Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

  • We've all seen the movies where a monster,

    在電影中,我們都看過怪獸

  • created by a scientist in a laboratory,

    被實驗室中的科學家創造出來,

  • escapes to wreak havoc on the outside world.

    它逃離實驗室,破壞外面的世界。

  • But what if the monster was not some giant rampaging beast,

    如果這個怪物不是巨大的狂暴怪獸 會破壞城市,

  • destroying a city, but just a tiny amount of seaweed

    而是微小的海草,

  • with the potential to disrupt entire coastal ecosystems?

    卻有能力擾亂整個沿海生態系統, 那會怎麼樣呢?

  • This is the story of Caulerpa taxifolia,

    以下是有關於杉葉蕨藻的資訊。

  • originally a naturally occurring seaweed

    杉葉蕨藻是自然生長的海草,

  • native to tropical waters.

    原生於熱帶水域。

  • In the 1980s, one strain was found to thrive in colder environments.

    在 1980 年代,人們發現其中一種 海草可以生長於較冷的環境。

  • This trait, combined with its beautiful, bright green color

    這類海草,有著美麗明亮的綠色,

  • and ability to grow quickly without maintenance

    和快速生長繁殖的特性, 不需照料,

  • made it ideal for aquariums, which it helped keep clean

    這使得它很適合水族館。 因為它可以淨化水,

  • by consuming nutrients and chemicals in the water.

    藉著吸收水中養分和化學物質。

  • Further selective breeding made it even heartier,

    進一步選擇育種 讓淨化水的效果更顯著,

  • and soon it was used in aquariums around the world.

    很快的,全世界的水族館 開始養殖此種海草。

  • But it was not long before a sample of this

    沒多久,

  • aquarium-developed super algae

    由水族館培育的超級藻類,

  • turned up in the Mediterranean Sea

    其樣本出現在地中海,

  • near the famed Oceanographic Museum of Monaco.

    靠近知名的摩納哥海洋博物館。

  • The marine biologist who found it believed that

    發現其藻類的海洋生物學家相信

  • the museum had accidentally realeased it into the ocean

    博物館意外地將藻類排放到海中,

  • along with aquarium waters,

    隨著博物館的排水而出,

  • while museum directors claimed

    但博物館館長聲稱

  • it had be carried into the area by ocean currents.

    藻類是被洋流所沖進此區域。

  • Regardless of how it ended up there,

    不論原因是什麼,

  • the non-native Caulerpa multiplied rapidly,

    非當地物種的蕨藻繁殖得很快,

  • having no natural predators

    沒有自然界的天敵,

  • due to releasing a toxin that keeps fish away.

    因為它會釋放一種毒素 使得魚群遠離它。

  • And like some mythical monster, even a tiny piece that broke off

    就像一些神秘的怪獸一樣, 即使是一小片的藻類

  • could grow into a whole new colony.

    也可以長成一個新的生命體。

  • Through water currents and contact with boat anchors and fishing lines,

    藉由水流、接觸船錨和魚線,

  • it fragmented and spread throughout Mediterranean coastal cities

    藻類進行分裂,並且擴散至 整個地中海的沿海城市。

  • covering coral reefs.

    覆蓋珊瑚礁。

  • So what was the result of this invasion?

    所以,蕨藻入侵的結果是什麼?

  • Well, it depends on who you ask.

    答案取決於你問的對象。

  • Many scientists warned that the spread of Culerpa

    許多科學家警告蕨藻的擴散

  • reduces biodiversity by crowding out native species of seaweed

    會排擠魚吃的當地海草物種,

  • that are eaten by fish,

    而使得生物多樣性減少。

  • with the biologist who first discovered its presence dubbing it

    所以生物學家一開始 發現蕨藻的存在時,稱它為

  • Killer Algae.

    「殺手海藻」。

  • Other studies instead claim

    但是,其他研究卻指出

  • that the algae actually had a beneficial effect

    藻類有好的影響,

  • by consuming chemical pollutants --

    像是吸收化學污染物,

  • one reason the aquariums strain was developed.

    這也是水族館培養藻類的原因。

  • But the disruption of a natural ecosystem

    但自然生態系統被外來物種擾亂

  • by an introduced foreign species

    會帶來無法預測和無法控制的影響,

  • can have unpredictable and uncontrollable effects

    而影響可能無法立即可見。

  • that may not be immediately visible.

    所以當人們於 2000 年,發現杉葉蕨藻

  • So when Culerpa taxifolia was discovered

    出現在卡爾斯巴德的黑地翁達潟湖,

  • at Carlsbad's Agua Hedionda Lagoon,

    位於聖地牙哥附近,

  • near San Diego in the year 2000,

    極可能是由住家水族箱排出的廢水

  • having most likely come from the dumping

    進入連接的暴雨排水道,

  • of home aquarium water into a connecting storm drain,

    在蕨藻傳播之前, 人們決定阻止其擴散。

  • it was decided to stop it before it spread.

    他們在蕨藻的繁殖地放置防水布,

  • Tarps were placed over the Culerpa colonies

    然後往裡面注射氯。

  • and chlorine injected inside.

    雖然此方法殺死

  • Although this method killed

    防水布底下所有其他的海洋生物,

  • all other marine life trapped under the tarps,

    但是成功地消滅藻類,

  • it did succeed in eradicating the algae

    並且使得當地的大葉藻能夠生長。

  • and native eelgrass was able to emerge in its place.

    因為加州當局快速的反應

  • By responding quickly, authorities in California

    成功阻止蕨藻繁殖。

  • were able to prevent Culerpa from propagating.

    但是有另一種藻類出現

  • But another occurrence of the strain,

    在澳洲東南方的沿岸沼澤地,

  • in the coastal wetlands of southeast Australia,

    由於沒有人察覺,而讓藻類繁殖。

  • was left unchecked and allowed to spread.

    不幸的,防水布無法覆蓋地中海

  • And unfortunately, a tarp cannot cover the Mediterranean Sea

    或澳洲沿岸。

  • or the Australian coast.

    入侵物種不是新的問題,

  • Invasive species are not a new problem,

    事實上,有可能自然地發生。

  • and can indeed occur naturally.

    但當入侵物種是因為

  • But when such species are the results of

    人類選育或基因改造

  • human directed selective breeding or genetic modification

    而被釋放到自然環境中,

  • and then released into the natural environment,

    對生態系統的影響

  • their effect on ecosystems

    可能更為劇烈和無法挽救。

  • can be far more radical and irreversible.

    隨著新技術

  • With the proliferation of new technologies

    和對環境的多重威脅增加,

  • and multiple threats to the environment,

    科學家監測和評估風險和危險 就更重要了,

  • it is more important than ever for scientists

    而我們也必須記住,

  • to monitor and evaluate the risks and dangers,

    我們在後院所做的行為,

  • and for the rest of us to remember

    將會影響半個地球外的生態系統。

  • that what starts in our backyard

  • can effect ecosystems half a world away.

We've all seen the movies where a monster,

在電影中,我們都看過怪獸

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 藻類 水族館 物種 繁殖 生態

TED-Ed】殺手藻的攻擊--埃裡克-諾埃爾-穆尼奧斯。 (【TED-Ed】Attack of the killer algae - Eric Noel Muñoz)

  • 1194 95
    稲葉白兎 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
影片單字