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  • I'm going to talk about hackers.

    我要談一談駭客。

  • And the image that comes to your mind

    當我說這個字的時候,

  • when I say that word is probably not

    你腦海裡出現的圖像可能不是

  • of Benjamin Franklin,

    班傑明·富蘭克林 (Benjamin Franklin), (註:美國開國元勳之一)

  • but I'm going to explain to you why it should be.

    但我要向你說明,為何應該要是。

  • The image that comes to your mind

    你腦海裡出現的圖像

  • is probably more likely of a pasty kid

    可能是一個面色蒼白的孩子

  • sitting in a basement doing something mischievous,

    正坐在地下室裡搞惡作劇,

  • or of a shady criminal who is trying to steal your identity,

    或是不可見人的罪犯想要竊取你的身份,

  • or of an international rogue

    或是有政治企圖的

  • with a political agenda.

    國際罪犯。

  • And mainstream culture has kind of fed this idea

    主流文化灌輸我們這個想法,

  • that hackers are people that we should be afraid of.

    認為駭客是我們應當害怕的人。

  • But like most things in technology

    但像是在技術上或科技界中的

  • and the technology world,

    其它大多數事情一樣,

  • hacking has equal power for good as it has for evil.

    駭客同時擁有為善或為惡的能力。

  • For every hacker that's trying to steal your identity

    每次出現一位 想要竊取你身份的駭客,

  • there's one that's building a tool

    就會有另一位駭客

  • that will help you find your loved ones after a disaster

    設計出工具, 幫你在災難後尋找你的至愛。

  • or to monitor environmental quality

    或是在漏油事件後,

  • after an oil spill.

    監測環境品質。

  • Hacking is really just any amateur innovation

    駭客不過是在現行系統中的

  • on an existing system,

    業餘創新。

  • and it is a deeply democratic activity.

    它本質上是一個民主活動。

  • It's about critical thinking.

    它是批判性思維。

  • It's about questioning existing ways of doing things.

    它質疑現有的做事方式。

  • It's the idea that if you see a problem, you work to fix it,

    它是一個「當你遇到問題就去解決,

  • and not just complain about it.

    而不是抱怨」 的觀念。

  • And in many ways, hacking is what built America.

    而在許多方面,駭客建造了美國。

  • Betsy Ross was a hacker.

    貝特西·羅斯 (Betsy Ross ) 是一個駭客。 (註:她縫製了美國第一面國旗 並將六芒星改成五芒星)

  • The Underground Railroad was a brilliant hack.

    地下鐵路秘密社團曾經是輝煌的駭客。 (註:19世紀在美國把黑奴送至自由地區的社團)

  • And from the Wright brothers to Steve Jobs,

    從萊特兄弟的史蒂夫·賈伯斯,

  • hacking has always been at the foundation

    駭客一直是美國

  • of American democracy.

    民主的碁石。

  • So if there's one thing I want to leave you here with today,

    因此如果今天我要在這裡 告訴你一件事,

  • it's that the next time you think about who a hacker is,

    那就是在下一次你想到駭客時,

  • you think not of this guy

    你不會想到這個人, (圖:朱利安·阿桑奇,維基解密創辦者)

  • but of this guy, Benjamin Franklin,

    而是這個人:班傑明·富蘭克林,

  • who was one of the greatest hackers of all time.

    歷史上最偉大的駭客之一。

  • He was one of America's most prolific inventors,

    他是美國最多產的發明家之一,

  • though he famously never filed a patent,

    雖然他從未提出過專利申請,

  • because he thought that all human knowledge

    因為他認為,所有人類的知識

  • should be freely available.

    應免費地提供給所有人。

  • He brought us bifocals and the lightning rod,

    他帶給我們雙光眼鏡和避雷針,

  • and of course there was his collaboration

    當然還有他參與合作的發明 --

  • on the invention of American democracy.

    美國民主。

  • And in Code For America, we really try to embody

    在”美國程式碼” (Code For America) 中, (註:美國無黨無派的組織, 在政府中推廣網際網路)

  • the spirit of Ben Franklin.

    我們試圖包含 班傑明·富蘭克林的精神。

  • He was a tinkerer and a statesman

    他是一位政治家和發明家,

  • whose conception of citizenship

    他對公民身份的概念

  • was always predicated on action.

    總是建立在行動上面。

  • He believed that government could be built

    他認為政府可以

  • by the people,

    由人民建立,

  • and we call those people civic hackers.

    我們稱呼這些人為公民駭客。

  • So it's no wonder that the values

    這個已經不足為奇,因為

  • that underly a healthy democracy,

    構建一個健全的民主國家的基本價值,

  • like collaboration and empowerment

    像合作和賦予權力,

  • and participation and enterprise,

    還有參與和企業,

  • are the same values that underly the Internet.

    這些和網際網路 需要的價值是相同的。

  • And so it's no surprise that many hackers

    所以不令人意外地,

  • are turning their attention to the problem of government.

    很多駭客把注意力轉向政府問題。

  • But before I give you a few examples

    但在我向你舉例說明

  • of what civic hacking looks like,

    公民駭客是什麼樣的之前,

  • I want to make clear that you don't have

    我想要先講清楚,

  • to be a programmer to be a civic hacker.

    你不必成為一個程式師, 才能當一個公民駭客。

  • You just have to believe that you can bring

    你只需要相信你可以用

  • a 21st-century tool set to bear

    一套 21 世紀的工具

  • on the problems that government faces.

    來承擔政府面臨的問題。

  • And we hear all the time from our community

    我們一直從我們在「美國程式碼」裡

  • of civic hackers at Code for America

    的公民駭客社區中聽說,

  • that they didn't understand how much nontechnical work

    他們不清楚在公民駭客行動中

  • actually went into civic hacking projects.

    有多少非技術性的部分。

  • So keep that in mind.

    因此,請記住,

  • All of you are potential civic hackers.

    你們都是潛在的公民駭客。

  • So what does civic hacking look like?

    那什麼是公民駭客?

  • Our team last year in Honolulu,

    我們的團隊去年在檀香山,

  • which in this case was three full-time fellows

    由三個全職人員

  • who were doing a year of public service,

    做了一年的公共服務,

  • were asked by the city to rebuild the website.

    被市府要求重建該網站。

  • And it's a massive thing of tens of thousands of pages

    這項大規模任務包含成千上萬頁面,

  • which just wasn't going to be possible

    不可能在他們僅有的

  • in the few months that they had.

    幾個月內完成。

  • So instead, they decided to build a parallel site

    所以,他們決定建立另一個平行網站

  • that better conformed to how citizens actually

    可以更好地符合公民能在網站上

  • want to interact with information on a city website.

    進行資訊交流的目的。

  • They're looking for answers to questions,

    他們在找尋問題的答案,

  • and they want to take action when they're done,

    他們想要在完成時採取行動,

  • which is really hard to do from a site

    這實在很難從這樣一個網站上做到。

  • that looks like this.

    這實在很難從這樣一個網站上做到。

  • So our team built Honolulu Answers,

    所以我們的團隊就建了「檀香山解答」,

  • which is a super-simple search interface

    那是一個超級簡單的搜尋介面,

  • where you enter a search term or a question

    當您輸入關鍵字或一個問題,

  • and get back plain language answers

    會得到語言簡明的答案,

  • that drive a user towards action.

    來驅動使用者採取行動。

  • Now the site itself was easy enough to build,

    網站本身是容易生成的,

  • but the team was faced with the challenge

    但是,團隊面臨的挑戰是

  • of how they populate all of the content.

    他們如何生出所有的內容。

  • It would have taken the three of them

    這將會讓他們三個人

  • a very long time,

    花很長時間,

  • especially given that none of them are actually from Honolulu.

    尤其是他們都不是檀香山當地人。

  • And so they did something that's really radical,

    所以他們做了一件大膽的事,

  • when you think about how government

    當你想到政府是如何運作時,

  • is used to working.

    這件事就很不尋常了。

  • They asked citizens to write the content.

    他們要求公民來寫內容。

  • So you've heard of a hack-a-thon.

    你可能聽過「駭客馬拉松」(Hackathon),

  • They held a write-a-thon,

    而他們舉辦了 「編寫馬拉松」 (Write-a-thon)。

  • where on one Saturday afternoon --

    在一個星期六的下午 --

  • ("What do I do about wild pigs being a nuisance?") (Laughter) —

    (「對於令人討壓的野豬我該怎麼辦?」) (笑聲)--

  • Wild pigs are a huge problem in Honolulu, apparently.

    野豬在檀香山顯然是一個大問題。

  • In one Saturday afternoon,

    在一個星期六的下午,

  • they were able to populate most of the content

    對於大多數的常見問題,

  • for most of the frequently asked questions,

    他們能夠寫出大部分內容。

  • but more importantly than that,

    但比這更重要的是,

  • they created a new way for citizens to participate in their government.

    他們創造了公民 參與政府事務的新途徑。

  • Now, I think this is a really cool story in and of itself,

    現在,我覺得這本身是一個很酷的故事,

  • but it gets more awesome.

    但它其實更令人驚豔。

  • On the National Day of Civic Hacking

    在公民駭客日,

  • this past June in Oakland, where I live,

    今年 6 月在奧克蘭,也就是我住的地方,

  • the Code For America team in Oakland

    奧克蘭的「美國程式碼」團隊

  • took the open source code base of Honolulu Answers

    取用了「檀香山解答」的 開放源代碼,

  • and turned it into Oakland Answers,

    把它轉變成了「奧克蘭解答」,

  • and again we held a write-a-thon

    我們也舉辦了「編寫馬拉松」,

  • where we took the most frequently asked questions

    找出了最常被問到的問題,

  • and had citizens write the answers to them,

    請市民向他們自己寫答案,

  • and I got into the act.

    而我把它納入了法案 。

  • I authored this answer, and a few others.

    我創作這個和其他幾個 「解答」,

  • And I'm trying to this day to articulate

    我試圖讓這一天傳遞出

  • the sense of empowerment and responsibility

    我生活的地方所賦予的

  • that I feel for the place that I live

    權力和責任,

  • based simply on this small act of participation.

    這些都建構在 這種小型活動的參與度上。

  • And by stitching together my small act

    把這些有成千上萬的參與者的

  • with the thousands of other small acts of participation

    小型活動聚合在一起,

  • that we're enabling through civic hacking,

    我們通過公民駭客的方式,

  • we think we can reenergize citizenship

    我們認為我們可以再次喚起公民的身份

  • and restore trust in government.

    和恢復對政府的信任。

  • At this point, you may be wondering

    此時,你可能會想

  • what city officials think of all this.

    市府官員對這個是怎麼想的。

  • They actually love it.

    事實上他們很喜歡。

  • As most of you guys know, cities are being asked

    你們都知道,市府每天一直被要求

  • every day to do more with less,

    用更少的資源做更多的事,

  • and they're always looking for innovative solutions

    他們一直在尋找創新的解決方案

  • to entrenched problems.

    來對付根深蒂固的問題。

  • So when you give citizens a way to participate

    所以,當你給公民一個

  • beyond attending a town hall meeting,

    除了去市政會議之外的參與方式,

  • cities can actually capture

    城市實際上可以

  • the capacity in their communities

    從社區中獲得他們的能力,

  • to do the business of government.

    來做政府的事情。

  • Now I don't want to leave the impression

    現在我不想留下

  • that civic hacking is just an American phenomenon.

    公民駭客只發生在美國的印象。

  • It's happening across the globe,

    這些正在全球發生。

  • and one of my favorite examples

    我最喜歡的一個例子

  • is from Mexico City, where earlier this year,

    是在今年早些時候,在墨西哥城,

  • the Mexico House of Representatives

    墨西哥的眾議院

  • entered into a contract with a software development firm

    與一個軟體公司簽訂合約,

  • to build an app that legislators would use

    來建立一個讓議員追蹤草案

  • to track bills.

    的應用程式。

  • So this was just for the handful of legislators

    這只是給在議院裡面

  • in the House.

    少數幾個議員使用的。

  • And the contract was a two-year contract

    這合約為期兩年,

  • for 9.3 million dollars.

    總共要 930 萬美金。

  • Now a lot of people were really angry about this,

    現在很多人都對這一點感到很生氣,

  • especially geeks who knew that 9.3 million dollars

    特別是那些電腦玩家們, 他們知道 930 萬美金

  • was an absolutely outrageous amount of money

    對於一個非常簡單的應用程式而言,

  • for what was a very simple app.

    是絕對令人憤慨的金額。

  • But instead of taking to the streets,

    但他們沒有走上街頭抗議,

  • they issued a challenge.

    而是發出了挑戰狀。

  • They asked programmers in Mexico

    他們要求在墨西哥的程式設計師

  • to build something better and cheaper,

    設計出更好和更便宜的應用程式,

  • and they offered a prize of 9,300 dollars --

    他們提供 9,300 美元的獎金。

  • 10,000 times cheaper

    這比政府的合約 (「除了憤怒地發推特, 我們可以一起在週六晚上, 喝著龍舌蘭酒建立這個世界。」)

  • than the government contract,

    便宜一萬倍, (「除了憤怒地發推特, 我們可以一起在週六晚上, 喝著龍舌蘭酒建立這個世界。」)

  • and they gave the entrants 10 days.

    他們給予參賽者 10 天。 (「除了憤怒地發推特,我們可以一起在週六晚上, 喝著龍舌蘭酒建立這個世界。」)

  • And in those 10 days,

    在這十天裡, (「除了憤怒地發推特, 我們可以一起在週六晚上, 喝著龍舌蘭酒建立這個世界。」)

  • they submitted 173 apps,

    他們提交了 173 份的應用程式,

  • five of which were presented to Congress

    其中五個被提交到國會,

  • and are still in the app store today.

    而且現在仍在 app store 找得到。

  • And because of this action,

    因為這一行動,

  • that contract was vacated,

    該合約被替換掉了,

  • and now this has sparked a movement in Mexico City

    現在這在墨西哥城引發了一場運動,

  • which is home to one of our partners,

    成為了我們夥伴之一:

  • Code for Mexico City.

    「墨西哥城程式碼」。

  • And so what you see in all three of these places,

    所以你在這三個地方所看到的,

  • in Honolulu and in Oakland and in Mexico City,

    在檀香山、奧克蘭和墨西哥城,

  • are the elements that are at the core of civic hacking.

    都是公民駭客的核心要素。

  • It's citizens who saw things that could be working better

    公民看到一些事情本可以做的更好,

  • and they decided to fix them,

    他們就決定要起身行動,

  • and through that work, they're creating

    並通過這項工作,他們正在創建

  • a 21st-century ecosystem of participation.

    21 世紀公民參與的生態系統。

  • They're creating a whole new set of ways

    他們要創建一套全新的方法,

  • for citizens to be involved,

    除了投票、簽署請願書或抗議以外,

  • besides voting or signing a petition or protesting.

    讓公民能參與其中。

  • They can actually build government.

    實際上,他們可以建立一個政府。

  • So back to our friend Ben Franklin,

    所以說回我們的朋友班傑明·富蘭克林,

  • who, one of his lesser-known accomplishments

    他鮮為人知的一個成就

  • was that in 1736 he founded

    是在 1736 年創立了

  • the first volunteer firefighting company in Philadelphia,

    在費城的第一間志願消防公司。

  • called a brigade.

    被稱作一個 「旅團」。

  • And it's because he and his friends noticed

    這是因為他和他的朋友們注意到

  • that the city was having trouble keeping up

    在處理城市裡不斷發生的火災時,

  • with all the fires that were happening in the city,

    市府遇到了麻煩。

  • so in true civic hacker fashion,

    所以在真正跟上潮流的公民駭客中,

  • they built a solution.

    他們立了一個解決方案。

  • And we have our own brigades at Code for America

    我們在「美國程式碼」中有自己的旅團,

  • working on the projects that I've just described,

    來處理我剛才所描述的工作,

  • and we want to ask you

    我們想要邀請你們

  • to follow in Ben Franklin's footsteps

    一起跟隨班傑明·富蘭克林的腳步,

  • and come join us.

    並加入我們。

  • We have 31 brigades in the U.S.

    我們在美國有 31 個旅團。

  • We are pleased to announce today

    我們今天很高興地宣佈,

  • that we're opening up the brigade to international cities

    我們頭一次要向國際的城市

  • for the first time,

    開放旅團,

  • starting with cities in Poland and Japan and Ireland.

    從波蘭、日本和愛爾蘭的城市開始。

  • You can find out if there's a brigade where you live

    你可以透過 brigade.codeforamerica.org

  • at brigade.codeforamerica.org,

    找到你居住的城市是否有旅團,

  • and if there's not a brigade where you live, we will help you.

    如果你住的城市沒有旅團, 我們會幫你成立一個。

  • We've created a tool kit which also lives

    我們已經在 brigade.codeforamerica.org

  • at brigade.codeforamerica.org,

    建造了一個工具組,

  • and we will support you along the way.

    我們會一路上支援你。

  • Our goal is to create a global network of civic hackers

    我們的目標是創建 一個全球公民駭客的聯絡網。

  • who are innovating on the existing system

    大家在現有的系統上創新,

  • in order to build tools that will solve

    做出能解決

  • entrenched problems,

    根深蒂固問題的工具,

  • that will support local government,

    這能夠支援地方政府,

  • and that will empower citizens.

    同時提高公民的力量。

  • So please come hack with us.

    所以請來和我們一起駭客吧。

  • Thank you.

    謝謝。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

I'm going to talk about hackers.

我要談一談駭客。

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED 駭客 公民 檀香山 富蘭克林 政府

【TED】凱瑟琳-布拉西。為什麼好的黑客能成為好公民(凱瑟琳-布拉西:為什麼好的黑客能成為好公民)。 (【TED】Catherine Bracy: Why good hackers make good citizens (Catherine Bracy: Why good hackers make good citizens))

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    CUChou 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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