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  • He was part of America's fight for freedom and equality.

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Helen Chang

  • But were his enlightened principles outweighed

    他是美國為自由平等奮戰的一份子。

  • by participation in a greater injustice?

    但他開明的原則是否因為

  • Find out on History versus Thomas Jefferson.

    他涉入更大的不公正而被忽視?

  • Order! Order! Hey, that's one of the guys from Mt. Rushmore.

    來《歷史 vs. 湯瑪斯‧傑佛遜》 一探究竟。

  • Ahem. This is Thomas Jefferson,

    注意秩序!嘿,那是 拉什莫爾山的其中一個人。

  • founding father of the United States of America

    嗯哼。這位是湯瑪斯‧傑佛遜,

  • and primary author of the Declaration of Independence.

    美國的國父,

  • The document that established the US as a democratic republic

    也是獨立宣言的主要作者。

  • on the principle that everyone is created equal.

    美國之所以能成為以 「人皆生而平等」原則

  • If byeveryoneyou mean property-owning white men.

    為基礎的民主共和國, 靠的就是這份文件。

  • At the time Jefferson was writing,

    如果「人」指的是 擁有資產的白種男性。

  • one fifth of the colonies' population was enslaved.

    傑佛遜在撰寫的時候,

  • Surely he couldn't be expected to single-handedly overturn

    殖民地人口中有五分之一 是被奴役的人。

  • the institution of slavery?

    當然,不能預期單單靠他一個人

  • Couldn't he have just written that into the Declaration?

    就推翻奴隸制度吧?

  • It wasn't that simple, Your Honor.

    他不能把它寫入到宣言中就好了嗎?

  • Jefferson was one of five authors,

    沒那麼簡單,庭上。

  • and the document had to be ratified by the Continental Congress.

    傑佛遜是五位作者之一,

  • He included a clause opposing the slave trade,

    且該文件必須要經過大陸會議批准。

  • but state delegates removed it.

    他納入了一條反對奴隸交易的條文,

  • Nevertheless, Jefferson recognized slavery as an immoral institution

    但州代表將它刪除了。

  • and condemned it throughout his life.

    儘管如此,傑佛遜認為 奴隸制是不道德的制度,

  • But Jefferson's words never came close to matching his actions!

    且一生都在譴責它。

  • As Virginia's governor, he did nothing to change the state slave laws.

    但傑佛遜根本言行不一!

  • And in his personal life, he held over 600 people in slavery.

    身為維吉尼亞州州長, 他對改變該州的奴隸法毫無作為。

  • Furthermore, he believed Black people were intellectual inferiors who,

    他一生擁有超過六百名奴隸。

  • if emancipated, should return to their countries of origin.

    此外,他認定黑人的智力比較差,

  • Frankly, there's no argument that Jefferson did anything significant

    如果解放他們,

  • to combat slavery.

    他們就應該回到祖國去。

  • It's true, Your Honor.

    坦白說,沒有任何論據證明

  • But Jefferson did make important contributions

    傑佛遜對抗奴隸制 有任何重大作為。

  • to religious, financial, and gender equality.

    沒錯,庭上,但傑佛遜 確實有其他重要貢獻,

  • He led the charge for separating church and state,

    在宗教、金融、性別平等上都有。

  • removing government funding for Virginia's Anglican Church,

    政教分離是他帶的頭,

  • and paving the way for our modern understanding of religious freedom.

    他抽掉政府給維吉尼亞 聖公會教堂的資金,

  • Jefferson also drafted laws that weakened the power of inherited wealth

    並為我們所認識的宗教自由舖路。

  • and pushed for the state-funded education of boys and girls.

    傑佛遜也起草法律 削減繼承財富的力量,

  • All valuable reforms, but you're avoiding the fundamental issue here.

    還推動由州資助男孩及女孩的教育。

  • None of this benefited enslaved people or Indigenous Americans,

    都是很有價值的改革,

  • and it's ridiculous to argue that Jefferson was pursuing equality

    但你在閃躲這裡的根本議題。

  • when his policies frequently harmed non-white groups.

    這一切的受惠者都不包含 奴隸或美國原住民,

  • Policies such as authorizing the military

    主張傑佛遜追求平等是非常荒謬的,

  • to exterminate Indigenous communities during the Revolutionary War.

    因為他的政策經常會 傷害到非白人族群。

  • Objection! Those Northwestern tribes were allied with the British.

    舉例來說,授權軍隊

  • In peacetime, Jefferson did his best to avoid conflict with Native Americans

    在獨立戰爭期間 可以消滅原住民部落。

  • and believed they could be equal to whites.

    抗議!那些西北的部落和英軍結盟。

  • Could be equal”? Listen to yourself!

    在和平時期,傑佛遜有盡全力

  • Are you defending his attempts to forcibly assimilate Indigenous communities?

    避免和美國原住民的衝突,

  • Jefferson's recommendations even formed the basis

    也相信他們能和白人一樣。

  • for the Indian Removal Act years later.

    「能一樣」?聽聽你自己!

  • Recommendations? Why not laws?

    你是在為他試圖強迫同化 原住民部落的行為辯護嗎?

  • Thomas Jefferson served as a diplomat and Secretary of State

    傑佛遜的建議甚至成了數年後

  • before being elected as Vice President under John Adams in 1796.

    印地安人遷移法案的基礎。

  • A role in which he undermined the President's authority.

    建議?為什麼不是法律?

  • Jefferson argued that states should have the power

    湯瑪斯‧傑佛遜曾當過 外交官及國務卿,

  • to overrule federal laws they deemed unconstitutional

    後來在 1796 年,他被選為 約翰‧亞當斯的副總統。

  • an argument some Southern states would cite while seceding

    在當副總統時,他反而 顛覆了總統的職權。

  • from the Union 70 years later.

    傑佛遜主張,州應該有權否決

  • I think it's a little unreasonable to lay the entire Civil War at Jefferson's feet.

    它們認為不符憲法的聯邦法律——

  • Besides, his defense of states' rights was motivated

    七十年後,當南方的州要脫離 聯邦時就會引用這個主張。

  • by the president's overreaching central government.

    我認為把整個內戰都推給 傑佛遜有點不太合理。

  • As part of Adams' preparations for war with France,

    此外,他為州的權利 辯護背後的動機是

  • he signed legislation that tightened restrictions on immigrants

    因為總統太超過,染指到中央政府。

  • and limited criticism of the government.

    亞當斯為和法國打戰所做的準備

  • Jefferson was just trying to protect the public.

    包括簽署立法,加強對移民的約束,

  • And ultimately, his efforts were so popular that he was elected

    並限制對政府的批評。

  • as the next president.

    傑佛遜只是想要保護大眾。

  • A dubious victory.

    最終,他的作為很得民心, 讓他被選為下一任總統。

  • He only won because states were allowed to count enslaved people

    讓人懷疑的勝利。

  • towards their population without giving them voting rights.

    他能贏只是因為各州被允許 把奴隸算在人口數裡面,

  • This system gave states that held people in slavery additional voting power

    卻不給他們投票權。

  • in the Electoral College until the Civil War.

    到南北戰爭之前,這種體制 一直讓掌控奴隸的各州

  • Be that as it may, Jefferson was a popular president.

    在選舉人團中有額外的投票權力。

  • He worked to prevent the country from taking on too much debt,

    儘管如此,傑佛遜 仍然是個受歡迎的總統。

  • and successfully led the US through the Napoleonic and the Barbary Wars.

    他努力讓美國不背負太多債務,

  • Plus, he dramatically expanded the country's territory

    並成功領導美國度過 拿破崙戰爭和巴巴里戰爭。

  • through the Louisiana Purchase.

    另外,他大大拓展了美國的領土,

  • Where he once again failed to stop slavery from taking hold.

    買下路易斯安那。

  • I'll remind you that President Jefferson signed a law

    而他同樣也沒有能夠阻止 奴隸制度在該州扎根。

  • forbidding the importation of enslaved people in 1807.

    我要提醒你,1807 年,傑佛遜總統

  • And yet he continued to enslave those already on American soil

    簽署了禁止進口奴隸的法律。

  • including his own flesh and blood.

    但他仍然持續奴役 美國領土上的人——

  • Pardon?

    包括他自己的骨肉。

  • Following his wife's death,

    你說什麼?

  • Jefferson began a relationship with her half-sister and maid, Sally Hemings.

    在妻子過世之後,傑佛遜 開始和他同父異母的妹妹

  • Jefferson fathered six children with Hemings

    及女僕莎莉‧海明斯發生關係。

  • and kept the entire relationship secret,

    傑佛遜和海明斯生了六個孩子, 且完全不公開這段關係,

  • while continuing to publicly denounce the personhood of Black Americans.

    同時持續在公開場合 抨擊美國黑人的人格。

  • Jefferson freed several members of the Hemings family,

    傑佛遜解放了海明斯的數名家人, 包括他和莎莉生的孩子——

  • including his children with Sally

    但卻拒絕解放任何其他人。

  • While refusing to free anyone else.

    儘管奴役了超過六百人,

  • Despite enslaving over 600 people, Jefferson only freed 10.

    傑佛森只解放了十個人。

  • Five during his life and five in his will

    在世時解放了五個, 五個是寫在他的遺囑中——

  • all members of the Hemings family.

    全都是海明斯的家人。

  • Even I have to admit, this seems indefensible.

    就連我也得承認,這似乎無可辯解。

  • It's true, Your Honor.

    的確,庭上。

  • Despite pursuing what he believed to be equality,

    儘管一直在追尋他所相信的平等,

  • Jefferson failed to uphold his own ideals.

    傑佛遜卻沒能實踐他的理念。

  • Ultimately, he was a man of his time

    畢竟,他是那個時代的人——

  • living in an economy that relied on exploitation and enslaved labor.

    他所處的經濟,仰賴的 就是剝削和奴役勞力。

  • That's hardly a defense when many of Jefferson's contemporaries

    那算不上是辯護,因為 許多和傑佛遜同時代的人

  • opposed slavery and took action to abolish it.

    反對奴隸制度 且採取行動去廢除它。

  • Even if some people considered him a great man in his time,

    即使有些人認為 他是那個時代的偉人,

  • he doesn't have to be an icon in ours.

    他也不見得會是我們時代的偶像。

  • Well, I hear Mount Rushmore has a problematic past, too.

    嗯,我聽說拉什莫爾山 也有段很有問題的歷史。

  • Can we judge historical figures by modern standards?

    我們能用現代的標準 來評斷歷史人物嗎?

  • And what responsibilities do powerful people have to the future?

    有權勢的人又對未來有什麼責任?

  • Answering these questions is all part of putting history on trial.

    回答這些問題,正是 讓歷史接受審判的一部分。

He was part of America's fight for freedom and equality.

譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Helen Chang

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔

歷史 vs. 湯瑪斯‧傑佛遜(History vs. Thomas Jefferson - Frank Cogliano)

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    shuting1215 發佈於 2023 年 01 月 15 日
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