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  • Linguistics isn't just the study of words or sounds: it's the study of all the parts of conversation.

    語言學不僅僅是對單詞或聲音的研究,這是種針對對話的所有部分所進行的研究。

  • That includes gesture analysis, which looks at "co-speech gestures". Not posture or gaze, but winking, or sticking out your tongue, or how arms and hands move alongside speech.

    其中包括了手勢動作分析,也就是著眼於「說話時的手勢動作」。不是說話時的姿態或目光接觸,而是眨眼、伸出舌頭, 或手臂和手掌是如何在說話時一起動作的。

  • Just to be clear, this isn't about sign languages. Those are systematic and rule-governed with elaborate syntax and vocabulary.

    澄清一下,這與手語不同。手語具有系統,且被複雜的語法與辭彙所約束。

  • Signed languages are language, but gestures are "paralinguistic"; they accompany language.

    手語是一種語言,而手勢動作則是「副語言」。它們隨扮在語言旁邊。

  • Gesture analysts make their job easier by talking about different categories of gestures, which explain how they relate to meaning.

    手勢動作分析師將不同的手勢動作以它們各自的涵義來進行分類,讓他們能更好理解。

  • And those are:

    這些分類分別為:

  • Number one: Iconic. These gestures represent a literal object, like a flat surface, or a car weaving through traffic.

    第一種:符號型。這些手勢動作代表的是一個實體的物品,例如一個扁平的平面,或是一台蛇行穿過擁擠交通的車。

  • Number two: Metaphoric. Gestures that symbolize an abstract concept, like "before" and "after", or "working together".

    第二種:隱喻型。這是象徵抽象概念的手勢動作,例如「之前」和「之後」,或是「一起合作」等。

  • I do that a lot, and on this greenscreen those metaphoric gestures become a bit more literal with the help of graphics.

    我經常做這些動作,而站在合成綠幕前面,這些隱喻性的手勢在圖形的幫助下能讓我想說的話變得更加清楚。

  • Apologies to my animator.

    我的動畫師,不好意思啦。

  • Three: Deictic. That's pointing to things, positioning yourself to people, or places or things like pointing behind the camera or "over there".

    第三種:指示型。比如指向某個東西、將自己定位到人或地方或事物旁邊,像是指向鏡頭後方,或單純指向「那裡」。

  • Number four: Pragmatic. Like offering the floor to someone, or "don't bother me right now".

    第四種:實用型。像是把講台讓給另一個人,或是「現在不要來煩我」。

  • And finally, Beat. The rhythm of gestures alongside the natural stress patterns of speech.

    最後一種則是節奏型。跟著講話時自然產生的重點而跟著做出的韻律性動作。

  • All these categories — I'm, I'm really self-conscious about every move I'm making now.

    所有的類型——害得我現在一直注意到自己的動作。

  • These categories can coexist as well. Often gestures that are performed "on beat" also fit into another category.

    這些類型也都能同時存在:通常「打在節拍上」的手勢動作同時也會屬於另一個類型。

  • There's one more type of gesture that serves a slightly different purpose: emblems.

    還有一種手勢動作的作用略有不同:象徵型。

  • Emblems are named gestures that don't have to occur alongside speech to have meaning, like "thumbs up".

    象徵型是不一定非要與語言同時出現才有意義的手勢動作,例如「豎起大拇指」。

  • It has a meaning outside of the context of speech. In a lot of the world, you can flash someone the thumbs up,

    它在說話的語境之外仍有意義:在世界上的很多地方,若是你向另一個人豎起大拇指,

  • and they'll almost certainly understand that you're signalling approval, or that everything's okay.

    它們幾乎肯定能了解你展現出的是許可,或是一切都好的意思。

  • But if you swap the fingers, it doesn't have the same meaning.

    但如果你換成豎起其他的手指就沒有同樣的意義了。

  • And even If I stick with the thumb, if I change angle and arm position, I'm trying to hitch-hike.

    甚至就算我還是豎著拇指,只要我改變一下角度和手臂的位置,就會變成想搭便車的動作。

  • The form of the gesture is tied to the established meaning. It Is an emblem.

    手勢動作的形式與一個已經定型的意義綁訂在一起,成為了一個象徵。

  • Which means it's not universal. The meaning is learned, and context can change it.

    這意味著它不具有普遍性。手勢動作背後的意義是後天學習的,會隨著情境而有所改變。

  • That thumbs up? In some countries, it used to be rude, but because of globalization, that's no longer the common reading there.

    剛才的大拇指動作?在一些國家中,這樣的動作在過去有著不禮貌的意涵,但由於國際化的緣故,使得這樣的認知不再是普遍的解讀。

  • Although there will be people who remember its rude history, and could still interpret it that way.

    儘管會有一些人仍會記得它過去代表不禮貌意涵的歷史,並仍會如此解讀。

  • Emblems can change definition over time, they can be created, they can be forgotten.

    象徵型動作可以隨著時間的推移改變定義,它們既能被創造,便能被遺忘。

  • I would demonstrate that by dabbing, but I don't want a GIF of that to haunt me for the rest of my life.

    我本來想透過做一個嘻哈超人動作來證明這點,但我可不想就此產生一張會困擾我到老的 GIF。

  • So why do we do it? What does gesturing actually accomplish?

    那麼,我們為什麼會做手勢動作呢?手勢動作究竟能達成什麼效果?

  • Well, first: redundancy for decoding and encoding errors.

    這個嘛,第一點:為了能解碼與分析理解錯誤而存在的多餘表達。

  • Languages have agreement all over the place. There's redundancy baked into everything.

    語言中到處都有約定俗成的事情,代表每一句話都有多餘的冗字。

  • Spoken language is ephemeral. Once something is said, it's gone.

    口頭語言是相當短暫的。一旦說了出口,便會消失在空氣中。

  • Those sound waves have moved on and they are not coming back.

    那些聲波在傳遞出去後已經遠離此地,不會再回來了。

  • Gesture is another form of redundancy. It doesn't matter if a loud [engine noise] drove by at just the wrong timeyou may have figured out a vague idea of what was being said.

    手勢動作則是另一種形式的多餘表達。就算講話時剛好有個大聲的 [引擎聲] 在錯誤的時間點騎了過去,你仍能對我剛才說了什麼有個模糊的概念。

  • Next, you can show emphasis and importance.

    另一點則是可以展現出同理心或重要性。

  • Or if you're explaining an abstract concept, using metaphoric gestures to visibly explain things can help make it cleareither to your conversation partner, or just in your own head.

    或者當你在解釋一個抽象的概念時,能使用隱喻型手勢動作來在視覺上解釋得更清楚,不論是對交談的對象來說,或是在你自己的腦袋裡釐清都行。

  • And sometimes, it is so much easier and clearer just to point.

    而有的時候,直接用指的比用嘴巴說還要更簡單且清楚得多。

  • Gestures are important to communication, and so important that if our hands and arms are unavailable, we will use our head, our eyes, our other limbs to compensate.

    手勢動作對交流來說相當重要,重要到當我們說話時如果手掌和手臂沒空的話,我們則用上頭部、眼睛,還有其他肢體來替代。

  • Gestures can also show understanding of social norms.

    手勢動作也可以展現出對社會規範的理解。

  • If you're embarrassed to say something, you can make that clear by covering your face or your eyes,

    如果你在說某件事時感到不好意思,你可以藉由遮住臉部或是眼睛來明確表現出這點,

  • or by doing the move that looks like "There are no paper towels or hand dryers in this bathroom so I guess I'll just shake it off".

    或你也能做出像是在說「因為這間廁所沒有擦手紙或烘手機,所以我想我就直接把水甩掉吧」的動作。

  • Or if you want to distance yourself from what you're saying you can use scare quotes, or you can put a boundary around yourself.

    或者如果你想要與你說的話保持距離,你也能用手勢比出引號,或是在自己周圍畫出一個範圍。

  • Gestures also seem to help us get the words out in the first place.

    手勢動作似乎也能幫助我們說出話來。

  • That's why people gesture even when they're on the phone, and why people who have been blind since birth gesture.

    這就是為什麼人們在打電話時也會做出手勢動作,以及為什麼天生便看不見的人也會做手勢動作。

  • Gesture is intrinsic to language.

    手勢動作是語言的內在屬性。

  • It helps us communicate more effectively and more elaborately, and to pass on information and feelings that are difficult to put into words.

    它能幫助我們更有效且更精確地進行溝通,傳遞出難以單純用語言表達出的資訊和感受。

  • Gestures are basically emoji for the real world.

    手勢動作基本上就是現實世界的表情符號。

  • One of my co-authors, Gretchen McCulloch, has a book called Because Internet, all about internet language.

    我的一位合著者 Gretchen McCulloch 寫了一本關於網路語言,名叫《因為網路》的書。

  • You can find out more at the links in the description.

    你可以通過影片資訊欄中的連接瞭解到更多資訊。

Linguistics isn't just the study of words or sounds: it's the study of all the parts of conversation.

語言學不僅僅是對單詞或聲音的研究,這是種針對對話的所有部分所進行的研究。

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B1 中級 中文 英國腔 手勢 語言 類別 意義 大拇指 抽象

說話的時候總是想「動手動腳」到底是為什麼!?人在說話時會不自覺做動作的原因(Why Do We Move Our Hands When We Talk?)

  • 1908 91
    Jeff Chiao 發佈於 2022 年 03 月 26 日
影片單字