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  • It's hard to imagine but just 300 years ago,

    這很難想象,但就在300年前。

  • it was widely believed that insects spontaneously spawned

    人們普遍認為,昆蟲會自發地產卵

  • from dust, mud or rotten meat.

    從灰塵、泥土或爛肉中。

  • Their reproduction was felt to be so strange and frightening,

    他們的繁殖被認為是如此奇怪和令人恐懼。

  • they were known as beasts of the devil.

    他們被稱為魔鬼的野獸。

  • It's partly thanks to the work of naturalist and illustrator,

    這部分要歸功於博物學家和插畫家的工作。

  • Maria Sibylla Merian,

    瑪麗亞-西比拉-梅里安。

  • that we can now find this idea amusing.

    我們現在可以發現這個想法很有趣。

  • Today Merian is celebrated as one of the world's first ecologists.

    今天,梅里安被譽為世界上最早的生態學家之一。

  • She is admired by Sir David Attenborough,

    她受到大衛-愛登堡爵士的欽佩。

  • who described her as one of the most significant contributors

    他形容她是最重要的貢獻者之一

  • to entomology, the study of insects.

    對昆蟲學,即對昆蟲的研究。

  • But she faced many challenges in her journey to educate the world,

    但她在教育世界的道路上面臨許多挑戰。

  • not least because of her sex.

    至少因為她的性別。

  • Born into a family of artists in Frankfurt in 1647,

    1647年出生於法蘭克福的一個藝術家家庭。

  • Merian spent her childhood collecting insects

    梅里安在她的童年中收集昆蟲

  • and drawing them in remarkable detail.

    並把它們畫得非常詳細。

  • In 1665, she married and soon had two daughters.

    1665年,她結婚並很快有了兩個女兒。

  • In an age where a woman's place was thought to be in the home,

    在一個女人的位置被認為是在家裡的時代。

  • she defied convention,

    她不顧慣例。

  • publishing her first book, New Book of Flowers, in 1675.

    1675年出版了她的第一本書《花之新書》。

  • Merian was one of the first to describe

    梅里安是最早描述以下內容的人之一

  • the metamorphosis of insects in detail,

    詳細介紹昆蟲的蛻變過程。

  • declaring that all moths and butterflies

    宣佈所有飛蛾和蝴蝶

  • hatch from eggs after reproduction and do not just magically appear.

    在繁殖後從卵中孵化,並不只是神奇地出現。

  • In 1699, Merian, by then divorced,

    1699年,梅里安,當時已經離婚了。

  • sold her belongings and set sail to Suriname in South America

    她賣掉了自己的物品,啟程前往南美洲的蘇利南。

  • with one of her daughters, Dorothea.

    與她的一個女兒,多蘿西婭。

  • She's thought to be the first woman to travel in the name of science.

    她被認為是第一位以科學的名義進行旅行的女性。

  • After a long sea journey, they set off into the jungle,

    經過漫長的海上旅程,他們開始進入叢林。

  • battling through thick clouds of black flies

    在厚厚的黑蒼蠅雲中搏鬥

  • that inflicted skin-ripping bites - but it was worth it.

    導致皮膚撕裂的咬傷--但這是值得的。

  • The jungles of Suriname were a naturalists' paradise,

    蘇利南的叢林是自然主義者的天堂。

  • teeming with species that would later be documented

    充滿了後來被記錄下來的物種

  • in Merian's groundbreaking work,

    在梅里安的開創性工作中。

  • 'The Metamorphosis of the Insects of Suriname', published in 1705.

    蘇利南昆蟲的蛻變》,1705年出版。

  • Its stunning illustrations depicted stages of development of Suriname's

    其令人驚歎的插圖描繪了蘇利南的發展階段。

  • veracious caterpillars and vibrant butterflies,

    貪婪的毛蟲和充滿活力的蝴蝶。

  • as well as many other creatures from this exotic habitat.

    以及許多其他來自這個異國棲息地的生物。

  • Uniquely for the time, she also portrayed insects surrounded

    與眾不同的是,她還描寫了被包圍的昆蟲。

  • by the plants they relied on,

    由他們所依賴的植物。

  • revealing their relationship to the wider ecosystem.

    揭示了它們與更廣泛的生態系統的關係。

  • She was the first to show that the change from caterpillar to butterfly

    她是第一個表明從毛毛蟲到蝴蝶的變化的人。

  • depended on a number of plants.

    依賴於一些植物。

  • Though she had planned to stay longer,

    儘管她曾計劃呆得更久。

  • Merian's adventure was cut short by illness

    梅里安的冒險因疾病而中斷

  • and after two years she returned to Amsterdam.

    兩年後,她回到了阿姆斯特丹。

  • Given the challenges of working in a humid and unfamiliar environment,

    鑑於在潮溼和不熟悉的環境中工作的挑戰。

  • it is remarkable how many species she was able to observe

    她能觀察到這麼多的物種,真是了不起。

  • and catalogue in that time.

    和目錄,在這段時間裡。

  • Her writing is also notable for acknowledging the mistreatment

    她的寫作也因承認虐待而受到關注。

  • of enslaved indigenous and African people

    被奴役的土著和非洲人民的

  • and their contribution to her research.

    以及他們對她的研究的貢獻。

  • She wrote in her description of the peacock flower,

    她在對孔雀花的描述中寫道。

  • 'The Indians, who are not treated well by their Dutch masters,

    '印第安人,他們沒有受到荷蘭主人的善待。

  • use the seeds to abort their children,

    用種子來打掉他們的孩子。

  • so that they will not become slaves like themselves.'

    這樣他們就不會像自己一樣成為奴隸。

  • Merian suffered a stroke in 1715 that left her unable to work.

    梅里安在1715年中風,使她無法工作。

  • She died two years later, aged 69.

    兩年後她去世了,享年69歲。

  • However, Merian's legacy has endured.

    然而,梅里安的遺產經久不衰。

  • To date, at least six plants, nine butterflies, two bugs,

    到目前為止,至少有六種植物,九隻蝴蝶,兩隻蟲子。

  • a spider and a lizard, have been named after her.

    一隻蜘蛛和一隻蜥蜴,都是以她的名字命名。

  • Despite being over 300 years old, her work on the biodiversity

    儘管已經有300多年的歷史,她在生物多樣性方面的工作

  • of Suriname is still valued by scientists

    蘇利南的 "大熊貓 "仍然受到科學家的重視。

  • and could show us how some species may adapt to climate change.

    並可以向我們展示一些物種可能如何適應氣候變化。

It's hard to imagine but just 300 years ago,

這很難想象,但就在300年前。

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B1 中級 中文 昆蟲 蝴蝶 物種 植物 叢林 出版

瑪麗亞-西比拉-梅里安:永遠改變了科學的女人 | BBC創意 (Maria Sibylla Merian: The woman who changed science forever | BBC Ideas)

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    Summer 發佈於 2022 年 06 月 09 日
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