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  • Hi, my name's Talia Gershon and I'm a scientist at IBM Research today.

    你好,我叫塔利婭-格申,今天是IBM研究院的一名科學家。

  • I've been challenged to explain a topic with five levels of increasing complexity.

    我面臨的挑戰是解釋一個有五個層次的複雜度越來越高的主題。

  • It's a completely different kind of computing called quantum computing.

    這是一種完全不同的計算方式,稱為量子計算。

  • Quantum computers approach solving problems in a fundamentally new way.

    量子計算機以一種根本性的新方式來解決問題。

  • And we hope that by taking this new approach to computation will be able to start exploring some problems that we can never solve any other way.

    而且,我們希望通過採取這種新的計算方法,將能夠開始探索一些我們永遠無法用其他方式解決的問題。

  • Hopefully by the end of today everyone can leave this discussion understanding quantum computing at some level.

    希望在今天的討論結束時,每個人都能在一定程度上理解量子計算。

  • What's this?

    這是什麼?

  • What do you think that is fancy chandelier?

    你認為那是什麼花哨的吊燈?

  • I think so too.

    我也這麼認為。

  • We jokingly call it the chandelier, that's real gold.

    我們開玩笑地稱它為吊燈,那是真正的金子。

  • You know, this is a quantum computer.

    你知道,這是一臺量子計算機。

  • It's a it's a really special kind of computer.

    這是一種非常特別的計算機。

  • What does it do?

    它的作用是什麼?

  • It calculates things but in a totally different way to how your computer calculates things.

    它計算東西,但與你的電腦計算東西的方式完全不同。

  • What do you think this is?

    你認為這是什麼?

  • Yeah.

    是的。

  • You know what your computer thinks that is zero.

    你知道你的電腦認為那是零。

  • This really specific combination of zeros and ones, everything that your computer does, showing you pink panther videos on youtube, calculating things, searching the internet.

    這種真正特定的零和一的組合,是你的電腦所做的一切,在YouTube上為你展示粉紅豹的視頻,計算東西,搜索互聯網。

  • It does all of that with a really specific combination of zeros and ones which is crazy, right?

    它用一個非常特殊的零和一的組合來做所有這些事,這很瘋狂,對嗎?

  • That would be like saying your computer only understands these quarters for each quarter.

    這就好比說你的電腦每個季度只瞭解這些季度的情況。

  • You need to tell it that you're gonna use heads tails and you assign it heads or tails.

    你需要告訴它,你要用正反面,然後你給它分配正反面。

  • So I can switch between heads and tails and I can switch the zeros and ones in my computer so that it represents what I wanted to represent like an A and with quantum computers we have new rules, we get to use to, we can actually spin one of our quarters.

    是以,我可以在頭和尾之間切換,我可以在我的計算機中切換零和一,以便它代表我想代表的東西,如A,有了量子計算機,我們有了新的規則,我們可以使用,我們實際上可以旋轉我們的一個硬幣。

  • So it doesn't have to choose just one or the other.

    所以它不必只選擇一個或另一個。

  • Can computers help you with your homework?

    計算機能幫助你做作業嗎?

  • You're really hard homework.

    你的功課真的很辛苦。

  • Yeah, that can, especially if doing your homework involves calculating something or finding, but what if your homework was to discover something totally new?

    是的,這可以,特別是如果做功課涉及到計算什麼或發現什麼,但如果你的功課是發現完全新的東西呢?

  • A lot of those discovery questions are much harder to solve using the computers we have today.

    很多這樣的發現問題,用我們今天的計算機來解決要難得多。

  • So the reason we're building these kinds of computers is because we think that maybe one day they're going to do a lot of really important things like help us understand nature better.

    所以我們建造這類計算機的原因是,我們認為也許有一天它們會做很多真正重要的事情,比如幫助我們更好地瞭解自然。

  • Maybe help us create new medicines to help people.

    也許可以幫助我們創造新的藥物來幫助人們。

  • What's your favorite kind of computer?

    你最喜歡什麼類型的電腦?

  • Smartphone, tablet, regular laptop pc?

    智能手機、平板電腦、普通筆記本電腦?

  • I've got to go with my iphone.

    我得用我的蘋果手機。

  • So what do you do with your iphone social media?

    那麼,你是如何處理你的蘋果手機社交媒體的呢?

  • Um use it for your studying, Have you ever run out of space on your iphone all the time?

    嗯,用它來學習,你的蘋果手機的空間是否一直用完了?

  • Me to always when I'm trying to take a photo.

    當我試圖拍照時,我總是這樣做。

  • So did you know that there are certain kinds of problems that computers sort of run out of space?

    是以,你知道有某些類型的問題,計算機的空間會被耗盡嗎?

  • Almost like you're trying to solve the problem and just like how you run out of space on your iphone when you're trying to take a picture, if you're trying to solve the problem, you just run out of space And even if you have the world's biggest supercomputer.

    幾乎就像你試圖解決這個問題,就像當你試圖拍照時,你的蘋果手機的空間就會耗盡,如果你試圖解決問題,你就會耗盡空間,即使你有世界上最大的超級計算機。

  • Did you know that can still happen?

    你知道這仍然會發生嗎?

  • So my team is working on building new kinds of computers, altogether?

    所以我的團隊正在努力建造新型的計算機,完全?

  • Ones that operate by a totally different set of rules.

    那些按照完全不同的規則運作的人。

  • So, do you know what that is?

    那麼,你知道那是什麼嗎?

  • I have no clue.

    我沒有任何頭緒。

  • It's quantum computer.

    它是量子計算機。

  • What have you ever heard of a quantum computer?

    你聽說過什麼是量子計算機嗎?

  • I haven't.

    我沒有。

  • Have you ever heard of the word quantum?

    你聽說過量子這個詞嗎?

  • No.

    沒有。

  • Okay, so quantum mechanics is a branch of science, just like any other branch of science, it's a branch of physics.

    好的,所以量子力學是科學的一個分支,就像其他科學分支一樣,它是物理學的一個分支。

  • It's the study of things that are either really, really small, really, really well isolated and really, really cold.

    這是對那些非常非常小、非常非常好的隔離和非常非常冷的事物的研究。

  • And this particular branch of science is something we're using to totally reimagine how computing works.

    而這一特殊的科學分支是我們用來完全重新想象計算如何工作的東西。

  • So we're building totally new kinds of computers based on the laws of quantum mechanics?

    所以我們要在量子力學定律的基礎上建造全新的計算機?

  • That's quantum computer is I'm gonna start by telling you about something called superposition.

    這就是量子計算機,我首先要告訴你一個叫做疊加的東西。

  • So, I'm gonna explain it using this giant penny, Is that worth 100 pennies?

    所以,我打算用這個巨大的便士來解釋,這值100便士嗎?

  • I don't know what it's worth, but I can put it face up.

    我不知道它值多少錢,但我可以把它面朝上。

  • Right, And that's heads, I can put it face down.

    對,那是頭,我可以把它朝下。

  • Right?

    對嗎?

  • So at any given time point in time, if I ask you is my Penny?

    是以,在任何特定的時間點上,如果我問你是我的佩妮嗎?

  • Heads or tails?

    正面還是反面?

  • Probably you can answer it.

    也許你可以回答這個問題。

  • Right.

    對。

  • Yeah, Okay, But what if I spin the Penny.

    是的,好的,但是如果我把竹篙轉過來呢。

  • So let's do it.

    是以,讓我們行動起來吧。

  • Okay, so while it's spinning, is that heads or tails?

    好的,那麼在它旋轉的時候,是頭還是尾?

  • While it's spinning?

    當它在旋轉的時候?

  • Oh, I wouldn't know it's sort of it's sort of a combination of heads and tails, Right, would you say so.

    哦,我不知道這是一種,這是一種頭和尾的組合,對,你會這麼說嗎。

  • Superposition Is this idea that my penny is not just either heads or tails, It's in this state which is a combination of heads and tails.

    疊加的概念是,我的便士不只是正面或反面,它處於這種狀態,是正面和反面的組合。

  • This quantum property is something that we can have in real, real physical objects in the world.

    這種量子屬性是我們可以在世界的真實的物理物體中擁有的東西。

  • So that superposition.

    所以,這種疊加。

  • And the second thing that we'll talk about is called entanglement.

    而我們要談的第二件事,叫做糾纏。

  • So now I'm gonna give you a penny, wow.

    所以現在我要給你一個便士,哇。

  • When we use the word entangled in everyday language, what do we mean that something is intertwined or exactly that there's two things that are connected in some way and usually we can separate them again.

    當我們在日常語言中使用糾纏這個詞時,我們的意思是什麼呢?"東西交織在一起,或者確切地說,有兩個東西以某種方式連接在一起,通常我們可以再把它們分開。

  • Your hair is tangled or whatever, you can un entangle it, right?

    你的頭髮被纏住或什麼的,你可以解開纏住它,對嗎?

  • But in the quantum world when we entangle things, they're really now connected, it's much much harder to separate them again.

    但在量子世界裡,當我們把事物糾纏在一起時,它們現在真的是連接在一起了,要再把它們分開就難得多了。

  • So using the same analogy, we spin our pennies and eventually eventually they both stopped, right?

    是以,用同樣的比喻,我們旋轉我們的便士,最終最終他們都停止了,對嗎?

  • And when they stop, it's either heads or tails.

    而當他們停下來時,不是頭就是尾。

  • Right?

    對嗎?

  • So in my case I got tails and you've got heads, you see how they're totally disconnected from each other, right?

    所以在我的例子中,我有尾巴,而你有頭,你看它們是如何彼此完全不相干的,對嗎?

  • Our pennies In the real world.

    我們的便士 在現實世界中。

  • Now, if our pennies were entangled and we both spun them together, right?

    現在,如果我們的硬幣糾纏在一起,我們兩個一起旋轉,對嗎?

  • When we stop them, if you measured your penny to be ahead, I would measure my penny to be ahead.

    當我們阻止他們的時候,如果你衡量你的一分錢要領先,我會衡量我的一分錢要領先。

  • And if you measured your penny to be a tail and measure my penny to be a tails.

    如果你把你的便士測成了尾巴,把我的便士測成了尾巴。

  • If we measured it at exactly the same time we would still find that they were both exactly correlated.

    如果我們在完全相同的時間測量它,我們仍然會發現它們都是完全相關的。

  • That's crazy.

    這很瘋狂。

  • That's cool.

    這很好。

  • My God.

    我的天。

  • The way that we are able to actually see these quantum properties is by making our quantum chips really, really cold.

    我們能夠真正看到這些量子特性的方法是通過使我們的量子芯片非常非常冷。

  • So that's what this is all about.

    所以這就是這一切的原因。

  • Actually this is called a dilution refrigerator and it's a refrigerator.

    實際上,這被稱為稀釋冰箱,是一個冰箱。

  • It does you look like a normal refrigerator, right?

    它使你看起來像一個正常的冰箱,對嗎?

  • But it's something that we use actually there's usually a case around it to cool our quantum chips down cold enough that we can create super positions and we can entangle cubits and the information isn't lost to the environment.

    但它是我們使用的東西,實際上它周圍通常有一個箱子來冷卻我們的量子芯片,使我們能夠創造超級位置,我們可以糾纏立方體,資訊不會丟失到環境中。

  • Like what could those chips to be used to do?

    比如這些芯片可以用來做什麼?

  • So one of the things that we're trying to use quantum computers to do is simulating chemical bonding.

    是以,我們試圖用量子計算機來做的一件事是模擬化學鍵。

  • Use a quantum system to model a quantum system.

    用一個量子系統來模擬一個量子系統。

  • Yeah, I mean I'm definitely gonna impress all my friends when I tell them about this, they're gonna be like quantum.

    是的,我的意思是,當我告訴我所有的朋友這件事時,我肯定會給他們留下深刻印象,他們會像量子一樣。

  • What?

    什麼?

  • So what do you think that thing is is it some sort of conductor circuit that is a really good guess.

    那麼,你認為那個東西是什麼呢?它是某種導體電路嗎?

  • There's parts of that that are definitely about conducting, this is the inside of a quantum computer.

    其中有一部分肯定是關於傳導的,這是一個量子計算機的內部。

  • Oh wow.

    哦,哇。

  • Yeah this whole infrastructure is all about creating levels that get progressively colder as you go from top to bottom down to the quantum chip which is how we actually control the state of the Cupids.

    是的,這整個基礎設施都是為了創造水準,隨著你從上到下,逐漸變冷,直到量子芯片,這是我們實際控制丘比特狀態的方法。

  • Oh wow.

    哦,哇。

  • So when you say colder you mean like physically colder?

    那麼,當你說更冷時,你是指身體上更冷嗎?

  • Like physically colder.

    比如身體上更冷。

  • So room temperature is 300 kelvin as you get down all the way to the bottom of the fridge.

    所以室溫是300開爾文,因為你一路下到冰箱的底部。

  • It's that 10 million kelvin.

    就是那1000萬開爾文。

  • Oh wow, Amanda, what do you study?

    哦,哇,阿曼達,你是學什麼的?

  • So I'm studying computer science currently a sophomore.

    所以我正在學習計算機科學,目前是大二學生。

  • And the track that I'm in is the intelligent systems track machine learning artificial intelligence.

    而我所在的軌道是智能系統軌道機器學習人工智能。

  • You ever heard of quantum computing?

    你聽說過量子計算嗎?

  • From my understanding with a quantum computer rather than using transistors is using spins, you can have superposition of spins, so different states more combinations means more memory.

    根據我的理解,量子計算機不是使用半導體,而是使用自旋,你可以有自旋的疊加,所以不同的狀態更多的組合意味著更多的內存。

  • So that's pretty good.

    所以這很好。

  • So you mentioned superposition but you can also use other quantum properties like entanglement entanglement.

    所以你提到了疊加,但你也可以使用其他的量子特性,比如糾纏entanglement。

  • I have not.

    我沒有。

  • Okay, so it's this idea that you have two objects and when you entangle them together they become connected and then there sort of permanently connected to each other and they behave in ways that are sort of a system now.

    好的,所以它是這樣一個想法:你有兩個物體,當你把它們糾纏在一起時,它們就變得有聯繫了,然後它們就永久地聯繫在一起,它們的行為方式就像一個系統一樣了。

  • So superposition is one quantum property that we use.

    所以疊加是我們使用的一個量子特性。

  • Entanglement is another quantum property.

    糾纏是另一個量子特性。

  • And a third is interference.

    而第三種是干擾。

  • How much you know about interference?

    你對干擾有多少了解?

  • Not much.

    不多。

  • Okay, so how do noise canceling headphones work?

    好吧,那麼降噪耳機是如何工作的?

  • They read like wave, ambient wavelength and then produce like the opposite one to cancel out they create interference.

    他們讀取像波,環境波長,然後產生像相反的,以抵消他們創造干擾。

  • So you can have constructive interfere and you can have destructive interference.

    所以你可以有建設性的干擾,也可以有破壞性的干擾。

  • You have constructive interference of amplitudes, wave amplitudes that add to the signal gets larger.

    你有振幅的建設性干擾,波的振幅增加到信號變大。

  • And if you have destructive interference, The amplitudes cancel by using a property like interference.

    如果你有破壞性干擾,振幅會通過使用類似干擾的屬性來抵消。

  • We can control quantum states and amplify the kinds of signals that are towards the right answer and then cancel the types of signals that are leading to the wrong answer.

    我們可以控制量子態,放大那些走向正確答案的信號類型,然後取消那些導致錯誤答案的信號類型。

  • So given that you know that we're trying to use superposition entanglement and interference for computation, how do you think we build these computers?

    那麼,鑑於你知道我們正試圖利用疊加糾纏和干擾進行計算,你認為我們如何建造這些計算機?

  • I have no idea.

    我不知道。

  • So step one is you need to be able to have an object or physical device.

    所以第一步是你需要能夠有一個物體或物理設備。

  • We call it a cubit or quantum bit that can actually handle those things can actually be put into superposition of states, you know, to cube.

    我們稱它為立方體或量子位,它實際上可以處理那些東西實際上可以進入疊加狀態,你知道,以立方體。

  • It states that you can physically entangled with each other.

    它指出,你可以在物理上與對方糾纏在一起。

  • That's not really trivial.

    這並不是真正的小事。

  • Right?

    對嗎?

  • And things in our classical world, you can't really entangle things in our classical world so easily.

    而在我們的古典世界裡的事情,你不能真的把我們的古典世界裡的事情這麼容易地糾纏在一起。

  • We need to use devices where they can they can support a quantum state and we can manipulate that quantum state, atoms ions and in our case superconducting qubits, we make cubits out of superconducting materials.

    我們需要使用的設備,他們可以他們可以支持一個量子態,我們可以操縱這個量子態,原子離子和在我們的案例中的超導量子比特,我們用超導材料製作立方體。

  • But as like a programmer, how would quantum computing affect a different way of writing a program?

    但就像一個程序員一樣,量子計算會如何影響不同的程序編寫方式?

  • It's a perfect question.

    這是個完美的問題。

  • I mean it's very early for quantum computing but we're building assembly languages.

    我的意思是,對於量子計算來說,現在還很早,但我們正在建立彙編語言。

  • We're building layers of abstraction that are gonna get you to a point as a programmer where you can interchangeably be programming something the way that you already do and then make calls to a quantum computer so that you can bring it in when it makes sense.

    我們正在建立抽象層,這將使你作為一個程序員達到一個點,在這個點上,你可以互換地以你已經做的方式來編程,然後調用量子計算機,這樣你就可以在有意義的時候把它帶進來。

  • We're not envisioning quantum computers completely replacing classical computers anytime soon?

    我們不會很快設想量子計算機完全取代經典計算機吧?

  • We think that quantum computing is going to be used to accelerate the kinds of things that are really hard for classical.

    我們認為,量子計算將被用來加速那些對經典來說真正困難的事情。

  • So what exactly are some of those problems simulating nature is something that's really hard because we take something like modeling atomic bonding and electronic orbital overlap.

    那麼,究竟有哪些問題模擬自然界是非常困難的事情,因為我們採取的是像模擬原子結合和電子軌道重疊的方式。

  • Instead of now writing out a giant simulation over many terms, you try and actually mimic the system, you're trying to simulate directly on a quantum computer which we can do for chemistry.

    而不是現在寫出一個超過許多條款的巨大模擬,你試圖實際模仿這個系統,你試圖在量子計算機上直接模擬,我們可以為化學做。

  • And we're looking at ways of doing that for other types of things.

    我們正在尋找對其他類型的事物採取這種做法的方法。

  • There's a lot of exciting research right now on machine learning trying to use quantum systems to accelerate machine learning problems.

    現在有很多關於機器學習的令人興奮的研究,試圖使用量子系統來加速機器學習問題。

  • So would it be like in five years or 10 years that I would be able to have one of these sitting in my laptop just in my dorm?

    那麼,會不會在五年或十年後,我就能在我的筆記本電腦裡放一個這樣的東西,就在我的宿舍裡?

  • I don't think you're going to have one in your dorm room anytime soon, but you'll have access to one.

    我不認為你很快就會在你的寢室裡有一個,但你會有機會得到一個。

  • There's three free quantum computers that are all sitting in this lab here that anyone in the world can access through the cloud.

    有三臺免費的量子計算機,都在這個實驗室裡,世界上任何人都可以通過雲計算訪問。

  • Okay, so quantum computing creates new possibilities and new ways to approach problems that classical computers have difficulty doing.

    好的,所以量子計算創造了新的可能性和新的方法來處理經典計算機難以做到的問題。

  • Couldn't have said it better myself.

    我自己說得再好不過了。

  • So I'm a first year master student and I'm studying machine learning.

    所以,我是一名一年級的碩士生,我正在學習機器學習。

  • So it's in the computer science department but it mixes computer science with math and probability and statistics.

    所以它是在計算機科學系,但它將計算機科學與數學、概率和統計學混合在一起。

  • So have you come up upon any limits to machine learning?

    那麼,你是否想到了機器學習的任何限制?

  • Certainly depending on the