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字幕列表 影片播放

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  • I watch a lot of movies and TV

    我看很多電影和電視

  • on the train, at home, at the movies, while working out, while doing dishes, in the bath...

    在火車上看、在家、在電影院、健身、洗碗的時候,甚至連泡澡也在看。

  • But no matter where I'm watching,

    但無論我在哪看,

  • I find myself constantly doing this one thing.

    我發現自己都會做這件事。

  • What?

    啥?

  • It turns out this isn't unusual.

    但其實這情況並不罕見。

  • We polled our YouTube audience and about 57% of people said that

    我們對 YouTube 觀眾進行了調查,大約 57% 的人表示,

  • they feel like they can't understand the dialogue in the things that they watch unless they're using subtitles.

    他們覺得不開字幕的話,無法理解影片對話。

  • But it feels like this hasn't always been the case.

    但感覺這情況並非一直如此。

  • So, to figure out what was going on, I made a call.

    所以,為弄清楚其中緣由,我打了通電話。

  • Hi, my name is Austin Olivia Kendrick.

    嗨,我叫 Austin Olivia Kendrick。

  • I am a professional dialogue editor for film and TV.

    我是電影及電視劇的專業對白編輯。

  • I basically perform audio surgery on actors words.

    我基本上就是影片對白的外科醫生。

  • Do you watch with subtitles?

    你看影片開字幕嗎?

  • I– I do, actually.

    我…我會開,其實。

  • I do, a lot of the time.

    很常開。

  • So... Why are you think that we all feel like we need subtitles now?

    那你覺得為什麼大家現在都需要開字幕?

  • I get asked this question all the time.

    我很常被問到這個問題。

  • All the time.

    超常。

  • It's something that is...

    這個問題…

  • It doesn't have a simple, straightforward answer.

    沒辦法用單一答案解釋。

  • It's very layered and very complex.

    這牽涉很多層面,非常複雜。

  • And after talking to Austin for almost 2 hours, it's true.

    在跟 Austin 談了兩小時後,她沒有騙人。

  • It's a very layered and complex topic.

    這真的是個牽涉很多層面,非常複雜的問題。

  • But everything kept pointing back to one main thing.

    但一切似乎都指向一件事。

  • Technology that got us from this...

    科技讓我們從這樣…

  • –I'll get you, my pretty. –You should be kissed and often.

    - 我會抓到你的,小可愛。 - 你應該經常被親吻。

  • -No, Richard, no. What has happened...

    - 不,理查德,發生了什麼事了…

  • To this.

    到這樣。

  • -Mom, I just woke up.

    - 媽,我才剛起床。

  • ...little slim-waisted birdy...

    …一隻纖腰小雀鳥…

  • Let's start with microphones.

    先從麥克風說起。

  • I'm going to use this clip from "Singin' in the Rain" to show how mics used to work.

    我會用這段《萬花嬉春》中的片段來解說麥克風以前怎麼運作的。

  • Here's the mic, you talk towards it.

    這是麥克風,你朝著它說話。

  • The sound goes through the cable to the box.

    聲音會透過電纜線傳到箱子那。

  • A man records it on a big record in wax.

    會有一個人把它錄在一張大蠟盤上。

  • This scene illustrates some of the difficulties and intricacies early sound recordings.

    這個片段說明了早期錄音的一些困難和複雜之處。

  • Mics were big, bulky, temperamental, and required creative solutions to be hidden.

    過去,麥克風又大又笨重、收音不穩,且需要發揮創意才能隱藏起來。

  • They were wired and recorded onto hard memory

    以前的麥克風有線,而且是錄在硬盤上。

  • like wax and eventually tape.

    像是蠟筒唱片和後來的錄音磁帶。

  • No matter how many actors were in a scene, all sound got recorded to one track.

    無論一個場景中有多少演員,所有的聲音都被記錄在同一個聲軌上。

  • So performers had to be diligently focused and facing a certain angle so that their words could be picked up.

    因此,演員必須集中注意力,面向特定角度,以便收音。

  • Otherwise...

    不然…

  • You couldn't hear a thing.

    什麼都收不到。

  • But technology's improved to the point where microphones don't impede performance as much anymore.

    但隨著科技進步,麥克風已不會再那麼妨礙演出了。

  • They become better, smaller, wireless...

    它們變得性能更好、更小,而且還無線…

  • and we use more of them to ensure that performances get captured.

    加上人們會增加麥克風數量來確保收音。

  • What we typically are working with from production dialogue is 2 boom microphones

    通常在錄製對話時,我們會使用兩支吊桿麥克風,

  • and then every actor has at least one lavaliere microphone hidden somewhere on them.

    然後每個演員至少還會別一個領夾式麥克風藏在身上某個地方。

  • These shrinking mics have given actors the flexibility to be more naturalistic in their performances.

    縮小的麥克風能保證演員靈活度,幫助他們表演地更自然。

  • They no longer need to project so that their words reach the mic.

    他們不再需要強調發聲來確保收音清晰。

  • They can speak softly, knowing that the tiny mic hidden on their body will pick up what they're saying.

    演員們可以輕聲說話,因為他們知道隱藏在身上的微型麥克風能收到他們所說的話。

  • And my personal favorite example of this performance shift is Alec Baldwin on 30 Rock.

    關於這個轉變,我個人最喜歡的例子是《超級製作人》中演員傑克·唐納吉的表演。

  • In a 2011 speech slash roast,

    在 2011 年一場演說中,

  • Tina Fey says that "He speaks so quietly that she can't hear him when she's standing next to him."

    蒂娜·費說:「他說話聲音小到,我站在他旁邊都聽不到。」

  • "And then you play the film back and it's there somehow."

    「但回放片段的時候,他的聲音卻又莫名其妙的出現在那。」

  • Just listen to this whisper off between him and Will Arnett.

    聽聽他和威爾·阿奈特的這段竊竊私語。

  • I'm not afraid of you.

    我不怕你。

  • Yeah. Well, you should be.

    是嗎?你該怕的。

  • Let's just see how it all shakes out in the meeting.

    我們就等著看會議上會怎樣吧。

  • Naturalism isn't always the best for intelligibility, though.

    自然的表演有時對台詞理解並沒有幫助。

  • Take Tom Hardy, an actor that I personally love but who famously is a mumbler.

    以湯姆·哈迪為例,我很喜歡這個演員,但他出了名的講話含糊不清。

  • I mean... the mic picked that line up fine.

    我是說…麥克風是有收到音。

  • Like, we can definitely hear that he's talking, he's saying something.

    能聽到他肯定是講了什麼。

  • But once that mumble gets recorded, it's on to a dialog editor's shoulder to make it as intelligible as possible.

    一旦那個咕噥聲被記錄下來,責任就落在了對白編輯肩上,他們得盡可能讓對話易於理解。

  • And that was a lot harder when everything was analog.

    而這在以前使用類比式錄音設備時顯得特別困難。

  • While you could pick the best takes and physically splice them together,

    雖然可以選最好的片段並將它們拼接在一起,

  • if some piece of dialog was truly impossible to understand

    但如果某些對話真的難以理解,

  • then actors will come in and rerecord those specific lines

    那麼演員就得重新錄製這些台詞。

  • in a process called ADR, or Automated Dialog Replacement,

    這個過程稱作「同步對白錄音(ADR)」

  • which you can see Meryl Streep do in this scene from "Postcards from the Edge".

    可以看到畫面中,梅莉·史翠普正在為電影《來自邊緣的明信片》進行同步對白錄音。

  • There isn't enough money in the world to further cause like yours.

    想拓展這般事業,再多的錢都不夠。

  • That still gets done today, but..

    直至今日,人們仍然會這麼做,但…

  • ADR also costs money because you're not only paying for the actors time you're paying for the engineer's time

    ADR 需要花錢,不僅演員的時間要錢,工程師的時間也要錢,

  • and then the editor's time.

    也得多付編輯錢。

  • So we try to do ADR, frankly, as little as possible.

    所以,坦白說,我們會盡可能避免進行 ADR。

  • And so a lot of her job is making words sound better.

    所以很多時候,她的工作是要讓對白聽起來效果更好。

  • The show I'm currently working on,

    我現在正在編輯的這檔秀,

  • I remember in the middle of this one word

    我記得在一個字的正中間,

  • there was just this loud metal clang that I couldn't remove.

    有個響亮的金屬碰撞聲,我怎樣都無法消除。

  • So I had to go in and I had to find an alternate take of it that fit and then I had to fit it...

    所以我不得不找別的合適的替代片段,把它擠進去,

  • to the movement of her mouth in that moment and then push it in.

    然後還得配合當下女演員的口型,補齊那段音軌。

  • And once she's done with it it's sent off to a mixer,

    一旦她完成這些步驟,音檔就會被送到混音師那,

  • who works to make sure the frequencies of the sound effects and music don't overlap with the frequencies of the human voice,

    混音師會確保音效和音樂的頻率不會與人聲重疊,

  • something that's only possible now that the world has moved away from tape and into digital recordings.

    這是現在我們已經從磁帶錄音轉為數位錄音才有可能做到的。

  • That is a big challenge.

    這很困難。

  • Carving out those frequencies, that space...

    裁切出那些頻率,

  • amongst every other element of the mix for the dialogue to be able to punch through

    音檔中每個元件之間的空間,以便對話能從中穿透,

  • and not be all muddied up by any other sounds that exist in that band of frequencies.

    而不會跟該斷音檔中其他聲音混在一起。

  • But even with all that work, lines of dialog can still be hard to understand.

    但即使做了這些工作,對話仍然可能難以理解。

  • The kind of feeling has been if you want your movie to feel quote unquote cinematic

    這樣說好了,如果你想讓影片有「電影感」

  • you have to have wall-to-wall bombastic, loud sound.

    就必須讓它充滿誇張、響亮的音效。

  • A lot of people will ask like

    很多人會問:

  • "Why don't you just turn the dialog up?"

    「為什麼不把對話聲音調大?」

  • Like, just turn it up.

    「調大聲就好啦!」

  • And... if only it was that simple.

    要是真有這麼簡單就好了。

  • Because a big thing that we want to preserve is a concept called dynamic range.

    因為我們想保留一個叫動態範圍的概念。

  • The range between your quietest sound and your loudest sound.

    也就是最小和最大聲音之間的範圍。

  • If you have your dialog, that's going to be at the same volume as an explosion that immediately follows it.

    如果對話與緊隨其後的爆炸音量相同。

  • The explosion is not going to feel as big.

    那個爆炸就不會感覺那麼大。

  • You need that contrast in volume in order to give your ear a sense of scale.

    需要音量上的反差,才能感受到兩者差距。

  • But the thing is, you can only make something so loud before it gets distorted.

    但為防止聲音扭曲,你只能將音量放大到一定的程度。

  • So if you want to create that wide dynamic range you have no choice but to push those quieter sounds lower

    所以如果想創造較大動態範圍,沒有選擇,只能把那些比較小的聲音壓得更低,

  • instead of pushing the louder sounds louder.

    而不是把較大的音量拉得更大聲。

  • So explosions go up and dialog comes down.

    所以,爆炸聲拉大,對話聲拉小。

  • Which brings us to the Christopher Nolan of it all.

    說到這就不得不提到克里斯多福·諾蘭了。

  • -A separate structure within the others

    —其他東西中的獨立結構—

  • -Pushing out of orbit!

    推出軌道!

  • Nearly every film of his has been criticized for its hard to hear dialogue that essentially begs for subtitles.

    他的幾乎每一部電影基本上都因聽不清楚台詞,導致需要字幕而受到批評。

  • But as as this headline explains, he likes it that way.

    但正如這個標題所寫的,他就喜歡這樣。

  • According to an interview in a book called The Nolan Variations,

    根據《諾蘭變奏曲》書中的採訪,

  • he said that he gets a lot of complaints,

    他說他收到很多抱怨,

  • even from other filmmakers who would say,

    甚至是來自同行的反饋,

  • "I just saw your film and the dialogue is inaudible."

    「我剛看了你的電影,對話聽不見。」

  • "But the truth was it was kind of the whole enchilada of how we had chosen to mix it."

    「但事實上,我們是故意選擇這樣混音的。」

  • And in his 2017 interview with IndieWire, he said

    而 2017 年接受 IndieWire 採訪時,他說:

  • "We made the decision a couple of films ago that we weren't going to mix films for substandard theaters"

    「我們在幾部電影前就決定了,不會為配合低於標準的影院而混音。」

  • And this is kind of the crux of the matter.

    這就是問題的癥結所在。

  • The content that we watch here and here and here is not mixed for us, primarily.

    我們在這、這和這裡觀看的內容,主要都不是為了我們混音的。

  • Rerecording mixers mix for the widest surround sound format that is available, typically like big release films that is Dolby Atmos,

    音效混音師會以最廣的環繞聲格式為目標混音,像是通常院線片都會是杜比全景聲,

  • which has true 3D sound up to 128 channels.

    也就是擁有多達 128 聲道的 3D 立體聲。

  • The thing is, if you're not at a movie theater that can showcase the best sound Hollywood has to offer...

    問題是,如果你不在可以展示好萊塢最好音效的電影院…

  • you can't experience all of those channels.

    你就無法體驗這些聲道。

  • So, after the movie is mixed for the 128 Atmos tracks,

    因此,在電影已混成 128 聲道全景音效後,

  • somebody has to create a separate version of the film's audio where all those same sounds live on one or two or five tracks.

    還必須有人另外混一個所有聲音都存在於一個、兩個或五個音軌中的版本。

  • This is called the downmixing.

    此過程稱作「縮混」

  • Downmixing is the process of taking that biggest mix and folding it down into formats with lesser channels available to it.

    「縮混」是將大混音音檔折疊成音軌較少格式的過程。

  • So say Atmos down to 7.1 or 7.1 down to 5.1 or 5.1 down to stereo, stereo down to mono.

    比如說,將杜比全景聲的音檔調低至 7.1 或從 7.1 調成 5.1 或 5.1 到立體聲,立體聲到單聲道。

  • Unlike old TVs that were gigantic and had a ton of space for speakers,

    與體積大且有大音響空間的舊電視不同,

  • TVs today are super thin like this one that I have in my living room is about the same thickness as my iPhone.

    如今的電視非常薄,像我客廳的這台電視,它的厚度跟 iPhone 差不多。

  • So even though it's outputting the same mono or stereo sound that an older TV might, it's still going to sound worse

    所以即便輸出的是與舊電視相同的單聲道或立體聲,音質仍然會更差。

  • because you have to have tiny little speakers to fit into this tiny, sleek form factor.

    因為音響要很小才能容納進這種小巧、時尚的外形中。

  • These tiny speakers are also usually on the back of the TV.

    而這些微型音響通常也位於電視背面。

  • So the downmixed version of this movie that went from 128 channels down to just 2

    所以這個從 128 音軌減成只剩 2 個音軌的混音版本

  • is going to sound even muddier when it's pointing away from you.

    會聽起來更加模糊,因為聲音是朝著你的反方向播放的。

  • And when you're watching on your phone or a laptop, it's generally not much better.

    而在手機或筆電上觀看時,情況通常也好不了多少。

  • When you combine not great speakers, naturalistic mumbly performances,

    不太好的音響、自然但含糊的表演、

  • dynamic range featuring bombastic sound over dialogue, and a flattened mix...

    遷就動態範圍而調小的對話音量,再加上壓縮版本的混音…

  • It's no wonder we have trouble hearing what's going on.

    也難怪我們聽不清到底說了什麼。

  • And it seems like the industry knows this because TVs today are shipping with all kinds of settings built in, like this intelligence mode.

    而整個產業似乎都知道這一點,因為如今的電視都內建了各種設置,比如這個智能模式。

  • You can put on active voice amplification in hopes of making that dialog track come through just a little bit clear.

    您可以啟用主動擴音功能,好讓對話音軌更清晰一些。

  • But of course, that's more band-aid than it is solution.

    但當然,這治標不治本。

  • The way movies get mixed likely isn't going to revert back to super pristine dialogue.

    電影混音的方式不太可能回到以前的樣子。

  • So the solutions we have are, one:

    所以解決眼下情況的方式有,一:

  • Buy better speakers and only go to theaters that have impeccable sound.

    買更好的音響,跟只去支援高規格音效的電影院。

  • Two: Take a chill pill and try to just worry a little bit less about picking up every single word that gets said.

    二:吃顆鎮靜藥,別總想聽清每一個字。

  • Or, three...

    或是,三…

  • Just keep the subtitles on.

    就開字幕吧。

  • For people who are deaf or hard of hearing subtitles make movies and TV shows accessible

    對失聰或有聽力障礙的人,字幕能讓他們無障礙的觀賞電影和電視節目

  • and this accessibility has just expanded in recent years.

    而字幕使用近年來越來越盛行。

  • Laws have been passed to ensure that movie theaters have at least a few screenings a week with captions.

    目前已通過法律確保電影院每週至少要放映幾次有字幕的電影。

  • Pretty much every streaming service has standardized them

    幾乎每個串流媒體平台都有標準化字幕,

  • and speech recognition technology has made them accessible in pretty much every YouTube video and TikTok.

    而語音識別技術讓幾乎每個 YouTube 和 TikTok 影片都可以擁有字幕。

  • Plus, they're super easy to toggle on and off.

    況且,想開關字幕超級容易。

I watch a lot of movies and TV

我看很多電影和電視

字幕與單字
已審核 字幕已審核

單字即點即查 點擊單字可以查詢單字解釋