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  • two.

    兩個。

  • One.

    一。

  • If you're like, most people, you can probably hold your breath 30 seconds, maybe a minute before you start to feel the urge to breathe.

    如果你像,大多數人一樣,在你開始感覺到呼吸的衝動之前,你可能可以屏住呼吸30秒,也許1分鐘。

  • But the truth is, most healthy people can actually hold their breath quite a bit longer than that.

    但事實是,大多數健康人實際上可以比這更長的時間屏住呼吸。

  • Some people can hold it a lot longer.

    有些人可以堅持得更久。

  • The current world record is 11:32.

    目前的世界紀錄是11:32。

  • And as if that weren't ridiculous enough, some competitions allow athletes to breathe pure oxygen before their breath holds.

    而且,如果這還不夠荒謬的話,一些比賽允許運動員在憋氣之前吸入純氧。

  • In 2016 spanish free diver Alex Segura used this technique to go 24 minutes and three seconds without breathing.

    2016年,西班牙自由潛水員亞歷克斯-塞古拉(Alex Segura)使用這種技術,在24分鐘零3秒內沒有呼吸。

  • How is that possible to find out?

    這怎麼可能查出來呢?

  • I spoke with professional free divers and researchers who study their physiology.

    我與專業自由潛水員和研究其生理學的研究人員進行了交談。

  • I also took a crash course in proper breath holding technique when I started I could hold my breath for about a minute, but by the end I was holding it way longer than I ever would have expected.

    我還參加了正確的屏氣技術速成班,開始時我可以屏氣一分鐘左右,但到最後我屏氣的時間遠遠超過我的預期。

  • But before we get to that, let's talk about some of the science behind breath holding and why the professionals are so much better at it than the rest of us.

    但在這之前,讓我們先談談憋氣背後的一些科學知識,以及為什麼專業人士在這方面比我們其他人要好得多。

  • The reason why some people are better at holding their breath for a long time would be partly genetics and partly because of training.

    為什麼有些人更善於長時間憋氣,部分原因是遺傳,部分原因是訓練。

  • That's Peter Lynn paul, he's a physician researcher at Sweden's Karolinska Institute.

    那是彼得-林恩-保羅,他是瑞典卡羅林斯卡學院的一名醫生研究員。

  • He's been studying the physiology of elite breath hold divers for more than two decades.

    20多年來,他一直在研究精英憋氣潛水員的生理學。

  • He says that a lot of them are just physically gifted, take lung size, for example, The average human has a total lung capacity of between four and 6 L but many of the world's top free divers have lung capacities of 10 liters or more.

    他說,他們中的很多人只是身體上有天賦,以肺部大小為例,普通人的總肺活量在4到6升之間,但世界上許多頂級自由潛水員的肺活量都在10升以上。

  • This isn't necessarily something that they've trained.

    這不一定是他們訓練過的東西。

  • They were just born with big lungs on top of this.

    他們只是在此基礎上生出了大肺。

  • Many professional free divers use the muscles of their mouth and throat to overfill their lungs with air.

    許多專業的自由潛水員利用他們的嘴和喉嚨的肌肉使他們的肺部過度充滿空氣。

  • This is called lung packing the X ray footage you see here shows an elite free diver using the technique to expand his lungs.

    這被稱為肺部包裝,你在這裡看到的X射線鏡頭顯示了一位精英自由潛水員使用該技術來擴大他的肺部。

  • Several leaders beyond their normal capacity lin home also says a lot of elite breath holders have relatively slow metabolisms and relatively large blood volumes, which makes sense your blood and your lungs hold oxygen and your body consumes it.

    幾位領導人超出了他們的正常能力林家還說,很多精英呼吸者的新陳代謝相對緩慢,血量相對較大,這是有道理的,你的血液和肺部持有氧氣,你的身體消耗它。

  • The slower you turn through your oxygen supply, the longer you can go on a breath full of air before succumbing to unconsciousness.

    你的氧氣供應轉得越慢,在屈服於無意識之前,你可以靠充滿空氣的呼吸走得越久。

  • But when it comes to breath holding lung size is only part of the equation.

    但是當涉及到憋氣時,肺的大小隻是方程式的一部分。

  • Even more important is a physiological response called the mammalian diving reflex.

    更重要的是一種叫做哺乳動物潛水反射的生理反應。

  • When you hold your breath, it actually causes your heart rate to slow down.

    當你屏住呼吸時,實際上會使你的心率減慢。

  • This reduces your body's oxygen consumption, and what that does is it reduces the blood flow to your legs and your arms so blood is pumped preferentially to the brain, which means that the oxygen that's in the blood and oxygen stores in the lungs is used by the brain and not consumed by your muscles.

    這減少了你身體的耗氧量,其作用是減少了流向你的腿和手臂的血液,是以血液被優先泵送到大腦,這意味著血液中的氧氣和肺部的氧氣儲存被大腦使用,而不是被你的肌肉消耗。

  • And cold water actually amplifies the response, exposing your face to cold water, activates your trigeminal nerves.

    而冷水實際上放大了這種反應,將你的臉暴露在冷水中,激活了你的三叉神經。

  • What are your trigeminal nerves?

    什麼是你的三叉神經?

  • Take your fingers and you pinch your cheek and you feel it.

    用你的手指捏住你的臉頰,你會感覺到它。

  • You have your trigeminal nerves to think they're responsible for sensation in your face, but they also connect to the part of your nervous system that regulates your heart.

    你有你的三叉神經,認為它們負責你臉上的感覺,但它們也連接到你的神經系統的一部分,調節你的心臟。

  • It's not totally clear how or why this response evolved and it's found in a lot of animals, but for some reason when your trigeminal nerves get chilly, they tell your autonomic nervous system to tell your heart to slow things down and as it turns out, slowing down is probably the single most important thing you can do when you're working with a limited supply of oxygen.

    目前還不完全清楚這種反應是如何或為什麼演化出來的,它在很多動物身上都能找到,但出於某種原因,當你的三叉神經感到寒冷時,它們會告訴你的自主神經系統,讓你的心臟放慢速度,事實證明,當你在有限的氧氣供應下工作時,放慢速度可能是你能做的最重要的一件事。

  • I don't try to focus too hard.

    我並不試圖太過專注。

  • This is also a sport where you can't really just push it like you can, you know, get them do a run and really pump yourself and go do it.

    這也是一項運動,你不能真的像你能做的那樣去推動它,你知道,讓他們做一次跑步,真的給自己打氣並去做。

  • This is something completely the opposite.

    這是個完全相反的東西。

  • You have to be really, really relaxed.

    你必須非常、非常放鬆。

  • Serbian free diver Laina balta is a 16 time national record holder.

    塞爾維亞自由潛水員萊娜-巴爾塔是16次全國紀錄保持者。

  • She showed us some of the techniques she uses to calm herself before a dive.

    她向我們展示了一些她在潛水前用來平靜自己的技巧。

  • The most important is a series of slow, controlled inhalations called a breath up.

    最重要的是一連串緩慢的、有控制的吸氣,稱為升氣。

  • These help her relax and purge her lungs of carbon dioxide when she's ready to go.

    這些幫助她放鬆,並在她準備離開時清除肺部的二氧化碳。

  • She takes a series of sharp inhales using the muscles of her diaphragm to fill her lungs before topping them off with some lung packing.

    她用橫膈膜的肌肉做了一連串急促的吸氣,以填充她的肺部,然後用一些肺部包裝來頂住它們。

  • Okay, these techniques take time and practice to perfect which is important because when done incorrectly they can be pretty harmful or even deadly purging too hard before a dive can cause you to black out.

    好吧,這些技巧需要時間和實踐來完善,這很重要,因為如果做得不正確,它們可能是相當有害的,甚至是致命的,在潛水前太過用力的淨化會導致你昏厥。

  • Which is not something you want to do in the water.

    這不是你想在水中做的事。

  • And it's exactly why divers not only compete but practice in the company of spotters and lung packing.

    這也正是為什麼潛水員不僅要參加比賽,還要在探照燈和肺部包裝的陪伴下進行練習。

  • I can actually tear the tissues in your lungs.

    我實際上可以撕裂你肺部的組織。

  • But Lindholm's says that with just a few hours of supervision and instruction, most people can actually learn to hold their breath well over two minutes.

    但林德霍姆說,只要有幾個小時的監督和指導,大多數人實際上可以學會屏住呼吸,遠遠超過兩分鐘。

  • So I gave it a shot to brian Stanley is a free diving instructor at bamboo reef dive shop in san Francisco.

    所以我給了布萊恩-斯坦利一個機會,他是舊金山竹礁潛水店的免費潛水教練。

  • He had me start by holding my breath on land with my face in a bowl of cold water.

    他讓我先在陸地上屏住呼吸,把臉放在一碗冷水中。

  • I lasted about a minute.

    我堅持了大約一分鐘。

  • But thanks to the mammalian dive response, my heart rate dropped from 74 to 51.

    但由於哺乳動物的潛水反應,我的心率從74下降到51。

  • Next Brian had me move outside to the pool deck to hold my breath while lying down.

    接下來,布萊恩讓我移到外面的泳池甲板上,在躺下時屏住呼吸。

  • The idea here was to help my body relax.

    這裡的想法是幫助我的身體放鬆。

  • This time I held my breath for just over two minutes.

    這一次,我屏住呼吸,只用了兩分多鐘。

  • Next brian taught me some basic breathing techniques to use my diaphragm to fill my lungs and to focus on relaxing and what this will do is it will help to relax your muscles, reduce any stress or tension that you have in the body and then get that heart rate lower which is key for starting your free dive.

    接下來Brian教了我一些基本的呼吸技巧,用橫膈膜來填充我的肺部,並專注於放鬆,這將有助於放鬆你的肌肉,減少你身體中的任何壓力或緊張,然後使心率降低,這是開始自由潛水的關鍵。

  • As I held my breath, he calmly instructed me to relax every part of my body, beginning with my toes progressing up to my head and then going back down to my feet.

    當我屏住呼吸時,他平靜地指導我放鬆身體的每個部分,從腳趾開始,一直到頭,然後再回到腳下。

  • If you've ever taken a yoga class, it felt surprisingly similar to that before I knew it.

    如果你曾經上過瑜伽課,在我知道之前,感覺和這一點出奇的相似。

  • I had held my breath for just over three minutes.

    我已經憋了三分鐘多一點的氣。

  • Finally brian had me put on a wetsuit and get in the pool where we did some more breathing exercises and finally had me lie face down and hold my breath for as long as possible.

    最後,布萊恩讓我穿上潛水服,進入游泳池,我們又做了一些呼吸練習,最後讓我面朝下躺著,儘可能長時間地屏住呼吸。

  • Now there's a few things going on here for starters.

    現在,這裡有幾件事情要做,首先是。

  • Being in the pool did a lot to relieve tension throughout my body.

    在游泳池裡,對緩解我全身的緊張感有很大作用。

  • I found it much easier to relax while bobbing in the water than I did when I was on the pool deck and the wetsuit made me super buoyant, which helped me relax even further.

    我發現在水中晃動時比在泳池甲板上時更容易放鬆,而且潛水服使我具有超級浮力,這有助於我進一步放鬆。

  • Nobody knows for sure, but the mustache probably helped you.

    沒人知道,但鬍子可能對你有幫助。

  • After two minutes in the water brian started having me signal with my finger every few seconds to let him know I was okay, We'll say this again, please never attempt this without professional supervision.

    在水中兩分鐘後,布萊恩開始讓我每隔幾秒鐘用手指示意,讓他知道我沒事。我們再說一遍,在沒有專業人員監督的情況下,請不要嘗試這樣做。

  • And before I knew it I had lasted three minutes and then three minutes and 30 seconds.

    在我知道之前,我已經堅持了3分鐘,然後是3分30秒。

  • Then three minutes and 45 seconds.

    然後是3分45秒。

  • There you go, Nice and slow.

    你去那裡,漂亮而緩慢。

  • Bring your feet in, hold, catch your breath, That was so cool.

    把你的腳伸進去,保持住,抓住你的呼吸,這太酷了。

  • 4 16.

    4 16.

  • That's insane.

    這真是瘋了。

  • That's awesome.

    這真是太棒了。

  • 4 16, Yeah.

    4 16,是的。

  • Nice job.

    幹得好。

  • Thank you so much.

    非常感謝你。

two.

兩個。

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プロダイバーに聞く「一般人が4分以上息を止められる」呼吸法とは? | Almost Impossible | WIRED.jp (プロダイバーに聞く「一般人が4分以上息を止められる」呼吸法とは? | Almost Impossible | WIRED.jp)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2022 年 08 月 17 日
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