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  • In /On the Genealogy of Morals/, Nietzsche searches through history for the origins of

    在《道德的譜系》中,尼采通過歷史來尋找道德的起源。

  • morality.

    道德。

  • And in it, he talks about how some people use morality like a dog-leash to control others.

    在這本書中,他談到了一些人如何利用道德像狗鏈一樣來控制他人。

  • They use morality to get people to do what they want.

    他們利用道德來讓人們做他們想做的事。

  • It's an interesting idea with lots of implications, but I'm interested in exploring one particular

    這是一個有趣的想法,有很多影響,但我對探索一個特定的問題感興趣

  • version of this idea: /playing the victim/. Someone who plays the victim is an example

    這個想法的版本。/扮演受害者/。扮演受害者的人是一個例子

  • of someone who uses morality to gain power, and that's what I wanna explore in this

    一個利用道德獲得權力的人,而這正是我想在這本書中探討的。

  • essay.

    作文。

  • But before we can understand what it means to /play the victim/, we need to understand

    但在我們能夠理解 "扮演受害者 "的含義之前,我們需要理解

  • what it means to be a victim.

    成為一個受害者意味著什麼。

  • For this essay, we can define a /victim/ as /someone who is taken advantage of by another

    在這篇文章中,我們可以將 "受害者 "定義為 "被他人利用的人"。

  • person/.

    人/。

  • And we can call /the act of taking advantage of someone/ a /crime/.

    而我們可以把/利用別人的行為/稱為/犯罪/。

  • And typically, what we want for all victims is /justice/.

    而通常情況下,我們對所有受害者的要求是/公正/。

  • And /justice/, as discussed by Nietzsche, can be thought of as /giving back to the victim

    而尼采所討論的 "正義",可以被認為是對受害者的 "回饋"。

  • what was lost when the crime was committed/.

    罪行發生時失去的東西/。

  • In other words, you can think of justice as /the repaying of debts/: the criminal must

    換句話說,你可以把正義看作是/償還債務/:罪犯必須

  • repay the debt they acquired by taking advantage of the victim.

    償還他們通過利用受害者獲得的債務。

  • I'm not saying this is what justice means, but this is a way many people understand justice,

    我並不是說這就是正義的含義,但這是許多人理解正義的一種方式。

  • and this definition is important in the context of this video.

    而這個定義在本視頻的背景中很重要。

  • So what does it mean to play the victim?

    那麼,扮演受害者是什麼意思?

  • What separates a genuine victim from someone playing the victim?

    是什麼將真正的受害者與扮演受害者的人區分開來?

  • A genuine victim was actually taken advantage of, but someone playing the victim wasn't.

    一個真正的受害者實際上被利用了,但扮演受害者的人沒有被利用。

  • And how do you determine whether someone was actually taken advantage of?

    而你如何確定某人是否真的被利用了?

  • It comes down to /consent/. Someone is taken advantage of when their presence is used in

    這歸結為/consent/。當一個人的存在被利用時,他就被利用了。

  • a way they didn't agree to.

    一個他們不同意的方式。

  • And so a true victim did not give consent or was not in a position to give consent,

    是以,真正的受害者沒有給予同意,或者沒有能力給予同意。

  • such as in the case of a child or someone who was severely intoxicated.

    例如在兒童或嚴重醉酒的情況下。

  • But someone who plays the victim gives legitimate consent and then claims they didn't.

    但有人扮演受害者,給予合法的同意,然後聲稱他們沒有。

  • Or they claim /you/ consented to things which you didn't consent to or were not in a position

    或者他們聲稱/你/同意了一些你不同意的事情,或者不在一個位置上。

  • to consent to.

    同意。

  • I'll explore what both cases look like a little later on.

    我將在稍後探討這兩種情況是什麼樣子。

  • So why would someone play the victim?

    那麼,為什麼有人要扮演受害者呢?

  • To put it simply, they play victim so someone will save them from their problems.

    簡單地說,他們扮演受害者,以便有人將他們從問題中拯救出來。

  • They're looking for a rescuer.

    他們正在尋找一個救援者。

  • And how do they get people to save them?

    他們又是如何讓人們來拯救他們的呢?

  • Someone who plays the victim has two main weapons: obligation and guilt, and pity and

    扮演受害者的人有兩個主要武器:義務和內疚,以及憐憫和

  • disgust.

    厭惡。

  • Let's take a look at the first weapon: obligation and guilt.

    讓我們來看看第一種武器:義務和內疚。

  • Here, the person playing the victim claims that /you/ consented to things that you didn't

    在這裡,扮演受害者的人聲稱/你/同意了你沒有同意的事情。

  • consent to or were not in a position to consent to.

    願意或沒有能力同意。

  • They impose an obligation on you and make you feel guilty for not living up to the obligation.

    他們把義務強加給你,讓你為沒有履行義務而感到內疚。

  • They try to coerce you into paying a debt that you did not consent to taking on.

    他們試圖脅迫你支付你不同意承擔的債務。

  • Let's look at an example.

    我們來看看一個例子。

  • At the age of 22, Jane's husband left her with their two sons: Jamie and Michael.

    在22歲時,簡的丈夫帶著他們的兩個兒子離開了她。傑米和邁克爾。

  • Jane told herself that she would dedicate her life to her sons, and that in return they

    簡告訴自己,她將把自己的生命獻給她的兒子們,而作為回報,他們將

  • would take care of her.

    會照顧她。

  • /I will take care of them,/ she thought, /and in return, they can never leave me/.

    /我將照顧他們,/她想,/而作為回報,他們永遠不能離開我/。

  • So keep that in mind: Jane is imposing an obligation on her sons.

    所以要記住這一點。簡是在給她的兒子們施加義務。

  • She's binding them into a covert contract.

    她將他們捆綁在一個祕密的合同中。

  • But they're children.

    但他們是孩子。

  • They're not in a position to consent to such a contract.

    他們沒有資格同意這樣的合同。

  • So how does this play out?

    那麼,這種情況是如何發生的呢?

  • Jane will do anything for them as long as they don't leave her alone.

    只要他們不放過她,簡會為他們做任何事。

  • But as they start growing up, naturally, they start wanting to live their own lives.

    但隨著他們開始長大,自然而然地,他們開始想過自己的生活。

  • They want to spend time with their friends and lovers.

    他們希望與朋友和戀人共度時光。

  • And anytime they want to leave the house, anytime they want to do something without

    而且無論何時他們想離開家,無論何時他們想做什麼,都不需要

  • her, anytime she feels them creating some distance from her, their mom uses guilt and

    只要她覺得他們與她產生了一些距離,他們的媽媽就會利用內疚和

  • obligation to make them stay.

    有義務讓他們留下來。

  • She says, “after everything I've done for you, after all the time, energy, and money

    她說,"在我為你做了一切之後,在所有的時間、精力和金錢之後

  • I've spent on you, you're just going to leave me?!

    我在你身上花了錢,你就這樣離開我?

  • You are terrible sons!

    你們是可怕的兒子!

  • You should be ashamed!”

    你應該感到羞愧!"

  • But is this fair of Jane to do?

    但簡這樣做公平嗎?

  • She imposed this contract on her kids—/I will take care of you as long as you never

    她把這個合同強加給她的孩子們------我將照顧你,只要你永遠不

  • leave me/—when they were not in a position to consent to such a contract.

    離開我/--當他們沒有能力同意這樣的合同。

  • And whenever they seem to threaten her contract, she uses guilt and obligation to force them

    而每當他們似乎威脅到她的合同時,她就用內疚和義務來迫使他們

  • to comply again.

    再次遵守。

  • Instead of handling the problem of loneliness in a mature and healthy way, she emotionally

    她沒有以成熟和健康的方式處理孤獨的問題,而是在情緒上

  • blackmails her sons into rescuing her.

    勒索她的兒子們來救她。

  • Now let's look at the second weapon someone uses when playing the victim: pity and disgust.

    現在我們來看看有人在扮演受害者時使用的第二種武器:憐憫和厭惡。

  • Here, the person playing the victim claims that they did not give /you/ legitimate consent

    在這裡,扮演受害者的人聲稱,他們沒有給/你/合法的同意。

  • when they actually did.

    當他們真正做到了。

  • They're trying to claim they didn't give you legitimate consent so that others feel

    他們試圖聲稱他們沒有給你合法的同意,以便讓其他人感到

  • pity for them and disgust for you.

    對他們的憐憫和對你的厭惡。

  • If people feel pity for them, they get people on their side and increase the chances that

    如果人們對他們感到憐憫,他們就會讓人們站在他們一邊,並增加機會

  • someone will come and rescue them.

    有人會來救他們。

  • If people feel disgust for you, the person playing the victim turns people against you,

    如果人們對你感到厭惡,扮演受害者的人就會讓人們反對你。

  • which will increase the chances that you submit to their demands.

    這將增加你服從他們要求的機會。

  • Let's return to our example.

    讓我們回到我們的例子。

  • So Jane's attempt to use guilt and obligation works on one of her sons, Jamie, but they

    是以,簡試圖利用內疚和義務對她的一個兒子傑米起作用,但他們

  • fail to work on Michael.

    對邁克爾的工作失敗。

  • Michael tells his mom that he's moving away to go to a good college.

    邁克爾告訴他媽媽,他要搬走,去上一所好大學。

  • So what does Jane do when guilt and obligation fail?

    那麼,當內疚和義務失敗時,簡會怎麼做呢?

  • She uses pity and disgust.

    她用憐憫和厭惡。

  • She says to Jamie, the son who feels obligated to her, “can you believe Michael would do

    她對傑米說,這個對她有義務的兒子,"你能相信邁克爾會這麼做嗎?

  • that to his own mother?

    對他自己的母親這樣做?

  • He took all of my money and then left me all alone!”

    他拿走了我所有的錢,然後把我一個人留在那裡!"

  • She makes Jamie feel pity towards her, increasing the chances he'll rescue her, and makes

    她讓傑米對她產生憐憫之情,增加了他拯救她的機會,並使

  • him feel disgust towards his brother Michael, increasing the chances Jamie will abandon

    他對他的兄弟邁克爾感到厭惡,增加了傑米放棄的機會。

  • Michael or coerce him into submitting to his mother's demands.

    邁克爾或脅迫他服從他母親的要求。

  • But is it fair for Jane to claim that Michael took all of her money and left?

    但簡聲稱邁克爾拿了她所有的錢就走了,這公平嗎?

  • Remember, Jane's contract is /I will take care of you as long as you never leave me./Jane

    記住,簡的合同是/只要你不離開我,我就會照顧你。

  • was an adult when she chose to enter that contract for Michael, but Michael was just

    當她選擇為邁克爾簽訂那份合同時,她是一個成年人,但邁克爾只是

  • a baby.

    一個嬰兒。

  • Jane was capable of giving legitimate consent and did, but she expected a mutual consent

    簡有能力給予合法的同意,也確實這樣做了,但她期待著雙方的同意。

  • from Michael that he wasn't in a position to give as a child.

    從邁克爾那裡得到的是他作為一個孩子沒有能力給予的。

  • And even if Michael was able to give consent, he might not have wanted to enter into that

    即使邁克爾能夠表示同意,他也可能不願意進入這個圈子。

  • contract with his motherone where she supports him in exchange for him never leaving her

    他與母親簽訂合同,母親支持他,以換取他永遠不離開母親。

  • alone.

    獨自一人。

  • So she gave him legitimate consent to receive her support as a child, but now that he's

    所以她給了他合法的同意,讓他接受她作為一個孩子的支持,但現在他已經

  • not meeting her demands, she's trying to claim that she never gave him consent and

    在沒有滿足她的要求的情況下,她試圖聲稱她從來沒有給他同意,並且

  • that he took advantage of her.

    說他佔了她的便宜。

  • That's just one example of someone playing the victim, but it can happen in many different

    這只是某人扮演受害者的一個例子,但它可以發生在許多不同的場合。

  • types of relationships: between lovers, family, friends, or co-workers.

    關係類型:戀人、家人、朋友或同事之間。

  • But everyone who plays the victim has one thing in common: covert contracts.

    但每個扮演受害者的人都有一個共同點:祕密合同。

  • What's that?

    那是什麼?

  • It's a hidden expectation of someone else.

    這是對別人的一種隱性期待。

  • Remember, I said that a person can play the victim in two ways.

    記住,我說過,一個人可以通過兩種方式扮演受害者。

  • The first way is that they can give you legitimate consent and then claim they never gave it

    第一種方式是,他們可以給你合法的同意,然後聲稱他們從未給過你。

  • to you.

    給你。

  • But why would they claim they didn't give it to you?

    但為什麼他們會聲稱他們沒有給你呢?

  • Usually because they had a hidden expectation, a covert contract, which you didn't live

    通常是因為他們有一個隱藏的期望,一個隱祕的合同,而你並沒有生活在其中。

  • up to.

    到。

  • And so now they want to claim they never gave you consent to punish you or to make you fulfill

    是以,現在他們想聲稱他們從未給你同意,以懲罰你或讓你履行

  • the hidden expectation they have.

    他們所擁有的隱藏的期望。

  • The second way someone can play the victim is that they can claim /you/ gave consent

    有人扮演受害者的第二種方式是,他們可以聲稱/你/給予了同意

  • when you didn't or were not in a position to.

    當你沒有或沒有能力的時候。

  • In our previous example with Jane, the mother, she might say to her son Michael, “you were

    在我們前面的例子中,母親簡可能會對她的兒子邁克爾說,"你是

  • never supposed to leave me!”

    不應該離開我!"

  • But that was a hidden expectation, a covert contract, that Michael's mother had for

    但這是一個隱藏的期望,一個隱祕的契約,邁克爾的母親對他的期望。

  • him.

    他。

  • Michael never gave legitimate consent to that expectation.

    邁克爾從未對這種期望給予合法同意。

  • So how do we stop playing the victim or being manipulated by other people playing the victim?

    那麼,我們如何停止扮演受害者或被其他人扮演的受害者所操縱?

  • The answer comes back to /mutual consent between people who are in a position to give legitimate

    答案又回到了/有能力給予合法同意的人之間的相互同意。

  • consent/.

    同意/。

  • We need to be clear about what we want from others and what they want in return, and then

    我們需要清楚地知道我們想從別人那裡得到什麼,以及他們想要什麼回報,然後

  • we have to mutually consent to give one another those things.

    我們必須相互同意給予對方這些東西。

  • And in cases where the other party can't give us consent, such as our children, we

    而在另一方不能給予我們同意的情況下,例如我們的孩子,我們

  • are only free to give our consent to them, but we can't demand things of them that

    我們只能自由地對他們表示同意,但我們不能要求他們做那些事。

  • they aren't in a position to give us consent for.

    他們沒有能力給我們同意。

  • As always, this is just my opinion, understanding, and interpretation of some of Nietzsche's

    像往常一樣,這只是我對尼采的一些觀點、理解和解釋。

  • ideas, not advice.

    思想,而不是建議。

  • If you liked the video, please consider liking the video.

    如果你喜歡這個視頻,請考慮喜歡這個視頻。

  • And if you're looking for another Nietzsche video to watch after this one, I recommend

    如果你想在這個視頻之後再看一個尼采的視頻,我推薦

  • watching my videoNietzsche - Overcome Shame, Become Who You Are”.

    觀看我的視頻《尼采--克服羞恥,成為你自己》。

  • I'll put a link to it in the description below and in the top right of the screen right

    我會在下面的描述中和螢幕的右上方放一個鏈接。

  • now.

    現在。

In /On the Genealogy of Morals/, Nietzsche searches through history for the origins of

在《道德的譜系》中,尼采通過歷史來尋找道德的起源。

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尼采--謹防人們扮演受害者 (Nietzsche - Beware of People Playing the Victim)

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    Summer 發佈於 2022 年 05 月 18 日
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