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  • Pansy the chimp's extraordinary skills with human language have led researchers to explore the little-known world of chimpanzee communication.

    猩猩 Pansy 所展現出對人類語言的超凡理解,讓研究者們開始探索之前知之甚少,有關猩猩們如何交流的領域。

  • At Twycross Zoo, primatologist Dr. Katja Liebal is investigating the methods of communication chimps choose amongst themselves.

    在特威克斯動物園中,靈長類學家 Katja Liebal 博士正在調查猩猩們自行選擇並發展出來的溝通方式。

  • Although chimps can't speak, they use a range of gestures and facial expressions as a way of communicating.

    雖然猩猩們不會說話,但他們使用了多種示意動作與臉部表情作為溝通方式。

  • Chimps don't need language in their environment because they have a very complex communicative system based on nonverbal communication.

    猩猩們在自然環境中並不需要語言,因為牠們有著以非口語交流方式為基礎,非常複雜的溝通系統。

  • By observing many different groups of chimpanzees, Katja hopes to compile the world's first chimp dictionary.

    藉由觀察許多不同群體的猩猩們,Katja 希望能夠編纂出世界史上第一部猩猩字典。

  • The Twycross chimps are a useful group to study.

    特威克斯的猩猩們是個適合研究的群體。

  • There's an ongoing power struggle between the dominant male Kip and a young teenage challenger named Peter.

    目前牠們正處於佔據領導地位的雄性領袖 Kip,以及年輕的青少年挑戰爭 Peter 之間的權力鬥爭當中。

  • Fights between the pair are commonplace.

    兩者之間的打鬥相當常見。

  • The tension is producing a rich and varied array of chimp communication across the whole group.

    鬥爭所帶來的緊張感,使得整個群組表現出了豐富且多樣的猩猩交流方式。

  • The first gesture noticed by Katja comes as a direct result of the fight.

    Katja 注意到的第一個示意動作是一場打鬥之後的直接結果。

  • Peter is spotted making a facial expression that signifies fear.

    Peter 展現出了代表恐懼的面部表情。

  • The corners of the mouth are really withdrawn, and you can see the teeth.

    他的嘴角退縮到了相當後面,讓你能看到他的牙齒。

  • They also do this when they scream, so it can be slightly open.

    牠們在尖叫時也會這麼做,讓嘴巴能稍微張開。

  • Chimps also have a facial expression for playfulness.

    猩猩也有在玩樂時展現出的面部表情。

  • The mouth is open and the teeth are still covered with the lips.

    他們的嘴巴會張大,但是牙齒仍被嘴唇所覆蓋。

  • It would be like this, so this would be a play face.

    看起來像是這樣。這就是牠們在玩耍時的表情。

  • In this interaction, we can see Kip and William are chasing around, and you can see that it's a playful interaction because William actually has a play face.

    在 Kip 與 William 的互動中,兩者正在互相追逐著,而你可以看出來牠們其實正在玩耍,因為 William 的臉上有著玩耍時的表情。

  • But chimps gestures can be far more subtle than mere facial expressions.

    但猩猩的示意動作有時比起單純的臉部表情還要更加隱諱一些。

  • Immediately after their fight, Peter taps Kip lightly on the shoulder.

    在打鬥之後,Peter 輕輕拍了拍 Kip 的肩膀。

  • It's "Chimp" for saying, "Sorry!"

    這是「猩猩語」中說「抱歉啦!」的方式。

  • The individual that lost the fight will approach the more dominant one, and will extend its arm to ask for reconciliation, so this is an expression of submissive behavior.

    在打鬥中落敗的那方會接近更強勢的那方,並伸長手臂要求和解。這就是種表現服從的行為。

  • The chimps also show such communications as displaying, which means, "I'm the boss,"

    猩猩們也會用耀武揚威的方式行走,表示「這裡我做主」、

  • pouting, which means, "give me some food please,"

    噘起嘴巴,表示「拜託給我點食物吧」、

  • grooming, which means, "I am your friend and supporter."

    梳毛,表示「我站在你這邊,我支持你」。

  • Pretending to bite means, "I'm enjoying this play fight."

    作勢要咬對方,表示「我很享受這個鬧著玩的打鬥」。

  • All of these behaviors reinforce social bonds, communicate feelings, and establish who is in charge of the group.

    這些行為會加強社會聯繫、交流感受,並確立誰才是群體裡作主的猩猩。

  • They even perform actions that seem... all too human.

    牠們有些行為甚至看起來有點... 太像人了。

  • But while chimps across the world only have a limited repertoire of vocalizations, they constantly invent and share new gestures with each other.

    雖然全世界的猩猩們只能發出少少的幾個音,但牠們彼此之間會持續發明並分享新的示意動作。

  • One theory basically is that they imitate gestures from each other.

    有一個理論基本上在說牠們會模仿彼此的示意動作。

  • They learned their gestures by interacting with others.

    牠們會藉由與其他猩猩互動來學習示意動作。

  • The theory that chimps imitate each other's gestures has led some primatologist to believe that this behavior may have also been present in the ancient ancestors of humans,

    猩猩會彼此模仿動作的理論讓部分靈長類學家相信,遠古人類的祖先可能也具有這樣的行為,

  • and may have led to the languages that we all use today.

    並可能在最後促成了我們今日仍在使用的語言的出現。

Pansy the chimp's extraordinary skills with human language have led researchers to explore the little-known world of chimpanzee communication.

猩猩 Pansy 所展現出對人類語言的超凡理解,讓研究者們開始探索之前知之甚少,有關猩猩們如何交流的領域。

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猩猩也有自己的語言!?科學家成功破解猩猩語言的秘密(How to Speak Chimpanzee | Extraordinary Animals | BBC Earth)

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    Jeff Chiao 發佈於 2022 年 03 月 05 日
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