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  • I want you guys to imagine that you're a soldier running through the battlefield.

    各位 想像一下 你是名士兵 正在戰場上奔跑

  • Now, you're shot in the leg with a bullet, which severs your femoral artery.

    這時 你腿上中了一槍 傷到股動脈

  • Now, this bleed is extremely traumatic and can kill you in less than three minutes.

    嚴重出血 三分鐘內就會死亡

  • Unfortunately, by the time that a medic actually gets to you,

    不幸的是 等到救護人員到你身邊時

  • what the medic has on his or her belt can take five minutes or more,

    他救護腰包裡的用具 要花超過五分鐘

  • with the application of pressure, to stop that type of bleed.

    並施加壓力 才能止住這種出血

  • Now, this problem is not only a huge problem for the military,

    目前 這不只是國軍的一大問題

  • but it's also a huge problem that's epidemic throughout the entire medical field,

    也是整個醫學界的一大挑戰

  • which is how do we actually look at wounds and how do we stop them quickly in a way that can work with the body?

    那就是 如何與身體機能合作 快速地處理傷口

  • So now, what I've been working on for the last four years is to develop smart biomaterials,

    這四年來 我致力研發一種智慧生物材料

  • which are actually materials that will work with the body, helping it to heal

    這種生物材料能與人體合作 幫助癒合

  • and helping it to allow the wounds to heal normally.

    讓傷口能自然癒合

  • So now, before we do this, we have to take a much closer look at actually how does the body work.

    在正式說明之前 我們來看看人體是如何運作的

  • So now, everybody here knows that the body is made up of cells.

    大家都知道 身體是由細胞組成

  • So the cell is the most basic unit of life. But not many people know what else.

    細胞是生命的最小單位 但接下來的資訊 很多人都不知道

  • But it actually turns out that your cells sit in this mesh of complicated fibers,

    細胞其實是位於這種網絡之中 包含複雜神經

  • proteins and sugars known as the extracellular matrix.

    蛋白質 還有糖 這網絡叫做細胞外基質(ECM)

  • So now, the ECM is actually this mesh that holds the cells in place,

    ECM是種能固定細胞的網絡

  • provides structure for your tissues, but it also gives the cells a home.

    提供體內組織架構 也能給細胞一個家

  • It allows them to feel what they're doing, where they are,

    讓細胞知道自己在幹嘛 知道自己在哪裡

  • and tells them how to act and how to behave.

    告訴細胞如何行動 如何運作

  • And it actually turns out that the extracellular matrix is different from every single part of the body.

    每個身體部位的細胞外基質 其實都不一樣

  • So the ECM in my skin is different than the ECM in my liver,

    皮膚的ECM和肝臟的ECM不同

  • and the ECM in different parts of the same organ actually vary,

    同樣器官的不同部位 ECM也都不一樣

  • so it's very difficult to be able to have a product that will react to the local extracellular matrix,

    所以 研發出能適應各種ECM的產品非常困難

  • which is exactly what we're trying to do.

    這也就是目前我們要做的事

  • So now, for example, think of the rainforest.

    舉個例子 想像一座雨林

  • You have the canopy, you have the understory, and you have the forest floor.

    裡面有樹冠層 林下層 還有地面層

  • Now, all of these parts of the forest are made up of different plants,

    每層都由不同的植物組成

  • and different animals call them home.

    棲息著各種動物

  • So just like that, the extracellular matrix is incredibly diverse in three dimensions.

    就像雨林一樣 ECM非常多元 可分為三個層面

  • On top of that, the extracellular matrix is responsible for all wound healing,

    表層的ECM是負責治癒傷口

  • so if you imagine cutting the body, you actually have to rebuild this very complex ECM

    身體受創後 需要重建這種非常複雜的ECM

  • in order to get it to form again,

    讓ECM再度成形

  • and a scar, in fact, is actually poorly formed extracellular matrix.

    疤痕其實就是成形不佳的ECM

  • So now, behind me is an animation of the extracellular matrix.

    後方螢幕上是ECM的動態圖

  • So as you see, your cells sit in this complicated mesh

    細胞就是位於這些複雜網絡裡

  • and as you move throughout the tissue, the extracellular matrix changes.

    不同組織裡的ECM都不一樣

  • So now every other piece of technology on the market

    現在市面上的科技

  • can only manage a two- dimensional approximation of the extracellular matrix,

    只能做出近似ECM的雙層物質

  • which means that it doesn't fit in with the tissue itself.

    不能融入組織本身

  • So when I was a freshman at NYU, what I discovered was

    當我還是紐約大學的新鮮人時 我發現

  • you could actually take small pieces of plant-derived polymers and reassemble them onto the wound.

    一種植物提煉出的聚合物能與傷口結合

  • So if you have a bleeding wound like the one behind me, you can actually put our material onto this,

    所以 如果你有這種出血傷口 把它塗在傷口上

  • and just like Lego blocks, it'll reassemble into the local tissue.

    這種聚合物就能像樂高積木一樣 與細胞組織結合

  • So that means if you put it onto liver, it turns into something that looks like liver,

    也就是說 把它放在肝臟上 就能變得像肝臟組織

  • and if you put it onto skin, it turns into something that looks just like skin.

    放在皮膚上 就能變得像皮膚組織

  • So when you put the gel on, it actually reassembles into this local tissue.

    只要把這種凝膠放在組織上 它就能與該組織結合

  • So now, this has a whole bunch of applications,

    這可以廣泛運用在各個地方

  • but basically the idea is, wherever you put this product, you're able to reassemble into it immediately.

    基本上就是 不管你把凝膠放在哪 都能馬上與組織結合

  • Now, this is a simulated arterial bleedblood warningat twice human artery pressure.

    血腥警告 這是模擬出血影像 是人類動脈壓的兩倍

  • So now, this type of bleed is incredibly traumatic, and like I said before,

    這種出血是非常致命的 像我一開始說的那樣

  • would actually take five minutes or more with pressure to be able to stop.

    需要加壓五分鐘以上才能止血

  • Now, in the time that it takes me to introduce the bleed itself, our material is able to stop that bleed,

    就在我講話的同時 我們的產品已經迅速止住出血

  • and it's because it actually goes on and works with the body to heal,

    因為它能與身體組織合作 加速癒合

  • so it reassembles into this piece of meat,

    它與這塊肉結合在一起

  • and then the blood actually recognizes that that's happening,

    血液查覺到 開始反應

  • and produces fibrin, producing a very fast clot in less than 10 seconds.

    開始製造纖維蛋白 在10秒內凝結

  • So now this technologyThank you.

    這就是我們的技術 謝謝

  • So now this technology, by January, will be in the hands of veterinarians,

    這項技術在一月會提供給獸醫界

  • and we're working very diligently to try to get it into the hands of doctors, hopefully within the next year.

    我們會努力將它引進醫學界 希望明年能達成

  • But really, once again, I want you guys to imagine that you are a soldier running through a battlefield.

    真的 希望你們再次想像自己是戰場上的士兵

  • Now, you get hit in the leg with a bullet, and instead of bleeding out in three minutes,

    你大腿中彈 但不用等著在三分鐘內出血致死

  • you pull a small pack of gel out of your belt, and with the press of a button,

    而是從腰帶內拿出一份凝膠 按下按鈕

  • you're able to stop your own bleed and you're on your way to recovery.

    你能為自己止血 開始痊癒

  • Thank you very much.

    謝謝各位

I want you guys to imagine that you're a soldier running through the battlefield.

各位 想像一下 你是名士兵 正在戰場上奔跑

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B1 中級 中文 TED 出血 細胞 傷口 組織 凝膠

【TED】喬-蘭多麗娜。這種凝膠可以讓你瞬間止血(Joe Landolina:這種凝膠可以讓你瞬間止血)。 (【TED】Joe Landolina: This gel can make you stop bleeding instantly (Joe Landolina: This gel can make you stop bleeding instantly))

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    Go Tutor 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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