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  • When you grow up in a developing country like India, as I did,

    要是你跟我一樣在發展中國家長大, 譬如印度,

  • you instantly learn to get more value from limited resources

    很快你就學會從有限資源中獲取更多價值,

  • and find creative ways to reuse what you already have.

    學會發掘新意,重複利用已有資源。

  • Take Mansukh Prajapati, a potter in India.

    曼蘇克•帕佳帕提是一位印度陶匠。

  • He has created a fridge made entirely of clay

    他發明了一種冰箱,僅用粘土製成,

  • that consumes no electricity.

    無需使用電力。

  • He can keep fruits and vegetables fresh for many days.

    新鮮蔬果可以儲存許多天。

  • That's a cool invention, literally.

    這可是酷斃了的發明。

  • In Africa, if you run out of your cell phone battery, don't panic.

    要是你身處非洲,手機沒電,不用驚慌。

  • You will find some resourceful entrepreneurs

    你會碰見一些法寶多多的企業家。

  • who can recharge your cell phone using bicycles.

    他們可以用單車來幫你的手機充電。

  • And since we are in South America,

    既然我們現在身處南美,

  • let's go to Lima in Peru,

    我們就看看秘魯的首都利馬。

  • a region with high humidity

    該地區濕度高,

  • that receives only one inch of rainfall each year.

    但每年降雨量只有一英寸(約25.4毫米)。

  • An engineering college in Lima designed a giant advertising billboard

    利馬一所工學院設計了一座大型露天廣告牌,

  • that absorbs air humidity and converts it into purified water,

    能夠吸收濕氣中的水分,轉化成純淨水。

  • generating over 90 liters of water every day.

    每天可以生產超過 90 公升水。

  • The Peruvians are amazing.

    秘魯人很厲害。

  • They can literally create water out of thin air.

    他們可以「無中生有」, 從空氣中變出水。

  • For the past seven years,

    過去七年裡,

  • I have met and studied hundreds of entrepreneurs

    我遇見過、研究過數以百計的企業家,

  • in India, China, Africa and South America, and they keep amazing me.

    遍布印度、中國、非洲、南美洲, 他們讓我驚嘆不已。

  • Many of them did not go to school.

    他們當中許多都沒上過學校。

  • They don't invent stuff in big R&D labs.

    他們的發明不是 在大型研發中心裡誕生的。

  • The street is the lab.

    大街大巷,就是他們的實驗室。

  • Why do they do that?

    為什麼他們要這樣?

  • Because they don't have the kind of basic resources we take for granted,

    因為我們理所當然 擁有的基本資源,他們沒有。

  • like capital and energy,

    譬如資本、能源,

  • and basic services like healthcare and education

    還有醫療保險和教育之類的基本資源,

  • are also scarce in those regions.

    在那些地區少之又少。

  • When external resources are scarce, you have to go within yourself

    既然外在的資源遙不可及, 你就必須靠自己,

  • to tap the most abundant resource, human ingenuity,

    利用最豐富的資源——人類智慧,

  • and use that ingenuity to find clever ways to solve problems with limited resources.

    去尋找聰明的辦法, 運用有限資源去解決問題。

  • In India, we call it Jugaad.

    在印度,我們稱之為「組加」(Jugaad)

  • Jugaad is a Hindi word

    「組加」在印度語中意為

  • that means an improvised fix, a clever solution born in adversity.

    在毫無準備的情況下解決問題, 在逆境中應運而生的智慧方案。

  • Jugaad solutions are not sophisticated or perfect,

    組加方案不複雜、也不是完美無缺,

  • but they create more value at lower cost.

    但是可以用更低的成本,創造更多的價值。

  • For me, the entrepreneurs who will create Jugaad solutions

    在我看來,創造組加方案的企業家

  • are like alchemists.

    就像煉金術師一樣神奇。

  • They can magically transform adversity into opportunity,

    他們可以將逆境神奇地轉化為機遇,

  • and turn something of less value into something of high value.

    將原來低價值的事物變成高價值。

  • In other words, they mastered the art of doing more with less,

    他們以更少價值創造更多價值, 「組加」游刃有餘,

  • which is the essence of frugal innovation.

    這就是節儉發明的精髓。

  • Frugal innovation is the ability to create more economic and social value

    節儉發明,指能夠用更少的資源

  • using fewer resources.

    創造更經濟優惠的社會價值。

  • Frugal innovation is not about making do; it's about making things better.

    節儉發明的目的,不是湊合著使用資源, 而是讓世界變得更美好。

  • Now I want to show you how, across emerging markets,

    現在我想向各位展示,在新興市場上,

  • entrepreneurs and companies are adopting frugal innovation on a larger scale

    企業家和公司是如何大量使用節儉發明

  • to cost-effectively deliver healthcare and energy to billions of people

    向數以十億計的低收入高志向人群

  • who may have little income but very high aspirations.

    提供高性價比的醫療保險和能量。

  • Let's first go to China,

    我們首先看看中國。

  • where the country's largest I.T. service provider, Neusoft,

    中國最大的資訊科技 服務供應商東軟集團

  • has developed a telemedicine solution

    研發了一套遠程醫療方案

  • to help doctors in cities remotely treat old and poor patients

    幫助城市中的醫生遠程治療

  • in Chinese villages.

    山村裡年老貧窮的病人。

  • This solution is based on simple-to-use medical devices

    這套方案主要使用容易操作的醫療設備,

  • that less qualified health workers like nurses can use in rural clinics.

    農村診所的護士等普通醫療人員也能使用。

  • China desperately needs these frugal medical solutions

    中國亟需這樣的節儉醫療方案,

  • because by 2050 it will be home to over half a billion senior citizens.

    因為到了 2050 年, 老年人口會達過五億。

  • Now let's go to Kenya,

    現在我們來看看肯亞,

  • a country where half the population uses M-Pesa, a mobile payment solution.

    該國一半人都在用一種 叫 M-Pesa 的手機付款方式。

  • This is a great solution for the African continent

    在非洲大陸,這是相當了不起,

  • because 80 percent of Africans don't have a bank account,

    因為 80% 的非洲人都沒有銀行帳戶,

  • but what is exciting is that M-Pesa is now becoming the source

    令人振奮的是,目前在能源等領域中

  • of other disruptive business models in sectors like energy.

    M-Pesa 已成為其他顛覆性經營模式的資源。

  • Take M-KOPA, the home solar solution that comes literally in a box

    舉例來說,M-KOPA 是一盒太陽能家庭設備,

  • that has a solar rooftop panel, three LED lights,

    其中包括太陽能面板、三盞 LED 燈、

  • a solar radio, and a cell phone charger.

    太陽能接收器、手機充電器。

  • The whole kit, though, costs 200 dollars, which is too expensive for most Kenyans,

    整套設備大約是 200 美元, 對於肯亞大眾來說太貴了。

  • and this is where mobile telephony can make the solution more affordable.

    而手機卻可以讓大家都買得起這套設備。

  • Today, you can buy this kit by making an initial deposit of just 35 dollars,

    今天,只要首付 35 美金, 就可以購買這套設備,

  • and then pay off the rest by making a daily micro-payment of 45 cents

    剩下的可以通過手機, 每天分期支付 45 美分。

  • using your mobile phone.

    第 365 次付款完成之後, 系統就會解鎖,

  • Once you've made 365 micro-payments, the system is unlocked,

    你就擁有這個產品, 開始享受免費的環保電能。

  • and you own the product and you start receiving clean, free electricity.

    在肯亞,這套方案相當出眾,

  • This is an amazing solution for Kenya,

    因為 70% 的人日常生活 在沒有電能的條件下。

  • where 70 percent of people live off the grid.

    這也證明了,憑藉節儉發明,

  • This shows that with frugal innovation

    你可以利用最豐富的資源,譬如手機網路,

  • what matters is that you take what is most abundant, mobile connectivity,

    去解決短缺問題,譬如能源。

  • to deal with what is scarce, which is energy.

    憑藉節儉發明,南部地區在真正地接近、

  • With frugal innovation, the global South is actually catching up

    甚至超越北部地區的發展。

  • and in some cases even leap-frogging the North.

    在中國,遠程醫療取代了昂價的醫院工程,

  • Instead of building expensive hospitals, China is using telemedicine

    為數以百萬計的病人 提供符合成本效益的治療,

  • to cost-effectively treat millions of patients,

    在非洲,不是去建新的銀行和電網,

  • and Africa, instead of building banks and electricity grids,

    而是直接用手機支付和分散式的乾淨能源。

  • is going straight to mobile payments and distributed clean energy.

    節儉發明,與我們北部地區的 發明方式截然不同。

  • Frugal innovation is diametrically opposed to the way we innovate in the North.

    我住在矽谷,

  • I live in Silicon Valley,

    那裡的人一直追求了不起的新技術。

  • where we keep chasing the next big technology thing.

    想想 iPhone 5、6、7、8。

  • Think of the iPhone 5, 6, then 7, 8.

    西方企業投資數以十億計美元在研發上,

  • Companies in the West spend billions of dollars investing in R&D,

    利用數以噸計的自然資源 來創造更加複雜的產品,

  • and use tons of natural resources to create ever more complex products,

    就是為了讓自己的品牌在競爭中突圍而出,

  • to differentiate their brands from competition,

    然後借著這些新功能向顧客收取更多費用。

  • and they charge customers more money for new features.

    因此,西方傳統商業模式 是以更多價值換取更多價值。

  • So the conventional business model in the West is more for more.

    但不幸的是這種模式要走到盡頭了。 原因有三:

  • But sadly, this more for more model is running out of gas, for three reasons:

    第一,西方的大量顧客

  • First, a big portion of customers in the West

    由於消費力日漸減弱

  • because of the diminishing purchasing power,

    不再買得起這些高價產品。

  • can no longer afford these expensive products.

    第二,自然水資源和石油資源在不斷耗盡。

  • Second, we are running out of natural water and oil.

    我居住在加州, 那裡的水資源缺乏問題越來越嚴重。

  • In California, where I live, water scarcity is becoming a big problem.

    第三,也是最重要的,

  • And third, most importantly,

    西方富人和中產階級之間的 收入差距越來越大,

  • because of the growing income disparity

    已有的產品服務與顧客的基本需要

  • between the rich and the middle class in the West,

    越來越不相關。

  • there is a big disconnect between existing products and services

    在座是否知道,

  • and basic needs of customers.

    目前有逾七千萬美國人沒有得到足夠的金融服務,

  • Do you know that today,

    因為已有的銀行服務

  • there are over 70 million Americans today who are underbanked,

    不是為了滿足他們的基本需求而設計的。

  • because existing banking services

    西方的經濟危機揮之不去,讓大眾以為

  • are not designed to address their basic needs.

    他們就要失去高生活標準,

  • The prolonged economic crisis in the West is making people think

    即將面臨貧困問題。

  • that they are about to lose the high standard of living

    我認為,西方持續發展和繁榮的唯一出路是

  • and face deprivation.

    我們要學會用更少價值創造更多價值。

  • I believe that the only way we can sustain growth and prosperity in the West

    好消息是,這已經開始發生。

  • is if we learn to do more with less.

    數家西方企業正在通過節儉發明,

  • The good news is, that's starting to happen.

    為西方消費者創造經濟實惠的產品。

  • Several Western companies are now adopting frugal innovation

    我為大家舉兩個例子。

  • to create affordable products for Western consumers.

    首次看到這座建築,

  • Let me give you two examples.

    我以為這是一座後現代房子。

  • When I first saw this building,

    但實際上這是丹璐·格萊珉 設計的一座小型生產房,

  • I told myself it's some kind of postmodern house.

    是穆罕默德·尤努斯的格萊珉銀行

  • Actually, it's a small manufacturing plant set up by Grameen Danone,

    以及丹璐跨國食品公司的合資企業,

  • a joint venture between Grameen Bank of Muhammad Yunus

    目的是在孟加拉製作高質優格。

  • and the food multinational Danone

    該廠房只有丹璐其他廠房的十分之一大,

  • to make high-quality yogurt in Bangladesh.

    工程花費小。

  • This factory is 10 percent the size of existing Danone factories

    我想大家可以稱之為「低脂」廠房。

  • and cost much less to build.

    西方廠房高度自動化,但目前該廠房

  • I guess you can call it a low-fat factory.

    為了給當地社區帶來就業,主要依賴手工製作。

  • Now this factory, unlike Western factories that are highly automated,

    丹璐對這種模式相當有信心,

  • relies a lot on manual processes in order to generate jobs for local communities.

    因為該模式結合經濟效益和社會永續性發展,

  • Danone was so inspired by this model

    於是計劃在世界其他地方建立該模式。

  • that combines economic efficiency and social sustainability,

    現在大家看著這個例子,

  • they are planning to roll it out in other parts of the world as well.

    可能在想:「噢,節儉發明就是技術含量低。」

  • Now, when you see this example,

    實際不是這樣。

  • you might be thinking, "Well, frugal innovation is low tech."

    節儉發明同時也是將高科技

  • Actually, no.

    帶給更多人、變得更經濟實惠、更大眾化。

  • Frugal innovation is also about making high tech

    我為大家舉一個例子。

  • more affordable and more accessible to more people.

    在中國,西門子醫療保健公司的研發工程師

  • Let me give you an example.

    設計了一款容易操作的電腦斷層掃描儀,

  • In China, the R&D engineers of Siemens Healthcare

    就連護士、技師等 普通資格醫療人員也可以使用。

  • have designed a C.T. scanner that is easy enough to be used

    這部設備每天可以掃描更多病人,

  • by less qualified health workers, like nurses and technicians.

    並且消耗更少能源,

  • This device can scan more patients on a daily basis,

    對於醫院來說是福音, 對於病人來說也是福音,

  • and yet consumes less energy,

    因為治療費用可以降低 30%,

  • which is great for hospitals, but it's also great for patients

    輻射劑量可以降低最多 60%。

  • because it reduces the cost of treatment by 30 percent

    該方案最初是為中國市場而設計的,

  • and radiation dosage by up to 60 percent.

    但目前在美國和歐洲也在熱賣,

  • This solution was initially designed for the Chinese market,

    因為當地的醫院亟需 以更低成本提供高質服務。

  • but now it's selling like hotcakes in the U.S. and Europe,

    但是在西方,節儉發明革命

  • where hospitals are pressured to deliver quality care at lower cost.

    實際上是由創意企業家引導的,

  • But the frugal innovation revolution

    他們不斷構思出突破方案,

  • in the West is actually led by creative entrepreneurs

    來滿足美國和歐洲地區的基本需求。

  • who are coming up with amazing solutions

    我為大家快速講述三個 極其啟發我的創業例子。

  • to address basic needs in the U.S. and Europe.

    第一個碰巧是我在矽谷的鄰居推出的,

  • Let me quickly give you three examples of startups

    名為「農生」(gThrive)。

  • that personally inspire me.

    他們製造這些無線感應器, 設計像膠尺,

  • The first one happens to be launched by my neighbor in Silicon Valley.

    實際上是給農民扎在農地各處

  • It's called gThrive.

    用來收集各種訊息,譬如土壤環境。

  • They make these wireless sensors designed like plastic rulers

    這些動態數據 能讓農民優化使用水能源,

  • that farmers can stick in different parts of the field

    又可以提高產品和農田的質量,

  • and start collecting detailed information like soil conditions.

    對於嚴重缺水的加州來說, 是相當了不起的發明。

  • This dynamic data allows farmers to optimize use of water energy

    該發明在一年內就回本。

  • while improving quality of the products and the yields,

    第二個例子是「必寳」(Be-Bound),也出自矽谷。

  • which is a great solution for California, which faces major water shortage.

    該發明可讓你在沒有寬頻、 無線網路、3G、4G 的地方,

  • It pays for itself within one year.

    都可以連接到網路。

  • Second example is Be-Bound, also in Silicon Valley,

    他們怎樣做到?

  • that enables you to connect to the Internet

    他們使用的不過是簡訊,

  • even in no-bandwidth areas where there's no wi-fi or 3G or 4G.

    技術雖簡單,但確實在全球最可靠、最普遍。

  • How do they do that?

    今天有三十億手機用戶無法使用網路。

  • They simply use SMS, a basic technology, but that happens to be the most reliable

    該方案可以讓他們省錢地連上網。

  • and most widely available around the world.

    在法國,有家新興企業 叫「剛立閣」(Compte Nickel)

  • Three billion people today with cell phones can't access the Internet.

    在不斷改革銀行金融機構。

  • This solution can connect them to the Internet in a frugal way.

    大眾可以隨意走進小商店,

  • And in France, there is a startup calle Compte Nickel,

    五分鐘內就可以啟用兩種產品服務:

  • which is revolutionizing the banking sector.

    國際銀行帳戶號碼和國際銀行扣帳卡。

  • It allows thousands of people to walk into a Mom and Pop store

    他們僅收取 20 歐元年費。

  • and in just five minutes activate the service that gives them two products:

    也就是說,你可以進行所有銀行交易,

  • an international bank account number and an international debit card.

    轉款、收錢、扣帳卡付款等等,

  • They charge a flat annual maintenance fee of just 20 Euros.

    統統都無需額外的手續費。

  • That means you can do all banking transactions --

    這就是我所稱的 無銀行的低成本銀行服務。

  • send and receive money, pay with your debit card --

    讓我們吃驚的是, 使用該服務的 75% 顧客

  • all with no additional charge.

    是法國中產階級人士, 給不起昂貴銀行費用。

  • This is what I call low-cost banking without the bank.

    關於節儉發明的例子, 我已經講了很多,

  • Amazingly, 75 percent of the customers using this service

    最初是在南部地區開拓, 現正為北方地區採納。

  • are the middle-class French who can't afford high banking fees.

    最終,我們希望看見

  • Now, I talked about frugal innovation, initially pioneered in the South,

    發達國家和發展中國家

  • now being adopted in the North.

    齊手合作,共同創造節儉方案,

  • Ultimately, we would like to see

    讓全人類受益。

  • developed countries and developing countries

    令人振奮的是,這已開始發生了。

  • come together and co-create frugal solutions

    我們去看看肯亞的首都奈洛比。

  • that benefit the entire humanity.

    奈洛比的交通堵塞相當惡劣。

  • The exciting news is that's starting to happen.

    我第一次看見的時候就想: 「塞得可夠牛的。」

  • Let's go to Nairobi to find that out.

    沒錯,因為在奈洛比開車你得避著牛群。

  • Nairobi has horrendous traffic jams.

    為了改善狀況,

  • When I first saw them, I thought, "Holy cow."

    肯亞 IBM 實驗室的工程師 正在試用一套名為「馬架飛」(Megaffic) 的方案。

  • Literally, because you have to dodge cows as well when you drive in Nairobi.

    該方案最初由日本工程師設計。

  • To ease the situation,

    與西方不同的是, 馬架飛不依賴路側感應器,

  • the engineers at the IBM lab in Kenya are piloting a solution called Megaffic,

    因為在奈洛比太貴了。

  • which initially was designed by the Japanese engineers.

    他們從奈洛比街道的 幾個低解析度攝影機

  • Unlike in the West, Megaffic doesn't rely on roadside sensors,

    收集並處理影像和交通數據,

  • which are very expensive to install in Nairobi.

    然後使用分析軟體,預測交通高峰期,

  • Instead they process images, traffic data,

    之後可以簡訊通知司機 其他可選擇路段。

  • collected from a small number of low-resolution webcams in Nairobi streets,

    當然,馬架飛不像 自動駕駛汽車那樣炫酷,

  • and then they use analytic software to predict congestion points,

    但是可以保證讓奈洛比的司機

  • and they can SMS drivers alternate routes to take.

    用快 20% 的速度,從甲地去到乙地。

  • Granted, Megaffic is not as sexy as self-driving cars,

    今年初,加州大學洛杉磯分校的 醫療中心設立了全球發明實驗室,

  • but it promises to take Nairobi drivers from point A to point B

    立向尋找世界各地的節儉醫療方案,

  • at least 20 percent faster.

    比美國目前的方案節省至少 20%

  • And earlier this year, UCLA Health launched its Global Lab for Innovation,

    但卻更有效的方案。

  • which seeks to identify frugal healthcare solutions anywhere in the world

    同時也嘗試將南北部地區的 發明家聚在一起,

  • that will be at least 20 percent cheaper than existing solutions in the U.S.

    聯手為全人類發明 經濟大眾的醫療方案。

  • and yet more effective.

    世界各地的節儉發明例子, 我已經給了很多,

  • It also tries to bring together innovators from North and South

    但問題是,大家要怎樣利用節儉發明?

  • to cocreate affordable healthcare solutions for all of humanity.

    我從各地的節儉發明家上 收集了三個要點,

  • I gave tons of examples of frugal innovators from around the world,

    想在這裡跟大家分享,

  • but the question is, how do you go about adopting frugal innovation?

    讓大家知道可以在自己的組織中

  • Well, I gleaned out three principles from frugal innovators around the world

    用少量價值創造更多價值。

  • that I want to share with you

    第一要點:一切從簡。

  • that you can apply in your own organization

    不要為了向客戶炫耀才創造方案。

  • to do more with less.

    方案需要簡單明了, 容易操作,經濟大眾,

  • The first principle is: Keep it simple.

    譬如中國的電腦斷層掃描儀。

  • Don't create solutions to impress customers.

    第二要點:切勿重複發明資源。

  • Make them easy enough to use and widely accessible,

    嘗試利用廣泛易得的已有資源,

  • like the C.T. scanner we saw in China.

    譬如說用手機來提供乾淨能源,

  • Second principle: Do not reinvent the wheel.

    在小商店內提供銀行服務。

  • Try to leverage existing resources and assets that are widely available,

    第三點:橫向思考和行動。

  • like using mobile telephony to offer clean energy

    企業傾向於垂直發展,

  • or Mom and Pop stores to offer banking services.

    將程序集中在大型廠房和倉庫內,

  • Third principle is: Think and act horizontally.

    但如果想要靈活處理 顧客龐大而多樣的需求,

  • Companies tend to scale up vertically

    就需要橫向發展,使用分散的供應鏈,

  • by centralizing operations in big factories and warehouses,

    建立更小的生產和分配單位,

  • but if you want to be agile and deal with immense customer diversity,

    格萊珉銀行就是一個例子。

  • you need to scale out horizontally using a distributed supply chain

    出於自身的需要, 南部地區開拓了節儉發明。

  • with smaller manufacturing and distribution units,

    目前北部地區在面對資源短缺限制時,

  • like Grameen Bank has shown.

    也在學習用更少資源 做更多更有效的事情。

  • The South pioneered frugal innovation out of sheer necessity.

    身為出生於印度的法國人,居住在美國,

  • The North is now learning to do more and better with less

    我希望我們能超越 這道所謂的南北部地區分界線,

  • as it faces resource constraints.

    可以掌握世界各地發明家的集體智慧