biographical evidence.

    基於歷史及傳記等證據 都對這些說法嗤之以鼻

  • But there is another way to test whether Shakespeare's famous lines

    但是還有另外一種方法 能驗證莎士比亞的名句

  • were actually written by someone else.

    是否真的出自他人之手

  • Linguistics, the study of language,

    研究語言的語言學家

  • can tell us a great deal about the way we speak and write

    可以從檢視語法、文法、語義及字彙 看出我們說話及寫作的習慣

  • by examining syntax, grammar, semantics and vocabulary.

    十九世紀晚期

  • And in the late 1800s,

    波蘭哲學家 文森提·魯托斯拉夫斯基

  • a Polish philosopher named Wincenty Lutosławski

    正式提出一種稱為 統計文體學的方法

  • formalized a method known as stylometry,

    以此來調查作者認定的爭議

  • applying this knowledge to investigate questions of literary authorship.

    所以統計文體學怎麼用呢?

  • So how does stylometry work?

    基本概念就是每一位作家的 寫作風格都具某些特性

  • The idea is that each writer's style has certain characteristics

    這些特性在個別作品中也相當一致

  • that remain fairly uniform among individual works.

    特性的例子包括平均句長

  • Examples of characteristics include average sentence length,

    遣詞用字

  • the arrangement of words,

    甚至某個字出現的次數都是

  • and even the number of occurrences of a particular word.

    我們來看「汝」這個字 把它看成一維或一軸

  • Let's look at use of the word thee and visualize it as a dimension, or axis.

    把每部莎士比亞的作品 都放在該軸上

  • Each of Shakespeare's works can be placed on that axis,

    就像數據點一樣 根據那個字出現的次數來放

  • like a data point, based on the number of occurrences of that word.

    在統計學上 這些點的密集度

  • In statistics, the tightness of these points

    提供我們所謂的變異數 即我們預期的數據範圍

  • gives us what is known as the variance, an expected range for our data.

    但是,這只是在非常 高維空間內的一種特性

  • But, this is only a single characteristic in a very high-dimensional space.

    藉由稱為主成分分析的叢聚工具

  • With a clustering tool called Principal Component Analysis,

    我們能減化多維空間成簡單的主成分

  • we can reduce the multidimensional space into simple principal components

    集體量測莎士比亞作品中的變異數

  • that collectively measure the variance in Shakespeare's works.

    然後我們能以此測試候選人的作品

  • We can then test the works of our candidates

    看他們的主成分是否相符

  • against those principal components.

    舉例來說

  • For example,

    如果法蘭西斯·培根有足夠多的作品 落在莎士比亞的變異數中

  • if enough works of Francis Bacon fall within the Shakespearean variance,

    那可能就是蠻強的證據

  • that would be pretty strong evidence

    證明法蘭西斯·培根 與莎士比亞其實是同一人

  • that Francis Bacon and Shakespeare are actually the same person.

    那麼測試的結果是什麼?

  • What did the results show?

    嗯,進行此試驗的文體學家 做出的結論是

  • Well, the stylometrists who carried this out have concluded

    莎士比亞就是莎士比亞

  • that Shakespeare is none other than Shakespeare.

    此吟遊詩人非彼吟遊詩人是也!

  • The Bard is the Bard.

    冒牌貨的作品跟莎士比亞的 特殊風格就是不符

  • The pretender's works just don't match up with Shakespeare's signature style.

    然而,我們大無畏的 統計學家的確發現

  • However, our intrepid statisticians did find

    一些令人信服的合作證據

  • some compelling evidence of collaborations.

    舉個例,最近一項研究推斷

  • For instance, one recent study concluded

    莎士比亞與劇作家克里斯多福·馬羅 合作寫出亨利六世

  • that Shakespeare worked with playwright Christopher Marlowe on "Henry VI,"

    第一及第二部

  • parts one and two.

    莎士比亞的身分只是 文體學家能解決的許多問題之一

  • Shakespeare's identity is only one of the many problems stylometry can resolve.

    這門學問還能幫我們 判定作品的寫作時代

  • It can help us determine when a work was written,

    古代文本是否為贗品

  • whether an ancient text is a forgery,

    學生是否抄襲

  • whether a student has committed plagiarism,

    或你收到的電郵 是最速件還是垃圾信

  • or if that email you just received is of a high priority or spam.

    難道這代表著莎士比亞 臺詞中的經典詩句

  • And does the timeless poetry of Shakespeare's lines

    能簡化成數字與統計?

  • just boil down to numbers and statistics?

    非也

  • Not quite.

    文體分析也許能透露出莎士比亞 作品在結構上的不同之處

  • Stylometric analysis may reveal what makes Shakespeare's works structurally distinct,

    但是它不能捕捉字裡行間 所表達的情感與情緒之美

  • but it cannot capture the beauty of the sentiments and emotions they express,

    或為什麼這些作品能感動我們

  • or why they affect us the way they do.

    至少目前還不能

  • At least, not yet.

"Some are born great,

「有些人生而偉大」

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 莎士比亞 作品 作家 統計 寫作

【TED-Ed】莎士比亞是否真的寫了他的戲劇? (Did Shakespeare write his plays? - Natalya St. Clair and Aaron Williams)

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    Alice Chen 發佈於 2015 年 03 月 08 日
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