Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

  • Have you heard the one about Thomas Jefferson

    你有聽過湯瑪斯.傑佛遜(Thomas Jefferson)

  • and the Louisiana Territory?

    以及路易斯安那地區(Louisiana Territory) 的故事嗎?

  • Thomas Jefferson, author of The Declaration of Independence,

    湯瑪斯.傑佛遜是獨立宣言的作者,

  • was not a fan of the new constitution presented in 1787.

    但他對 1787 年提出的新憲法並不滿意。

  • He was very worried

    他很擔心

  • that The Constitution gave too much power

    這憲法給予新的國家政府

  • to the new, national government,

    太多權力,

  • and not enough power to the states,

    而給各州的太少,

  • an issue known as "big government".

    就是所謂的「大政府」議題。

  • Jefferson only reluctantly agreed to support it

    當他的朋友詹姆斯.麥迪遜(James Madison)

  • when his friend, James Madison,

    答應在憲法通過後 提出權利法案時

  • promised to propose a bill of rights after it was ratified.

    傑佛遜也只有不情願地 同意支持憲法。

  • But Jefferson's fears about big government did not go away.

    但是傑佛遜對於大政府的擔憂 並沒有消失。

  • For example, Secretary of the Treasury, Alexander Hamilton,

    比如說,財政部長 亞歷山大.漢密爾頓(Alexander Hamilton)

  • proposed a national bank in 1790,

    在 1790 年提議組織國家銀行,

  • and Jefferson knew there was no provision in The Constitution

    而傑佛遜知道憲法裡並沒有

  • to permit such a thing.

    一個條款允許這件事。

  • Hamilton claimed some sort of implied powers mumbo-jumbo.

    漢密爾頓主張憲法有一些隱含權力 之類的胡扯。

  • Sure, it wasn't written in The Constitution,

    當然,它沒寫在憲法裡,

  • but The Constitution implied that it could be done.

    但是憲法默示這件事是可行的。

  • But, Jefferson wasn't buying it.

    但傑佛遜不吃這一套。

  • Nonetheless, the bank was established

    無論如何,銀行還是建立起來了,

  • by Hamilton and President Washington.

    在漢密爾頓和華盛頓總統(Washington) 的手中。

  • When Jefferson was sworn in as President in 1801,

    當 1801 年傑佛遜宣誓就職總統時,

  • he pledged to reduce the size and scope

    他承諾他會降低國家政府的

  • of the national government.

    規模與範圍。

  • But, of course, things didn't go exactly as he had planned.

    但當然地,事情並沒有照他的計劃發展。

  • Spain secretly transferred the Louisiana Territory to France

    當著傑佛遜的面,西班牙秘密地

  • right beneath Jefferson's nose.

    將路易斯安那區轉手給法國,

  • When Congress found out,

    當國會發現時,

  • they quickly began discussions with France

    他們迅速地和法國洽商,

  • to buy a piece of the territory

    要用大約兩百萬元來買

  • along the Mississippi River for about $2 million.

    密西西比河沿岸的一塊地。

  • But, there was one little problem:

    但是,這其中有個小問題:

  • Jefferson knew there was no provision

    傑佛遜知道憲法裡

  • in The Constitution to buy foreign territory.

    並沒有購買外國領土的條款。

  • So what was a strict constructionist to do?

    那麼這位嚴格的 憲法解釋者要怎麼辦呢?

  • First, he tried to get an amendment to The Constitution passed

    首先,他試著讓國會通過 一個憲法修正案,

  • that would expressly permit the purchase,

    這修正案可以迅速地允許購地,

  • but Congress wasn't willing to do it.

    但是國會並不想這麼做。

  • Then, without permission, the U.S. negotiators in France

    接著,在沒有許可之下, 在法國的美國交涉員

  • cut a deal for all of the territory

    談好所有土地的交易,

  • for a cool $15 million dollars.

    只要一千五百萬元。

  • That new land doubled the size of the nation!

    新的土地會讓國家領土變成兩倍!

  • Now Jefferson was really stuck.

    現在傑佛遜真的尷尬了。

  • He knew that the territory would be a great acquisition for the country,

    他知道這塊土地對國家來說 將會是一大收獲,

  • providing lots of new land for farmers and other settlers,

    它可以提供農夫和其它開墾者 大量新的土地,

  • but how could he constitutionally justify it?

    但是這要怎麼得到憲法的合理解釋?

  • In the end, Jefferson turned to the argument

    最終,傑佛遜求助於

  • used by his old foe Alexander Hamilton.

    他的老冤家漢密爾頓的主張。

  • He claimed that the power to purchase the territory

    他聲稱憲法的締約權

  • is implied in The Constitution's treaty-making power.

    有隱含購買這塊領土的權力。

  • This was the exact argument

    而這正是十年前

  • that he had mocked openly a decade before,

    他公然譏諷的主張,

  • so it must have crushed his pride to have to use it.

    他顯然粉碎了他的自尊。

  • But more importantly,

    但更重要的是,

  • he may have committed the biggest big government play ever!

    他可能已經組成有史以來最大的政府!

  • How ironic is it

    這多麼諷刺啊!

  • that one of the biggest opponents of big government

    一個大政府的頭號反對者

  • doubled the size of the young country

    將一個年輕國家的領土變成兩倍,

  • and did so while openly questioning its constitutionality?

    而且這麼做的時候 同時還公然質疑它的合法性。

  • At $15 million,

    一千五百萬,

  • which is about three cents an acre,

    相當於每英畝三分錢,

  • it has been called by many

    這被許多人稱為

  • the greatest real estate deal

    美國有史以來

  • in the history of the United States.

    最划算的不動產交易。

Have you heard the one about Thomas Jefferson

你有聽過湯瑪斯.傑佛遜(Thomas Jefferson)

字幕與單字

單字即點即查 點擊單字可以查詢單字解釋

B1 中級 中文 TED-Ed 憲法 漢密爾頓 領土 政府 土地

【TED-Ed】路易斯安那購買的歷史膽量--朱迪-沃爾頓。 (【TED-Ed】The historical audacity of the Louisiana Purchase - Judy Walton)

  • 1363 121
    稲葉白兎 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
影片單字