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  • Where does all this stuff come from?

    萬物從何而來?

  • This rock?

    這塊石頭?

  • That cow?

    那頭牛?

  • Your heart?

    你的心?

  • Not the things themselves, mind you, but what they're made of:

    不是物體本身,你知道的, 而是組成物體的東西

  • the atoms that are the fabric of all things.

    原子為萬物最小結構

  • To answer that question, we look to the law of conservation of mass.

    要回答這個問題, 我們來看看質量守恒定律

  • This law says take an isolated system

    這個定律的內容是: 找一個封閉系統

  • defined by a boundary that matter and energy cannot cross.

    物質跟能量都不能通過其邊界

  • Inside this system, mass, a.k.a. matter and energy,

    在這個系統中, 質量,也就是物質與能量

  • can neither be created nor destroyed.

    不能被創造,也不能被毀滅

  • The universe, to the best of our knowledge,

    宇宙,就我們所知

  • is an isolated system.

    正是一個封閉的系統

  • But before we get to that, let's look at a much smaller and simpler one.

    但談宇宙之前,咱們來看看 一個既小、又簡單得多的東西

  • Here we have six carbon atoms, 12 hydrogen atoms,

    這裡有6個碳原子,12個氫原子

  • and 18 oxygen atoms.

    以及18個氧原子

  • With a little energy, our molecules can really get moving.

    若有些許能量存在, 分子會開始運動

  • These atoms can bond together to form familiar molecules.

    這些原子可以結合在一起, 形成很熟悉的分子

  • Here's water,

    那就是水分子

  • and here's carbon dioxide.

    以及二氧化碳

  • We can't create or destroy mass.

    我們不能創造或摧毀質量

  • We're stuck with what we've got, so what can we do?

    我們得到的東西卡住我們了, 那我們能作什麼呢?

  • Ah, they have a mind of their own.

    哈,他們有自己的主意

  • Let's see. They've formed more carbon dioxide and water, six of each.

    瞧瞧!他們形成了更多的二氧化碳、水, 各有六個

  • Add a little energy, and we can get them to reshuffle themselves to a simple sugar,

    添加一些能量,可使他們重新混合 變成一個單醣(葡萄糖)

  • and some oxygen gas.

    以及一些氧氣

  • Our atoms are all accounted for: 6 carbon, 12 hydrogen, and 18 oxygen.

    這些原子總共是: 6個碳,12個氫,18個氧

  • The energy we applied is now stored in the bonds between atoms.

    我們提供的能量, 儲存在原子間的鍵結中

  • We can rerelease that energy

    我們可以釋放能量

  • by breaking that sugar back into water and carbon dioxide,

    藉由把單醣分解為 水和二氧化碳的方式

  • and still, same atoms.

    還剩下一些原子

  • Let's put a few of our atoms aside and try something a little more explosive.

    把一些原子放到一旁, 試試有點爆炸性的東西

  • This here is methane, most commonly associated with cow flatulence,

    這是甲烷, 最常與牛胃部的脹氣聯想在一起

  • but also used for rocket fuel.

    但也可用作火箭燃料

  • If we add some oxygen and a little bit of energy,

    如果加上一些氧氣和少許能量

  • like you might get from a lit match,

    就會像火柴一樣

  • it combusts into carbon dioxide, water and even more energy.

    燃燒成為二氧化碳、水, 以及一些能量

  • Notice our methane started with four hydrogen,

    注意,甲烷是從4個氫開始的

  • and at the end we still have four hydrogen captured in two water molecules.

    而最終4個氫被2個水分子所捕捉

  • For a grand finale, here's propane, another combustible gas.

    壓軸的是,丙烷, 另一個易燃氣體

  • We add oxygen, light it up, and boom.

    我們添加一些氧氣,點火, 轟~

  • More water and carbon dioxide.

    更多的水和二氧化碳

  • This time we get three CO2s

    這次有3個二氧化碳

  • because the propane molecule started with three carbon atoms,

    這是因為丙烷是由3個碳原子開始的

  • and they have nowhere else to go.

    而他們無處可去

  • There are many other reactions we can model with this small set of atoms,

    還有許多其他化學反應, 是可以用一些原子來模擬

  • and the law of conservation of mass always holds true.

    而質量守恒定律總是真確的

  • Whatever matter and energy go into a chemical reaction

    無論化學反應加了什麼物質與能量

  • are present and accounted for when it's complete.

    反應完成時,都會存在且能被解釋

  • So if mass can't be created or destroyed,

    所以,如果質量不能被創造或摧毀

  • where did these atoms come from in the first place?

    最初,這些原子來自何方?

  • Let's turn back the clock and see.

    咱們倒轉時間來看看

  • Further, further, further, too far.

    倒轉,倒轉,倒轉,太多了

  • Okay, there it is.

    就是這!

  • The Big Bang.

    宇宙大爆炸

  • Our hydrogen formed from a high-energy soup of particles

    氫原子從一團高能量的微粒而來

  • in the three minutes that followed the birth of our universe.

    就在宇宙誕生後的三分鐘內

  • Eventually, clusters of atoms accumulated and formed stars.

    最終,一團團的原子集結並且形成星體

  • Within these stars, nuclear reactions fused light elements,

    在這些星體中,核反應熔合了輕的元素

  • such as hydrogen and helium,

    例如氫和氦

  • to form heavier elements, such as carbon and oxygen.

    形成較重的元素,例如碳和氧

  • At first glance, these reactions may look like they're breaking the law

    乍看之下, 這些化學反應似乎違反定律

  • because they release an astounding amount of energy,

    因為他們釋放驚人的能量

  • seemingly out of nowhere.

    似乎是無中生有

  • However, thanks to Einstein's famous equation,

    然而,謝謝愛因斯坦最有名的方程式

  • we know that energy is equivalent to mass.

    我們知道能量正比於質量

  • It turns out that the total mass of the starting atoms

    可解讀成初始原子的總質量

  • is very slightly more than the mass of the products,

    略高於化學反應產物的質量

  • and that loss of mass perfectly corresponds to the gain in energy,

    而這個質量的損失, 恰好等同於獲得的能量

  • which radiates out from the star as light, heat and energetic particles.

    從星體發散出的光、熱、以及基本的微粒

  • Eventually, this star went supernova

    最終,這個星體變成超新星

  • and scattered its elements across space.

    它的元素散落在太空中

  • Long story short, they found each other and atoms from other supernovas,

    長話短說,這些元素從其他超新星 找到了其他元素和原子

  • formed the Earth,

    形成地球

  • and 4.6 billion years later got scooped up to play their parts

    46億年後,這些微粒被挑選出來, 扮演自己的角色

  • in our little isolated system.

    在我們小小的封閉系統中

  • But they're not nearly as interesting as the atoms that came together to form you,

    但是, 他們並不如組成人體的原子那麼有趣

  • or that cow,

    不如組成牛的原子

  • or this rock.

    也不如組成這個石頭的原子

  • And that is why, as Carl Sagan famously told us,

    這也是為何有名的卡爾薩根告訴我們 (美國天文學家、科幻、科普作家)

  • we are all made of star stuff.

    我們全都是星塵作成的

Where does all this stuff come from?

萬物從何而來?

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 原子 能量 質量 二氧化碳 星體

【TED-Ed】品質守恆定律--託德-拉姆齊。 (【TED-Ed】The law of conservation of mass - Todd Ramsey)

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    稲葉白兎 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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