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  • This is the MV Rubymar, a British-owned cargo ship.

  • It was struck by a missile on February 18, 2024

  • and it sank in the Red Sea.

  • The missile came from Yemen, from  a group known as the Houthis.

  • It was one of dozens of attacks theyve carried out on ships in the area since November 2023.

  • The Houthis control much of Yemen,

  • which has been in a civil war for more than nine years.

  • The war has caused one of the  world’s worst humanitarian crises.

  • More than 350,000 people there have  been killed

  • by either violencefamine, or a lack of medical services.

  • The Houthis say they are attacking ships in the Red Sea that do business with Israel,

  • in protest of Israel’s war in Gaza,

  • in solidarity with Palestinians,

  • and to put pressure on the  players involved in the war.

  • But there’s also another story behind the Houthisattacks on these ships:

  • the story of who controls Yemen.

  • For centuries, the most populated area of Yemen was mainly ruled by religious Zaydis, a Shia muslim sect.

  • In the 1960s, a military  revolution overthrew the Zaydis.

  • The region they once ruled became  a republic known as North Yemen.

  • The first leaders of North Yemen  were either deposed or assassinated.

  • But by the late 1970s, a colonel  who had been part of the revolution,

  • Ali Abdullah Saleh, became its president.

  • Saleh was Zaydi.

  • But he wasn’t politically aligned  with the Zaydiscause,

  • and often marginalized them.

  • In 1990, Saleh united the country with South Yemen.

  • And as the new government formed, a Yemeni politician named Hussein Al-Houthi

  • started a new Zaydi movement in Saada province, where many of Yemen’s Zaydis were.

  • Most of the country was Sunni-dominated.

  • Al-Houthi and his followers  were strong critics of Saleh.

  • And they were against Sunni Saudi Arabia’s rising religious and financial influence in the region.

  • They were a very small militia, not more than a few thousands of soldiers

  • started from an ideological belief that they have to govern Yemen.

  • And as Saleh cooperated with  the US in its war on terror,

  • They became more militarized  and more hostile to him.

  • In 2004, Saleh’s forces attempted to arrest  Al-Houthi, sparking clashes between their forces.

  • Later that year, Saleh’s army killed al-Houthi.

  • But this only made his movement stronger.

  • The new leadership and their followers became known as the Houthis.

  • Over the next few years, the Houthis  continued to clash with the government.

  • Some reports say that around this timethey also began cooperating with Iran, a Shia majority country.

  • Then, in January 2011, protests began  to spread across the Arab world.

  • Yemenis were struggling from  repression, poverty, and corruption.

  • Protesters in Yemen called for Saleh’s resignation

  • and demanded inclusion in the  country’s political process.

  • And soon, there were also militant attacks across  Yemen, by various factions that wanted Saleh out.

  • Eventually, Saleh stepped down.

  • He was replaced by a Saudi-backed  transitional government

  • led by interim President Abd-Rabbu Mansour Hadi,

  • who began a national dialogue  to form Yemen’s new government.

  • The Houthis initially  participated in the dialogue,

  • but after disagreeing over  the new governance system,

  • which they thought marginalized  their influence, they left in 2014.

  • And later that year, amid a new wave of protests over fuel prices,

  • Hadi’s national dialogue fell apart completely.

  • The Houthis saw an opportunity.

  • The president’s residence came under attack...”

  • “...presidential palace has fallen...”

  • The Houthis have in fact taken control of some parts of the capital.”

  • Our demands are to get rid of this corrupt government.”

  • The Houthis formed an alliance with their former enemy, Saleh.

  • In order to expand their governance, deepen their control in Yemen

  • and understand, how the system worksbut also play the system.

  • And in September 2014 they seized  control of the capital, Sana’a.

  • Because of the transition, Yemen had no army to defend itself.

  • So the Houthis basically walked into the position that they are in today.

  • Then, they extended their control  to Hodeidah, a key port city,

  • giving Houthis access to the Red Sea.

  • Hadi fled further south, as the Houthis followed, and eventually escaped to Saudi Arabia in March 2015...

  • leaving Yemen without a legitimate government

  • and bringing Saudi Arabia into the civil war.

  • A Saudi coalition led a bombing  campaign against Houthi-controlled areas

  • and eventually imposednaval blockade around Yemen

  • aimed at restricting the flow of  weapons from Iran to the Houthis.

  • But the Houthis were still able to  maintain the territory they had taken over.

  • Through that chaos, they were able to expand. The Houthis are expansionist by their own nature.

  • The more that Saudi Arabia intervenedthe more that there was chaos in Yemen,

  • the more that they would see or put  themselves as the legitimate actors

  • and the defenders of Yemeni sovereignty against the foreign invasion.

  • In the new territories that they controlledwhich included many non-Zaydis and non-followers,

  • the Houthisrule was brutal.

  • The Saudisintervention in Yemen has created a devastating humanitarian crisis,

  • and the same with the Houthis.

  • They've also createdhumanitarian crisis

  • with their governance system, which is absent,

  • through terrorizing the local population, basically.

  • Human rights organizations accuse  both the Saudi-led coalition,

  • and the Houthis, of war crimes,

  • like airstrikes, landmine attacksand forced disappearances of opponents.

  • Women as well have been imprisoned

  • women in particular who have any kind of advocacy against the Houthis.

  • So their governance is more brutish.

  • In that respect, they're similar really to the Taliban.

  • In 2017, amid tension between Saleh and the Houthis about who would wield power,

  • the Houthis killed him.

  • By 2020, after hundreds of thousands of deaths,

  • the Saudi-led coalition started to pull back on airstrikes and some of the blockade.

  • UN-brokered ceasefire talks between the Houthis and Saudis began in April 2022.

  • Initially, it started with a halt in fighting.

  • But the most recent deal, in December 2023,

  • aims to ease restrictions to the Sanaa airport and Hodeidah port

  • and open up Yemen more economically.

  • But there was little mention of accountability for the harm done to Yemenis.

  • And it was still unclear how  Yemen will actually be governed.

  • Many Yemenis felt that any type of agreement between the Saudis and the Houthis

  • are somewhat counterproductivebecause it's all about Saudi security rather than Yemeni security.

  • And I think that wasconcern for many Yemenis who are not on the side of the Houthis

  • and do not want to see them have absolute control in the country.

  • As of this video, the Houthis control territory  containing over 70% of the Yemeni population.

  • At the same time, they lack  international recognition or legitimacy.

  • And aside from their own followers

  • inside Yemen they also lack legitimacy,

  • among a Yemeni population  ravaged by years of crisis.

  • What the Houthis aim to achieve is to legitimize themselves, to broaden their support.

  • By framing their actions within  the context of supporting Palestine,

  • they want their operations to appeal to the Arab sentiment and wider Muslim sentiment.

  • So the more that they focus on Palestine, on the conflict with Israel, on the humanitarian crisis there,

  • the more that it distracts from local issues of Yemeni conflict

  • or the governance failures that they're experiencing.

  • The Red Sea attacks have causedmajor international trade disruption

  • And now, a US-UK led coalition is targeting Houthi-controlled areas in Yemen in retaliation,

  • making the situation for Yemenis even worse.

  • But there’s evidence that the Houthisstrategy may be working.

  • Across Yemen, at massive protests in support of the Palestinians,

  • Yemenis are also showing support for  the Houthisattacks in the Red Sea

  • and even for Houthi leaders.

  • It suggests that, even though the Red  Sea attacks aren’t actually evidence

  • of the Houthis doing anything  to improve Yemen’s catastrophe,

  • they may be a way for the Houthis  to strengthen their hold on power.

This is the MV Rubymar, a British-owned cargo ship.

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What the Red Sea ship attacks are really about

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    VoiceTube staff 發佈於 2024 年 03 月 26 日
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