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  • It's one of your most basic needs,

    這是你最基本的需求之一。

  • but do you have a right to water?

    但你有權利喝水嗎?

  • This episode will show how the law protects something we all need.

    本集將展示法律如何保護我們都需要的東西。

  • Two billion people worldwide don't have access to safe water...

    全世界有20億人無法獲得安全用水...

  • How the UN wants to change that by 2030...

    聯合國希望在2030年之前改變這種狀況...

  • And... can you use the law to make sure your community

    還有......你能否利用法律來確保你的社區

  • is kept supplied with water?

    是否一直有水供應?

  • We all need water.

    我們都需要水。

  • So, you'd expect it to be on any list of our basic rights.

    是以,你會期待它出現在我們的基本權利清單上。

  • So, this might surprise you:

    所以,這可能會讓你吃驚。

  • 1948 – and one of the most important documents

    1948年--也是最重要的文件之一

  • in human history is unveiled.

    揭開了人類歷史上的神祕面紗。

  • The Universal Declaration of Human Rights

    世界人權宣言

  • outlines what we are all entitled to

    概述了我們都有權獲得的東西--

  • things like life, freedom from slavery,

    諸如生命,擺脫奴役的自由。

  • freedom to marry. But, oddly, not free access to water.

    結婚的自由。但是,奇怪的是,沒有自由獲得水。

  • It's thought access to water wasn't included

    人們認為水的獲取並不包括在內。

  • because the authors thought it was too obvious.

    因為作者認為這太明顯了。

  • However, that was dealt with in 2010,

    然而,這在2010年得到了處理。

  • on 28th July of that year, the United Nations General Assembly

    同年7月28日,聯合國大會

  • declared safe and clean drinking water and sanitation a human right.

    宣佈安全和清潔的飲用水和衛生設施是一項人權。

  • They saw that a right to water is essential.

    他們看到,水的權利是至關重要的。

  • Without it, you can't actually use all your other basic rights.

    沒有它,你就不能真正使用你所有的其他基本權利。

  • But, in 2019, the United Nations reported

    但是,在2019年,聯合國報告說

  • that two billion people still don't have access to water.

    有20億人仍然無法獲得水。

  • And it's an unfair picture.

    而這是一幅不公平的畫面。

  • The UN says half of the people who drink water from unsafe sources

    聯合國表示,在飲用不安全水源的人中,有一半的人

  • live in Africa.

    生活在非洲。

  • In Sub-Saharan Africa, only 24% of the population

    在撒哈拉以南非洲,只有24%的人口

  • have access to safe drinking water.

    有機會獲得安全的飲用水。

  • So, what can the law do to help? Let's hear from Amanda Loeffen,

    那麼,法律能做些什麼來幫助呢?讓我們聽聽Amanda Loeffen的意見。

  • from the campaigning organisation Human Right to Water.

    來自運動組織 "水的權利"。

  • She explains why water has only recently been recognised as a right.

    她解釋了為什麼水在最近才被確認為一種權利。

  • It was never really a problem until, I suppose, in the last century:

    我想,直到上個世紀,這才是一個真正的問題。

  • there's been more population, more pollution.

    有更多的人口,更多的汙染。

  • Water's no longer automatically available.

    水不再是自動提供的。

  • It sometimes has to be sold to you with a cost

    它有時必須以成本價出售給你

  • and instead of it being a free resource,

    而不是作為一種免費資源。

  • that people could access in their local river or lake,

    人們可以在他們當地的河流或湖泊中獲得。

  • it's no longer available.

    它已不再可用。

  • So, there became a problem that needed to be dealt with.

    於是,就出現了一個需要處理的問題。

  • A right to water wasn't an official right

    水權並不是一項官方權利

  • because it wasn't seen as necessary until recently.

    因為直到最近,人們才認為這是必要的。

  • But because of problems caused by rising pollution

    但由於汙染加劇所造成的問題

  • and a growing population, it was officially recognised.

    和不斷增長的人口,它被正式承認。

  • Why do we need laws to define and protect our rights at all?

    為什麼我們需要法律來定義和保護我們的權利?

  • Well, without a law, there isn't a structure to our society.

    好吧,沒有法律,我們的社會就沒有一個結構。

  • You need something to define the...

    你需要一些東西來定義...

  • the fundamental values that we want to protect.

    我們想要保護的基本價值。

  • And laws are there to protect our safety

    而法律的存在是為了保護我們的安全

  • and guarantee that our rights as citizens

    並保證我們作為公民的權利

  • are not violated by other people,

    不受其他人的侵犯。

  • or organisations, or governments.

    或組織,或政府。

  • Laws not only protect us from harm,

    法律不僅保護我們免受傷害。

  • but also define what values we have as a society.

    但也定義了我們作為一個社會的價值觀。

  • They keep us safe and make us who we are.

    他們保護我們的安全,使我們成為我們自己。

  • What about our right to water specifically?

    我們的水權具體是什麼?

  • Having the right to water means that the government has to protect,

    擁有水權意味著政府必須保護。

  • respect and fulfil your rights.

    尊重和實現你的權利。

  • And it guarantees that your basic needs are...

    而且它保證你的基本需求是...

  • are met and if not, there'll be some compensation.

    得到滿足,如果沒有,會有一些補償。

  • Having a right to water means big organisations,

    擁有水權意味著大的組織。

  • like governments or companies, aren't allowed to stop you having it.

    像政府或公司,不允許阻止你擁有它。

  • If they do, you would be compensated in some way.

    如果他們這樣做,你會以某種方式得到補償。

  • What kinds of laws make sure we get water?

    什麼樣的法律能確保我們得到水?

  • Both hard law and soft law are applicable.

    硬法律和軟法律都適用。

  • Hard law is a term used for a legal document that is binding.

    硬法是指具有約束力的法律文件的術語。

  • For example, international law treaties are binding,

    例如,國際法條約具有約束力。

  • if they've signed them.

    如果他們已經簽署了這些文件。

  • Soft law means that the legal document is not binding

    軟法律是指法律文件沒有約束力

  • and this includes, for example, UN resolutions and declarations.

    而這包括,例如,聯合國的決議和宣言。

  • But soft law is still important as it can help us to interpret a hard law.

    但軟法律仍然很重要,因為它可以幫助我們解釋硬法律。

  • Both hard and soft laws are used.

    硬性法律和軟性法律都在使用。

  • Hard laws are things like treaties.

    硬法律是像條約一樣的東西。

  • If a country breaks one, it could go to an international court.

    如果一個國家違反了一個,它可以向國際法院起訴。

  • Soft laws are used to help us understand and use the hard laws.

    軟法律是用來幫助我們理解和使用硬法律的。

  • But as lots of people don't have water,

    但由於很多人沒有水。

  • does having a right to water really make a difference?

    擁有水權真的有意義嗎?

  • Yeah, it makes a massive difference.

    是的,這有很大的區別。

  • The right makes the state accountable and brings awareness to the issues

    權利使國家承擔責任,並使人們認識到這些問題。

  • and encourages progressive realisation of the right to water.

    並鼓勵逐步實現水權。

  • And for many people, once they realise that it is their right,

    而對許多人來說,一旦他們意識到這是他們的權利。

  • they then have the option to do something about it

    然後他們可以選擇做一些事情

  • and seek the advice of their local authority,

    並徵求當地政府的意見。

  • their ombudsman, or water service provider.

    他們的監察員,或水服務提供者。

  • Having a right to water makes a big difference.

    有了水權就有了很大的不同。

  • It makes people aware that they should have water

    它使人們意識到,他們應該有水

  • and that they can get help.

    並且他們可以得到幫助。

  • And it encourages them to go and get that help.

    而且它鼓勵他們去獲得這種幫助。

  • Amanda showed us how the fact we now have a right to water

    阿曼達向我們展示了我們現在如何擁有水權的事實

  • means the international community thinks it's vital for everyone.

    意味著國際社會認為這對每個人都至關重要。

  • She also explained how having a right can encourage you

    她還解釋了擁有權利如何能鼓勵你

  • to fight for what you need to survive.

    來爭取你所需要的生存。

  • As water is so important,

    由於水是如此重要。

  • how can we help those who are struggling to get it?

    我們如何幫助那些正在掙扎的人獲得?

  • Seventeen-year-old Joyce is on a mission

    十七歲的喬伊斯正在執行一項任務

  • to make clean water accessible for people in Rwanda.

    以使盧旺達人民能夠獲得清潔水。

  • We never had taps because we have water nearby our home,

    我們從來沒有水龍頭,因為我們的家附近有水。

  • so it's not hard work.

    所以,這並不是什麼難事。

  • We use small jerry cans to collect as much water as possible

    我們使用小號的豆腐桶來收集儘可能多的水

  • and put them in the big ones.

    並把它們放在大的地方。

  • She is president of her school's WASH club,

    她是她學校的WASH俱樂部的主席。

  • which tries to increase awareness of water and sanitation issues.

    試圖提高對水和衛生問題的認識。

  • She wants to find out what the barriers to clean water are

    她想知道清潔水的障礙是什麼

  • and whether they can be resolved.

    以及它們是否能夠得到解決。

  • Water from ponds and marshes can be dirty

    來自池塘和沼澤地的水可能是骯髒的

  • and dangerous to collect.

    和危險的收集。

  • A young boy drowned at this pond while collecting water.

    一個小男孩在這個池塘取水時溺水身亡。

  • Without safe access to clean water,

    沒有安全地獲得清潔的水。

  • lives are put at risk.

    生命被置於危險之中。

  • Joyce meets Gisele Umuhumuza,

    喬伊斯會見吉賽爾-烏姆胡姆扎。

  • from the government-owned Water and Sanitation Corporation.

    來自政府擁有的供水和衛生公司。

  • We try to target those that are very far,

    我們試圖針對那些非常遠的人。

  • those that are in the most need,

    那些最需要的人。

  • those areas where we have settlements that don't have water.

    那些我們有定居點的地區沒有水。

  • We aim that by 2024, people residing in urban areas

    我們的目標是,到2024年,居住在城市地區的人

  • get clean water within 200 metres,

    在200米內獲得清潔的水。

  • whereas in the rural areas they get water in 500 metres.

    而在農村地區,他們在500米內就能得到水。

  • That's our aim by 2024.

    這就是我們在2024年之前的目標。

  • So, how can the international community help them hit that target?

    那麼,國際社會如何幫助他們實現這一目標?

  • The UN wants access to clean water for all by 2030.

    聯合國希望到2030年所有人都能獲得清潔水。

  • How can the law help us get there?

    法律如何幫助我們達到這個目標?

  • Here's Dr Paul Orengoh, from the African Ministers Council on Water.

    這裡是非洲水務部長理事會的保羅-奧倫戈博士。

  • A new policy regime is needed in many countries

  • actually both developed... developed countries

    實際上都是發達的......發達的國家

  • and non-developed countriesat all levels,

    和非發達國家--在各個層面。

  • to accelerate access to clean water.

    以加快獲得清潔水的速度。

  • But of course, even beyond national level,

    但當然,甚至超越國家層面。

  • there are some level of interventions at the global level

    在全球範圍內有一定程度的干預措施

  • and at the regional level,

    以及在區域一級。

  • which may include increasing sector financing and support,

    其中可能包括增加部門融資和支持。

  • both in terms of moneyaid for development

    在資金方面--發展援助--都是如此。

  • but also in terms of technology.

    但在技術方面也是如此。

  • Paul thinks new policies from governments are needed

    保羅認為政府需要新的政策

  • to support international law,

    以支持國際法。

  • and more money is needed at a global level,

    並且在全球範圍內需要更多的資金。

  • but also at a national level.

    但也是在國家層面上。

  • What's preventing laws and agreements on water from being followed?

    是什麼阻礙了關於水的法律和協議得到遵守?

  • Political commitments and arguments are just but that:

    政治承諾和爭論也不過如此。

  • they're just political arguments and commitments.

    它們只是政治爭論和承諾。

  • In most instances, they do not come with a legal force,

    在大多數情況下,它們不具備法律效力。

  • so they all depend on political goodwill;

    所以它們都取決於政治上的善意。

  • while on the other hand, laws,

    而在另一方面,法律。

  • especially those dealing with access to water,

    特別是那些涉及獲得水的問題。

  • requires firm political will to... to enforce.

    需要有堅定的政治意願來......來執行。

  • So, without sufficient political will,

    是以,如果沒有足夠的政治意願。

  • the instruments created to enforce laws related to access to water

    為執行與獲得水有關的法律而制定的文書

  • simply goes dormant, as they lack the teeth to bite.

    簡單地進入休眠狀態,因為它們缺乏牙齒來咬人。

  • For water laws to actually have an impact on people's lives,

    為了使水法真正對人們的生活產生影響。

  • local politicians need to act to make sure they're followed;

    地方政治家需要採取行動,確保它們得到遵守。

  • otherwise the law is meaningless.

    否則,法律就毫無意義。

  • Could international law help you get access to water?

    國際法可以幫助你獲得水嗎?

  • The international law only provides for trans-boundary

  • or water of transnational nature:

    或跨國性質的水。

  • water that is shared by more than two or more countries.

    由兩個以上的國家共享的水。

  • So, in the case of water access within a given country,

    是以,在一個特定國家內獲得水的情況下。

  • then one would have to just consult the national laws that exist,

    那麼我們就必須參考現有的國家法律。

  • and institutions that are created by law

    和法律所規定的機構

  • to safeguard the human interest to water.

    以保障人類對水的利益。

  • Most international laws cover transnational disputes:

    大多數國際法涵蓋了跨國爭端。

  • water disputes between two countries.

    兩個國家之間的水爭端。

  • To get water in your own country,

    為了在自己的國家獲得水。

  • you mostly have to rely on your own country's national laws.

    你主要得依靠你自己國家的國家法律。

  • What can you do to help people without water

    你能做什麼來幫助沒有水的人

  • if you're far away from where they are?

    如果你離他們所在的地方很遠?

  • One of those opportunities I'll point very easily

    其中一個機會我將非常容易地指出--

  • is using the available platforms,

    正在使用可用的平臺。

  • like social media platforms,

    如社交媒體平臺。

  • around specific dialogue issues,

    圍繞具體的對話問題。

  • either during the World Water Day or during specific, you know...

    無論是在世界水日期間還是在特定的,你知道的...

  • International Groundwater Day, or something like that.

    國際地下水日,或類似的東西。

  • You can create pressure to help people in need by using social media.

    你可以通過使用社交媒體來創造壓力,幫助有需要的人。

  • You could talk about specific initiatives

    你可以談一談具體的舉措

  • like Groundwater Day or World Water Day.

    如地下水日或世界水日。

  • We've seen how water is now viewed as one of your basic rights,

    我們已經看到水現在是如何被視為你的基本權利之一。

  • but that politicians need to work to make sure you get the water you need.

    但是,政治家需要努力確保你得到你需要的水。

  • We've also seen that campaigners, like Amanda and Joyce,

    我們也看到,像阿曼達和喬伊斯這樣的運動者。

  • are doing everything they can to make that happen.

    他們正在盡一切努力來實現這一目標。

  • The law isn't just written on paper;

    法律不只是寫在紙上。

  • it needs people to make it real.

    它需要人們來使之成為現實。

It's one of your most basic needs,

這是你最基本的需求之一。

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自動翻譯

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A2 初級 中文 法律 權利 國家 聯合國 幫助 保護

你有權利獲得水嗎?- BBC學習英語 (Do you have a right to water? - BBC Learning English)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 10 月 26 日
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