Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

已審核 字幕已審核
  • Almost a year ago, my aunt started suffering back pains.

    一年前,我阿姨開始背痛

  • She went to see the doctor and they told her it was a normal injury

    她去看醫生,醫生告訴他對於一位網球老手來說

  • for someone who had been playing tennis for almost 30 years.

    這是正常的運動傷害

  • They recommended that she do some therapy

    醫生建議她做個手術

  • But after a while she wasn't feeling better, so the doctors decided to do further tests.

    但術後情況沒有好轉,醫生決定做更進一步的檢查

  • They did an x-ray and discovered an injury in her lungs,

    照X光時,發現我阿姨的肺部受傷了

  • and at the time they thought that the injury was a strain in the muscles and tendons between her ribs,

    那時他們認為這個損傷只是肋骨間的肌肉和肌腱過度拉傷

  • but after a few weeks of treatment, again her health wasn't getting any better.

    但療程過了兩三週,她的健康仍然沒有好轉

  • So finally, they decided to do a biopsy, and two weeks later, the results of the biopsy came back.

    最後,醫生決定進行切片檢查法,兩週後,檢驗報告出爐

  • It was stage 3 lung cancer.

    我阿姨得到肺癌第三期

  • Her lifestyle was almost free of risk.

    她的生活非常正常

  • She never smoked a cigarette, she never drank alcohol, and she had been playing sports for almost half her life

    不抽菸、不酗酒,而且她人生有一半的時間都在運動

  • Perhaps, that is why it took them almost six months to get her properly diagnosed.

    或許這就是為什麼醫生要花半年才找得出病因吧

  • My story might be, unfortunately, familiar to most of you.

    我說的故事,或許在座大多數人都有同感

  • One out of three people sitting in this audience will be diagnosed with some type of cancer

    三分之一的人都會得到不同類型的癌症

  • and one out of four will die because of it. Not only did that cancer diagnosis change the life of our family,

    四分之一的人會死於癌症,癌症的診斷結果不只會影響家庭

  • but that process of going back and forth with new tests, different doctors describing symptoms

    來來回回所做的各種檢查、醫生拋出的各種疾病徵狀

  • discarding diseases over and over, was stressful and frustrating, especially for my aunt.

    更讓我阿姨被壓力壓得意志全失

  • And that is the way cancer diagnosis has been done since the beginning of history.

    但這就是治療癌症的唯一方法

  • We have 21st-century medical treatments and drugs to treat cancer,

    我們有21世紀的醫療技術和藥品可以治療癌症

  • but we still have 20th-century procedures and processes for diagnosis, if any.

    但我們的診斷程序仍停留在20世紀

  • Today, most of us have to wait for symptoms to indicate that something is wrong.

    今天,大多數人等到症狀發生後,才知道身體出狀況了

  • Today, the majority of people still don't have access to early cancer detection methods

    今天,即使我們知道提早發現癌症是治療癌症的靈丹妙藥

  • even though we know that catching cancer early is basically the closest thing we have to a silver bullet cure against it.

    大多數人還是沒有機會及早接受癌症早期篩檢

  • We know that we can change this in our lifetime, and that is why my team and I have decided to begin this journey

    我們知道在有限的生命中,可以扭轉結果,所以我和我的團隊決定要著手研究

  • This journey to try to make cancer detection at the early stages

    這項研究主要針對癌症早期篩檢

  • And monitoring the appropriate response at the molecular level

    監控該等級的分子要

  • easier, cheaper, smarter and more accessible than ever before.

    比之前更簡單、更便宜、更可觀,而且更容易獲得

  • The context, of course, is that we're living at a time where technology is disrupting our present at exponential rates

    當然,研究內容不外乎就是科技混亂了

  • and the biological realm is no exception.

    人類生活的指數率和生物界

  • It is said today that biotech is advancing at least six times faster than the growth rate of the processing power of computers.

    聽說現今生物技術的處理能力已經超越電腦六倍了

  • But progress in biotech is not only being accelerated, it is also being democratized.

    生物技術不斷進步的同時,更被社會大眾所接受

  • Just as personal computers or the Internet or smartphones leveled the playing field for entrepreneurship

    就像對有企業家精神的政治或教育來說,個人電腦、網路或智慧型手機就是個公平競爭的地方

  • politics or education, recent advances have leveled it up for biotech progress as well

    現今的進步也提讓生物技術進步了

  • and that is allowing multidisciplinary teams like ours to try to tackle and look at these problems with new approaches.

    而那讓各種不同領域的團隊想要嘗試看看,並找出新的解決辦法

  • We are a team of scientists and

    我們的團隊是由科學家和

  • technologists from Chile, Panama, Mexico, Israel and Greece,

    科學技術人員組成,大家分別從智利、巴拿馬、墨西哥、以色列和希臘等六個國家前來

  • and based on recent scientific discoveries, we believe that we have found a reliable and accurate way of detecting several types of cancer

    以現今科技發現的東西為基礎,我們相信可以找到準確且可依賴的方法,讓我們在早期的血液樣本中

  • at the very early stages through a blood sample.

    發現不同類型的癌症

  • We do it by detecting a set of very small molecules that circulate freely in our blood called microRNAs.

    我們發現一套非常微小的分子可以自然循環血液,它叫做微RNA

  • To explain what microRNAs are and their important role in cancer, I need to start with proteins

    為了向各位解釋微RNA是什麼,這些分子對癌症又有什麼助益,我先從蛋白質談起

  • because when cancer is present in our body, protein modification is observed in all cancerous cells

    我們得到癌症時,所有癌細胞都會讓蛋白質變異

  • As you might know, proteins are large biological molecules that perform different functions within our body

    就你所知,在我們的身體中,蛋白質是個身兼多職的巨大生物分子

  • Like catalyzing metabolic reactions or responding to stimuli or replicating DNA,

    例如:加速新陳代謝、催化反應或複製DNA

  • but before a protein is expressed or produced, relevant parts of its genetic code present in the DNA are copied into the messenger RNA

    但還製造蛋白質前,DNA會把部分相似的基因密碼複製給訊息RNA

  • so this messenger RNA has instructions on how to build a specific protein

    然後訊息RNA會命令完成一個特別的蛋白質

  • and potentially it can build hundreds of proteins,

    而它可以製造出上百個蛋白質

  • but the one that tells them when to build them and how many to build are microRNAs.

    但只有微RNA會指示它們什麼時候製造、該製造多少個蛋白質

  • So microRNAs are small molecules that regulate gene expression.

    所以微RNA是一種管理基因表現的微小分子

  • Unlike DNA, which is mainly fixed, microRNAs can vary depending on internal and environmental conditions at any given time

    不像DNA主要進行修復工程,微RNA在任何時間,都會隨內部及環境情況而改變

  • telling us which genes are actively expressed at that particular moment.

    告訴我們哪個基因會在哪個時間點表現活躍

  • And that is what makes microRNAs such a promising biomarker for cancer

    這就是為什麼微RNA是發現癌症最好生物標誌的原因

  • because as you know, cancer is a disease of altered gene expression.

    因為癌症會改變基因的表現方式

  • It is the uncontrolled regulation of genes.

    它是不受約束的基因

  • Another important thing to consider is that no two cancers are the same, but at the microRNA level, there are patterns.

    另外,每一種癌症的呈現方式都不一樣,但在微RNA中,它們卻是同樣的模式

  • Several scientific studies have shown that abnormal microRNA expression levels varies

    少數科學研究都顯示異常的微RNA表現的程度有所不同

  • and creates a unique, specific pattern for each type of cancer,

    而且為不同型態的癌症創造一個獨特的表現方式

  • even at the early stages, reflecting the progression of the disease,

    甚至在發病初期,影響疾病的進展

  • and whether it's responding to medication or in remission, making microRNAs a perfect, highly sensitive biomarker

    不論是藥物反應或是減輕疼痛,都是微RNA成為高靈敏度生物標誌的原因

  • However, the problem with microRNAs is that we cannot use existing DNA-based technology to detect them in a reliable way,

    然而,微RNA的問題就是我們無法用現存的DNA科技來觀察它們

  • because they are very short sequences of nucleotides, much smaller than DNA.

    因為它們缺少一系列的核甘酸,比DNA還小

  • And also, all microRNAs are very similar to each other, with just tiny differences.

    而且所有微RNA都非常相似,只有一小點差異

  • So imagine trying to differentiate two molecules, extremely similar, extremely small.

    所以想像試著要區別兩種極度相似、極度微小的分子

  • We believe that we have found a way to do so, and this is the first time that we've shown it in public.

    我們相信會找出方法,而今天是第一次公開讓大家知道

  • Let me do a demonstration.

    我現在來示範一下

  • Imagine that next time you go to your doctor and do your next standard blood test

    想像下次你去看醫生,醫生幫你抽血時

  • a lab technician extracts a total RNA, which is quite simple today, and puts it in a standard 96-well plate like this one.

    一個非常普遍的儀器會採集RNA,並把RNA放進standard 96-well plate,就像我手上拿的這個一樣

  • Each well of these plates has specific biochemistry that we assign,

    每一個薄板上都有生物化學成分

  • that is looking for a specific microRNA, acting like a trap that closes only when the microRNA is present in the sample,

    那是為了找到特定的微RNA,它就像陷阱一樣,微RNA一出現,這種物化學就關上大門

  • and when it does, it will shine with green color.

    它一關上大門,就會閃綠光

  • To run the reaction, you put the plate inside a device like this one, and then you can put your smartphone on top of it.

    為了要進行反應,你要把薄板放進這個裝置,然後把智慧型手機放在上面

  • If we can have a camera here so you can see my screen.

    如果有照相機,你就可以看到我的螢幕

  • A smartphone is a connected computer and it's also a camera, good enough for our purpose.

    我的智慧型手機已經連上電腦,它現在也是一個照相機了,非常好

  • The smartphone is taking pictures, and when the reaction is over, it will send the pictures to our online database for processing and interpretation.

    手機開始照相了,反應結束時,它會寄圖片到線上數據庫,完成步驟並解釋數據

  • This entire process lasts around 60 minutes, but when the process is over,

    這個步驟會持續大約60秒,但步驟結束時,

  • wells that shine are matched with the specific microRNAs and analyzed in terms of how much and how fast they shine.

    閃爍的綠光和特定的微RNA相符後,開始分析多快會閃爍一次綠光

  • And then, when this entire process is over, this is what happens.

    接著,整個過程結束後,重頭戲就來了

  • This chart is showing the specific microRNAs present in this sample and how they reacted over time.

    這個圖表顯示了微RNA在這個樣本中的呈現方式,還有在這段時間內,他們如何反應

  • Then, if we take this specific pattern of microRNA of this person's samples

    如果我們從樣本中移除這個特定的微RNA

  • and compare it with existing scientific documentation that correlates microRNA patterns with a specific presence of a disease,

    比較現有的科學文獻,確實和某種疾病的特定微RNA相符

  • this is how pancreatic cancer looks like. This inside is a real sample where we just detected pancreatic cancer.

    這是胰臟癌的呈現方式,而儀器內是我們發現的胰臟癌樣本

  • (Applause)

    (鼓掌)

  • Another important aspect of this approach is the gathering and mining of data in the cloud,

    另外,在雲端收集和採集數據也很重要

  • so we can get results in real time and analyze them with our contextual information

    我們可確實可以得到結果,並用文字資訊分析它們

  • If we want to better understand and decode diseases like cancer, we need to stop treating them as acute, isolated episodes,

    如果我們想要更進一步了解並譯解疾病,像是癌症,我們就不能把它們看成是唯一的插曲

  • and consider and measure everything that affects our health on a permanent basis.

    要考慮並衡量每一個會影響人體健康的準則

  • This entire platform is a working prototype. It uses state-of-the-art molecular biology,

    這個平台是實驗的典範,它運用最先進的分子生物學、

  • a low-cost, 3D-printed device, and data science to try to tackle one of humanity's toughest challenges.

    一台廉價的3D列印機及數據科學來應付人類最困難的挑戰

  • Since we believe early cancer detection should really be democratized,

    我們相信癌症早療應該要大眾化

  • this entire solution costs at least 50 times less than current available methods,

    我們進行這項技術不到50次就成功了,比現有可用的方法還好

  • and we know that the community can help us accelerate this even more, so we're making the design of the device open-source.

    而且我們知道社會大眾為幫我們提倡癌症早療,所以這個儀器,我們提供共享資源的服務

  • (Applause)

    (鼓掌)

  • Let me say very clearly that we are at the very early stages,

    我很清楚地表明,我們仍在實驗初期

  • but so far, we have been able to successfully identify the microRNA pattern of pancreatic cancer

    但目前為止,我們很成功地證明出胰臟癌、

  • lung cancer, breast cancer and hepatic cancer.

    肺癌、乳癌及肝癌的微RNA樣貌

  • And currently, we're doing a clinical trial in collaboration with the German Cancer Research Center with 200 women for breast cancer.

    現在,我們和德國癌症研究中心一起合作,為200位乳癌患者進行臨床試驗

  • (Applause)

    (鼓掌)

  • This is the single non-invasive, accurate and affordable test that has the potential

    這是唯一非侵入性、精確卻又負擔起的試驗

  • to dramatically change how cancer procedures and diagnostics have been done.

    它可以改變癌症過去的診斷方法及手續

  • Since we're looking for the microRNA patterns in your blood at any given time,

    因為我們隨時都在找與你的血液相符的微RNA

  • you don't need to know which cancer you're looking for.

    你不需要知道你在找哪一種癌症

  • You don't need to have any symptoms. You only need one milliliter of blood and a relatively simple array of tools.

    你也不需要有任何症狀,唯一需要的就是1毫升的血液和一系列相關的工具

  • Today, cancer detection happens mainly when symptoms appear.

    今天,我們通常發現癌症是因為有症狀發生

  • That is, at stage 3 or 4, and I believe that is too late.

    而那都已經是癌症末期了,我相信那為時已晚

  • It is too expensive for our families. It is too expensive for humanity.

    我們的家人要花一大筆錢來治療、人類要花一大筆錢來治療

  • We cannot lose the war against cancer.

    我們不能這樣就被癌症打敗

  • It not only costs us billions of dollars, but it also costs us the people we love.

    我們要花十億元治療癌症,但同時也消費了我們最愛的人

  • Today, my aunt, she's fighting bravely and going through this process with a very positive attitude.

    今天,我的阿姨勇敢地打擊癌症,目前病情已經好轉

  • However, I want fights like this to become very rare.

    然而,我還是希望用這種方式打擊癌症的人越少越好

  • I want to see the day when cancer is treated easily because it can be routinely diagnosed at the very early stages,

    我希望將來有一天,醫治癌症是件容易的事,因為病人都能在發病初期診斷出來

  • and I'm certain that in the very near future, because of this and other breakthroughs that we are seeing every day in the life sciences,

    而且我確信在未來,這些每天都看得到的科技會越來越發達

  • the way we see cancer will radically change.

    如此一來,我們就能用不同的角度來看待癌症

  • It will give us the chance of detecting it early, understanding it better, and finding a cure.

    我們有機會在發病初期監測癌症的發展,掌握它,並找到治療方法

  • Thank you very much.

    謝謝大家

Almost a year ago, my aunt started suffering back pains.

一年前,我阿姨開始背痛

字幕與單字
已審核 字幕已審核

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 TED 癌症 蛋白質 分子 治療 阿姨

【TED】癌症早療的未來 Jorge Soto: The future of early cancer detection

  • 5700 515
    Go Tutor 發佈於 2014 年 11 月 13 日
影片單字