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  • More than one century ago we manage to fulfill our dream of achieving our first flight in

  • a manned heavier than air aircraft, an amazing machine capable of transporting one or even

  • two men onboard over the air at about 34 mph, speed that would double in less than a year.

  • But what benefits would this technology bring to humankind?

  • At the time nobody was still sure during the first years, but with record after record

  • being broken by new airplanes regarding speed, altitude and flight duration, this beautiful

  • machine started to exhibit a potential for practical tasks, and also getting attention

  • from the military, who soon will be making an extensive use of the newly invented machine

  • called the airplane.

  • We'll also see how this flying machine evolved in several stages into what we know today

  • as fighter jets, the most technologically advanced flying machines, get ready for an

  • amazing story about aviation.

  • Welcome to Joyplanes.

  • *The great War*

  • The year is 1914 and the world is in conflict, the first world war started only 11 years

  • after the first flight made by the wright brothers, some improvements have been made

  • to the flying machines, and in the military found them useful for recognizance missions

  • which until then were made by men with horses, very slow, less range and more limitations

  • than using an aircraft, despite some opposition of traditionalist on the military the airplane

  • was getting its way in for it's clear advantages against the enemy, that's how it started,

  • military airplanes were used to fly over enemy lines and spy on them, taking pictures was

  • the primary way of recognizance,

  • but it wasn't easy, flying in the early days with no navigation instruments and really simple maps

  • in places you're not familiar with was a real challenge.

  • Soon after, the enemy started using the new technology as well, one of the first air-to-air

  • battles were made with hand guns carried by the pilots, when two pilots of recognizance

  • airplanes from opposites sides encounter each other in mid-flight,

  • later these type of battles

  • were given the name of dogfight.

  • It wasn't long after experimentation was being made to accommodate machine guns on

  • the aircraft, this raised another problem, if the machine gun was positioned right in

  • front of the pilot it was convenient for aiming and shooting at the same direction of the

  • flight, but it meant that the bullets would strike the propeller making it unusable, the

  • pusher airplanes however didn't have this problem, but these airplanes are not as efficient

  • as the tractor configuration, another way was mounting the gun on top of the wings,

  • but it was really hard for the pilot to aim and shoot, an ingenious solution was done

  • in the Fokker Eindecker, it was the first aircraft to be fitted with a synchronization

  • gear, which made possible firing through the propeller without making any damage.

  • Dropping small bombs by hand was another alternative.

  • As the flying machines progressed so did the defense mechanisms with anti-aerial artillery.

  • *Escaping tragedy*

  • Being taken down by the enemy was a high probability if you were an inexperienced pilot, and the

  • problem then was that if your machine was going down, you were going down with it as

  • well even if you survived the first attack.

  • A terrible way to die and an awful loss for the air force who couldn't afford losing

  • more pilots.

  • The use of parachutes was very controversial, although it was invented long before airplanes

  • and it was a clear option, the only personnel allowed to use parachutes were the observers

  • in Balloons, these balloons were used to observe the battlefield and guide artillery on the

  • ground, they used a highly flammable gas, and they were often shot down bursting into

  • flames and falling down the sky, the parachute was the only device that secured the lives

  • of the occupants.

  • For the aviators in the other hand, they had several problems, in most of the aircraft

  • the cockpit was tiny, there was no space for extra equipment and certainly the emergency

  • exiting maneuver was going to be very difficult in such a space, more over, the high command

  • though that the use of a parachute will encourage the pilots to jump and escape in critical

  • situations instead of facing the enemy.

  • They also said that a heavy parachute would affect the fuel efficiency and performance

  • of the aircraft.

  • In other words they didn't care about the lives they were in charge of, The German air

  • service, in 1918, became the world's first to introduce a standard parachute and the

  • only one at the time.

  • Later parachutes will become a standard in every country.

  • *Power*

  • Engines never stopped evolving during the war

  • and so the construction techniques

  • but the airplanes were always made out of wood cover by fabrics, the most common type was

  • the biplane for its great strength and already familiar structure, engineers started to understand

  • even more the aerodynamics, they discovered that a monoplane was a lot more efficient

  • than the biplanes or triplanes, and some monoplanes were successfully deployed in the front lines

  • of the war, but these kinds of airplanes needed a complex array of struts and wires to maintain

  • the structural strength of the wings, specially in highly demanding maneuvers, this was solved

  • with the use of new materials and construction techniques, like metal aloes and internal

  • structures inside the wing so no struts or wires were required, but the machine is nothing

  • if you don't have a good pilot, one of the most prominent fighter pilots of the WWI was

  • Manfred von Richthofen, better know as the red baron, he was a German Air Force pilot

  • during World War I.

  • He is considered the ace-of-aces of the war, being officially credited with 80 air combat

  • victories, most of he's victories were made using his albatross biplane, although he's

  • mostly associated with the triplane which he did use by the end of his career but not

  • as much as the biplane Albatros D series, we can make a video only about Manfred von

  • Richthofen in the future.

  • Airplanes extended the range of the war and now cities hundreds of miles away from the

  • battle front are exposed to these deathly machines, even before the airplanes bombardments

  • were possible with lighter than air aircraft, like the zeppelins, but these zeppelins were

  • slower and bigger than the airplanes, making them an easy target.

  • *EVOLUTION*

  • Towards the end of the first world war the maximum speeds recorded for an airplane is

  • 150 mph.

  • By now, not much more funding is available for the development of military aviation,

  • so during the 20s civil aviation took over the challenge of the speed and distance records.

  • A prominent event was the Schneider Trophy, It was intended to encourage technical advances

  • in civil aviation but became a contest for pure speed, the race was significant in advancing

  • aeroplane design, particularly in the fields of aerodynamics and engine design, the race

  • would feature seaplanes.

  • The last Schneider event was held in 1931, and the winner was the British team with the

  • Supermarine S.6B reaching speeds of 380 mph or 610 km/h.

  • These planes are far more advance than any military aircraft at the time.

  • The most important changes on the new fast aircraft are the engine power, cylinder disposition,

  • and aerodynamics in general, making the planes slim to offer less resistance to the air,

  • this presented many other problems like the engine cooling.

  • The most common type of engine was the radial type, where all the cylinders were exposed

  • to the direct airflow, this was at the cost of more air drag and therefore was not possible

  • to reach faster speeds, the inline cylinder engines in the other hand could present less

  • aerodynamic drag but air cooling was less ideal, so additional liquid cooling systems

  • had to be developed by using radiators.

  • In the Supermarine S.6B the engine oil was cooled by a set of pipes on both sides of

  • the fuselage, and another radiator on the wings for the liquid engine cooling.

  • *Faster is better*

  • Germany didn't take part on the Schneider races, because after the great war it was

  • agreed they wouldn't manufacture aero-engines beyond a fixed size, so they don't have

  • high speed aircraft yet, until the Nazi regime takes part in 1933 when the old treaties are

  • ignored, competitions on aircraft design are held to select the best fighter airplane,

  • and the winner is a low wing monoplane designed by Willy Messerschmitt, the BF-109, the British

  • also had a formidable counterpart introduced one year later, the Supermarine Spitfire a

  • new generation of fighter airplanes that will change the course of the upcoming WWII war,

  • the Hawker Hurricane was also a simple but great British fighter plane, the simplicity

  • relies on the use of the classic wood and fabric construction, and because of this it

  • was faster and cheaper to manufacture.

  • The united states had the F2A Buffalo when entered the war, but it was an outdated war

  • bird being overweight and unstable, specially when compared with its Japanese opponent the

  • Mitsubishi A6M Zero, but the F4F Wildcat took it's place in battle and it was later replaced

  • by the F6F Hellcat, of course later designs were created like the mustang P51 and many

  • others.

  • Throughout the history of military aviation one characteristic was predominantly important

  • for air superiority, and it was the speed, a faster speed means that you can reach your

  • target and get out of faster, that's why faster was better.

  • *The dawn of aerospace tecnology*

  • Germany was very advanced in aerial technology, they started experimenting with rockets, and

  • unmanned flying bombs, they also created the Me 163 Komet, basically an airplane with a

  • rocket for an engine, it was the only rocket-powered fighter aircraft ever to have been operational

  • and the first piloted aircraft of any type to exceed 621 mph or 1000 km/h in level flight.

  • The problem was it's short flight time, but a new generation of engines was going

  • to revolutionize aviation and make possible even greater speeds.

  • The jet engine.

  • The Heinkel He 178 was the first turbojet powered aircraft ever to fly, but the most

  • common operational jet-powered aircraft during the WWII was the Me 262.

  • After the war, the development in aviation was pretty advance, but the quest for speed

  • continued, with the introduction of the transistor now computers onboard or avionics was possible

  • for a more coordinated and precise control over the ever-increasing complexity of the

  • Flight systems, now these computers onboard help the pilot fly these machines.

  • If you want to see more about the fastest airplanes in the world we've made another

  • video on that, the link is on the screen and the description of this video.

  • Today we don't only have really fast state-of-the-art aircraft, but we've built rockets, spacecraft

  • of many kinds, satellites and much more, we've done this in less than 100 years when we still

  • used to dream of flying like the birds.

  • If you liked this video, now you can consider supporting us on Patreon, but we'll be happy

  • if you only subscribe to the channel.

  • I usually make videos about RC aircraft and aviation in general, but every now and then

  • a video like this is released, so stay tuned for more and stop dreaming about flying, wake

  • up and make it a reality.

More than one century ago we manage to fulfill our dream of achieving our first flight in

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12分(Military Aviation History in 12 min | Military aircraft evolution explained)

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    menghsuan228 發佈於 2022 年 08 月 21 日
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