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  • Anyone who's going to spend the time and effort to learn a language

  • should understand how the process works and there is no better

  • explainer than Stephen krashen.

  • Hi there, Steve Kaufmann here today.

  • Today, I'm going to talk about Stephen Krashen and the theory

  • of language acquisition.

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  • I appreciate it.

  • So, uh, I mentioned Steven Krashen in one of my previous videos, and I said that

  • he has put out a book, a thin book, uh, which really, he says all there is that

  • we need to know about language acquisition and someone asked, what is the book?

  • Well, actually there are quite a few books and I would recommend that people Google

  • for Stephen Krashen go to his website and you'll find all kinds of free material.

  • And I think it's important for people who are interested to learn a language,

  • interested in language learning, that they understand how the process works and the

  • best explainer of how we learn languages in my opinion, by far, is Stephen Krashen.

  • And, uh, so I was gonna, I thought I would do one or several videos

  • where I walk through some of his explanations about language learning.

  • So this is a book that I got in Taipei when I was there

  • I don't know, 15 years ago.

  • And he was presenting there and I didn't know him, but I listened to him and

  • it was kind of like a Eureka moment.

  • And I bought this book.

  • So let's just start here and it's not like I'm reading from the Bible, but almost.

  • So the principles of language acquisition.

  • First of all the following five hypotheses, you know, explanations of

  • how we learn are the core of current theory on language acquisition.

  • First of all, the acquisition learning hypothesis claims that

  • we have two independent ways of developing language ability.

  • One is language acquisition as a subconscious process and the

  • second one is a deliberate effort, the way we learn in school.

  • And his point is that we learn primarily naturally in a, as a subconscious process

  • and that the rules and the grammar that we learn at school don't help us very much.

  • The second hypothesis is the natural order hypothesis, which states that there is

  • a natural or.der with which we're going to acquire the elements of a language.

  • And there's a natural order, uh, for acquiring certain elements of grammar.

  • And it doesn't necessarily relate to how simple or complex those

  • particular grammar issues are.

  • And he uses the example of the sort of progressive form in English.

  • The "...ing" I'm going, learning, doing versus the third person singular,

  • which takes an "s" as we know.

  • Takes an "s" takes an "s".

  • So even though the idea that the third person singular in the present tense takes

  • an "s" is a very simple concept, it takes a long time for most language learners,

  • people learning English to acquire.

  • Whereas the "...ing" form, that continuous or the progressive

  • form, is acquired very early.

  • And studies have shown that a number of issues in grammar in different languages

  • seem to be acquired in the same order and it doesn't really matter how much

  • effort is put into teaching these.

  • It's not because something is taught that we acquire it

  • because there is a natural order.

  • And so the natural order is not based on simplicity or complexity,

  • it's immune to deliberate teaching.

  • And so the, and the correlary in a way is that, you know, the natural

  • order is not the teaching order.

  • So you may still teach different things, but it's going to be acquired

  • according to this natural order.

  • The third element of his language acquisition theory is

  • the monitor hypothesis and the conscious sort of teaching of the

  • language creates in us a monitor.

  • Here are the correct rules.

  • Here is how the language is spoken, but he makes the point that the

  • monitor, our knowledge of grammar can make only a very small contribution

  • to language acquisition, because there are so many rules of grammar.

  • And so few people who know all the rules.

  • The idea that the learner will know the rule when he or she needs to

  • use it, will remember the rule.

  • If the learner spends their time and effort on thinking about the

  • rule and I"'m about to say this now, let's think about the rule.

  • Is this correct?"

  • They won't be able to speak because it's just simply too

  • difficult to do while speaking.

  • So the monitor, if anything, can actually inhibit speaking.

  • So the monitor, uh, as a means of, you know, improving our knowledge

  • of a language is not very effective.

  • Okay.

  • The next thing is the input or comprehension hypothesis.

  • We, we learn languages when we understand the message, when we're

  • interested in a message and we understand the message comprehensible

  • input is the only thing that works says Krashen in language acquisition.

  • We have tried grammar rules.

  • We have tried repetition drills and the input hypothesis, uh, claims,

  • however, that comprehending messages is the only way language is acquired.

  • There is no individual variation in the fundamental process

  • of language acquisition.

  • And then he goes on to explain that we acquire language to input

  • when we already have enough things that we have already acquired.

  • So that I plus one, we, we acquired that next thing that we could learn.

  • We can learn once we have acquired sort of the previous things.

  • And so we learned from context.

  • And therefore the teaching method has to be focused on giving

  • learners comprehensible input.

  • Now a corollary of the, uh, input hypothesis is that

  • talking is not practicing.

  • In other words, you can't output your way to language acquisition.

  • It is the input that's going to give you the language acquisition.

  • If you get enough input, then you will have that situation, sort of N+1,

  • because we'll be getting so much input that there will be elements there that

  • you are already familiar with that will enable you then to learn some

  • additional elements with enough input.

  • Now, immediately, people are going to say, well, when you first start,

  • you don't understand anything.

  • And so Krashen in this book explains how in a classroom, this sort

  • of total physical response TPR.

  • It's a method in the classroom where the teacher can simplify the language

  • content, can use gestures, can use pictures, can use a whole range of

  • things to help the learner start to get a toehold in the language, create

  • that N or he refers to it as I, so that incrementally additional things can

  • then be added to what is understood.

  • I happen to believe, with a system like LingQ, and people are going to

  • criticize me, but the idea that we can create that same sheltered environment,

  • even for people who are not in a classroom, uh, using say the mini stories

  • where there's a lot of repetition of vocabulary, you can look words up, you

  • can listen again, you can read again.

  • Somewhere, you have to get a start in the language.

  • You have to get a start.

  • Initially, nothing is comprehensible.

  • You have to start to acquire little bits and pieces so that you can then

  • build on that with additional things that start to become comprehensible.

  • And so the complexity of what you're listening to, it gets greater and greater

  • as you're able to expand into new domains.

  • I think I'll stop it there.

  • He has a lot of research to back up what he said.

  • But I, I just think it's it's well worthwhile anyone who's going to spend

  • the time and effort to learn a language should understand how the process works.

  • And there is no better explainer than Stephen Krashen.

  • So whether it be this particular book or whether you simply go to

  • his website and download all of the free material that's there, I'll

  • leave a link in the description box, I very much suggest you do it.

  • And, uh, I think armed with this sense of how we learn, like, even

  • if we think we're not progressing, it's obvious from what Krashen writes

  • based on all of his research and experience, as long as we continue to

  • expose ourselves to the language, we will continue to gradually improve.

  • Okay.

  • I thought I'd just bring you up to date on, on where you can get some

  • more information about Stephen Krashen, because there were questions about that.

  • Thank you.

Anyone who's going to spend the time and effort to learn a language

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Stephen Krashen與語言習得(Stephen Krashen and Language Acquisition)

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    李岳唐 發佈於 2023 年 01 月 25 日
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