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  • Yeah.

    是的。

  • Yeah.

    是的。

  • This is a salmon cannon.

    這是一門鮭魚炮。

  • Its purpose is to shoot fish upriver.

    其目的是向上遊射魚。

  • Really cool.

    真的很酷。

  • But like why?

    但就像為什麼?

  • Well, because of this dams are not great for the environment around them because putting a wall up in the middle of a river tends to disrupt the ecosystem, including of course the migration of salmon.

    由於這個原因,大壩對周圍的環境並不是很好,因為在河流中間豎起一堵牆往往會破壞生態系統,當然包括鮭魚的遷移。

  • So, is there something that we can do about it?

    那麼,是否有什麼我們可以做的呢?

  • Yes.

    是的。

  • And I'll give you a hit.

    而我將給你一個打擊。

  • Yeah.

    是的。

  • Man made dams have been around for thousands of years and some of those are still in use today.

    人造大壩已經有幾千年的歷史,其中一些至今仍在使用。

  • They've helped with flood control, irrigation, drinking water and making electricity today.

    它們對防洪、灌溉、飲用水和今天的發電都有幫助。

  • Hydroelectric energy creates about 16% of the world's electricity and over 70% of the world's renewable energy, which is great, much, much better than burning coal.

    水電能源創造了世界上約16%的電力和超過70%的世界可再生能源,這很好,比燒煤好得多,好得多。

  • But as more and more dams were built to do good in the world, more and more people started to take notice of their negative impact on the environment.

    但是,隨著越來越多的水壩被建造出來,為世界帶來好處,越來越多的人開始注意到它們對環境的負面影響。

  • When dams were initially being created, they were really seen as modern miracles in some ways.

    當大壩最初被創建時,它們在某些方面確實被視為現代奇蹟。

  • But as dams were constructed, we often didn't think about the impacts that can happen to the health of our rivers and to our fisheries.

    但在建造大壩時,我們往往沒有想到會對我們的河流健康和漁業產生影響。

  • And it really wasn't until we went through a very large dam construction era in the twenties thirties, forties and fifties that we began to see cumulatively the impacts that dams are having throughout California and throughout the west, when you disrupt the flow of a river, there are so many negative consequences to the surrounding ecosystem that it's just hard to fit it all into one video.

    直到我們經歷了20世紀30年代、40年代和50年代的大型水壩建設時代,我們才開始看到水壩對整個加州和整個西部的累積影響,當你破壞河流的流動時,對周圍的生態系統有如此多的負面影響,以至於很難在一個視頻中把它全部體現出來。

  • So trees rely on the flow to redistribute seeds.

    是以,樹木依靠流動來重新分配種子。

  • If you lessen the flow of water, it increases the water temperature, which is terrible to the health of plants and animals.

    如果你減少了水的流量,就會增加水溫,這對植物和動物的健康是很糟糕的。

  • If you hold water back by dams, that water becomes toxic or it'll lose oxygen, both of which are not good when that water is eventually released.

    如果你用水壩擋住水,水就會變得有毒或失去氧氣,這兩種情況在水最終被釋放時都不是好事。

  • Dams also stop the flow of sediment down river, which is again a huge problem by capturing water that would normally be flowing downstream.

    大壩還能阻止泥沙順流而下,這又是一個巨大的問題,因為它捕獲了通常會流向下游的水。

  • It changes the timing and the size of those flows and all the fish and wildlife that live in rivers has co evolved to that natural pattern and a damn changes that natural pattern.

    它改變了這些水流的時間和大小,而生活在河流中的所有魚類和野生動物已經共同進化到這種自然模式,而該死的東西改變了這種自然模式。

  • So now the system doesn't function like it used to.

    所以現在這個系統的功能不像以前那樣了。

  • And maybe the most glaring problem with dams is that it affects fish, specifically how the fish are able to navigate their home to do something that's pretty important reproduce and the poster fish for that damn damage might just be salmon.

    而大壩最突出的問題可能是它影響了魚類,特別是魚類如何在自己的家門口做一些相當重要的繁殖,而這種該死的損害的海報魚可能只是鮭魚。

  • Salmon have evolved to survive using this same natural pattern that rivers have with their high flows in the winter and they're low flows in the summertime dams have been constructed fairly low down in a river and often end up blocking the ability of fish to move upstream and access some of that habitat that they need to reproduce.

    鮭魚已經進化到使用這種自然模式生存,河流在冬季有高流量,夏季有低流量,大壩在河流中被建造得相當低,最終往往阻擋了魚類向上遊移動的能力,無法進入它們繁殖所需的一些棲息地。

  • Salmon populations have been declining for decades.

    幾十年來,鮭魚的數量一直在減少。

  • And many experts point to the installation of dams as being one of the major contributing factors to this.

    而許多專家指出,大壩的安裝是造成這種情況的主要因素之一。

  • So over the years, people have tried to work on solutions.

    是以,多年來,人們一直試圖努力尋找解決方案。

  • Maybe remember that salmon cannon that we started off with.

    也許還記得我們開始時的那門鮭魚炮。

  • That was just one example of something to help the fish get upstream to spawn.

    這只是幫助魚兒上流產卵的一個例子。

  • There's fish ladders, fish elevators and let's say that one more time again, fish cannons.

    有魚梯、魚電梯,讓我們再多說一次,魚炮。

  • But even though they're trying to help, still not the perfect solution.

    但即使他們在努力幫助,仍然不是完美的解決方案。

  • So if fish ladders and elevators and cannons aren't the answer, then what is a damn never lasts forever.

    是以,如果魚梯、電梯和大炮都不是答案,那麼什麼是該死的永遠不會持久的。

  • And so you have a situation where there is no longer a need for the dam and the cost of maintaining it is so high that it actually begins to make sense to take that damn out and to have a lot of the ecological benefits that would come from dam removal.

    是以,在這種情況下,不再需要大壩,而維護大壩的成本又如此之高,以至於實際上開始有理由把這個該死的大壩拆除,並獲得拆除大壩所帶來的許多生態效益。

  • Now, how do you remove a damn?

    現在,你如何刪除一個該死的?

  • It's not always explosions.

    並不總是爆炸。

  • Even though that is the most visually appealing.

    儘管這在視覺上是最吸引人的。

  • It actually takes a lot of work.

    這實際上需要大量的工作。

  • A lot of planning research permits, surveys and just taking it down in a way that doesn't harm the environment even more.

    大量的規劃研究許可、調查,只是在不損害環境的情況下把它拆下來,甚至更多。

  • But it does happen.

    但它確實發生了。

  • It's actually happened a lot in the us alone.

    實際上,僅在美國就發生了很多這樣的事情。

  • Over 1200 dams have been removed and that helps restore the rivers that they were impacting.

    超過1200座大壩已經被拆除,這有助於恢復它們所影響的河流。

  • One of the most successful dam removal projects that's occurred recently has been on the Elwha The removal of the dam has opened up so much important salmon habitat.

    最近發生的最成功的大壩拆除項目之一是在埃爾瓦河上,大壩的拆除打開了許多重要的鮭魚棲息地。

  • That's really helped populations to improve.

    這確實有助於人口的改善。

  • Prior to dam removal.

    在拆除大壩之前。

  • This area we're standing in was underwater.

    我們所站的這個區域是在水下。

  • I am from port Angeles Washington and I'm a member of the lower Elwha column tribe.

    我來自華盛頓州的安吉利斯港,我是下艾爾瓦哈柱族的成員。

  • I grew up with the L.

    我是在L字頭下長大的。

  • A.

    A.

  • River in my backyard.

    我家後院的河。

  • Sometimes literally before the dams were removed.

    有時簡直就是在大壩被拆除之前。

  • Occasionally the river would flood into our backyards.

    偶爾,河水會湧入我們的後院。

  • So the removal of the Elwha Dam began in 2011.

    是以,Elwha大壩的拆除工作於2011年開始。

  • And since that time the landscape has changed so much where the former reservoirs once were.

    從那時起,以前的水庫所在的地方的景觀已經發生了很大的變化。

  • So you can see where it gets rocky.

    所以你可以看到它在哪裡變得坎坷。

  • That is the edge that's the water line where the lake used to be.

    那是邊緣,是湖泊過去的水線。

  • We now have trees growing in.

    我們現在有樹木在生長。

  • We have animals that have returned to the landscape.

    我們有動物已經回到了景觀中。

  • The removal of the Elwha Dam is the biggest dam removal project in history.

    Elwha大壩的拆除是歷史上最大的水壩拆除項目。

  • Also one of the biggest river rehabilitation success stories and by restoring the vegetation.

    也是最大的河流修復成功案例之一,並通過恢復植被。

  • We are restoring the habitat for other wildlife to move back in.

    我們正在為其他野生動物恢復棲息地,以便它們重新遷入。

  • And so we know that while life play a role in the environment, we know that they can transport seeds And restructure the plant communities and also alter water flow.

    是以我們知道,雖然生命在環境中發揮著作用,但我們知道它們可以運輸種子並重組植物群落,還可以改變水流。

  • The first year 2014, we saw very little beaver activity.

    2014年的第一年,我們看到海狸的活動非常少。

  • By 2016, the beavers had discovered both like beds and we're using both habitats.

    到2016年,海狸已經發現了這兩個像床,我們正在使用這兩個棲息地。

  • They had figured it out.

    他們已經想通了。

  • There were efforts for 100 years by the lower Elwha tribe to have the dams removed.

    100年來,下艾爾瓦哈部落一直努力要求拆除水壩。

  • So I just find L.

    所以我只是找到了L。

  • A dam removal to be so inspiring and I hope that it inspires others to protect the places that they love and call home.

    一座大壩的拆除是如此鼓舞人心,我希望它能激勵其他人保護他們所愛的、稱之為家園的地方。

  • The Elbe River is a great success story and new bigger dam removal projects are already in the works.

    易北河是一個偉大的成功案例,新的更大的拆壩項目已經在進行中。

  • These projects are a great testament to the communities, tribes, scientists, and activists who have fought to restore these ecosystems.

    這些項目是對為恢復這些生態系統而奮鬥的社區、部落、科學家和活動家的最好證明。

  • But the truth is not every damn can be taken down.

    但事實是,不是每一個該死的都能被拿下。

  • It's unrealistic for us to get rid of all dams.

    對我們來說,擺脫所有水壩是不現實的。

  • At this point we need dams in order to capture water that is needed for farms and for cities.

    在這一點上,我們需要大壩,以便捕獲農場和城市所需的水。

  • But we can manage our dams in ways where we operate them to maintain the physical and biological processes that are so important for fish and for wildlife, dams can provide a lot for communities, clean water, irrigation, flood protection, clean energy and even recreation.

    但我們可以通過管理大壩的方式,使其保持對魚類和野生動物非常重要的物理和生物過程,大壩可以為社區、清潔水、灌溉、防洪、清潔能源甚至是娛樂提供很多東西。

  • So it's unrealistic for us to remove every single damn out there, but it is extremely realistic to make current dams more environmentally friendly and remove dams that aren't doing any good at all.

    是以,讓我們把每一個該死的東西都清除掉是不現實的,但讓目前的大壩更加環保,清除那些沒有任何好處的大壩是非常現實的。

  • And we can use all of this knowledge to raise awareness for the thousands of proposed dam projects worldwide.

    而且我們可以利用所有這些知識來提高人們對全世界數以千計的擬建大壩項目的認識。

  • If you're interested in learning more about river health and how community activism can bring about positive change.

    如果你有興趣瞭解更多關於河流健康和社區活動如何帶來積極變化。

  • Check out this secret indie documentary guardians of the river about the Yurok tribes campaign to restore the Klamath River.

    請看這部祕密的獨立紀錄片《河流的守護者》,講述了尤羅克部落恢復克拉瑪斯河的運動。

Yeah.

是的。

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B1 中級 中文 大壩 拆除 河流 水壩 鮭魚 魚類

所有的水壩都應該被拆除嗎? (Should All Dams Be Removed?)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 11 月 15 日
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