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  • Can governments be forced to take the tough steps

    能否迫使政府採取強硬措施

  • needed to save the environment?

    拯救環境需要什麼?

  • This episode will show you how

    本集將告訴你如何

  • even lawmakers aren't bigger than the law.

    即使是立法者也不比法律大。

  • What happens when a country breaks an agreement over the environment?

    當一個國家在環境問題上違反協議時會發生什麼?

  • Can the law help?

    法律能提供幫助嗎?

  • And the important case that could change the way

    而這個重要的案件可能會改變人們的生活方式

  • governments behave around the world...

    世界各地政府的行為...

  • But first, international laws

    但首先,國際法

  • are based on agreements between countries,

    是基於國家之間的協議。

  • but what happens when an influential country doesn't agree?

    但如果一個有影響力的國家不同意,會發生什麼?

  • The Amazon rainforest, in Brazil:

    亞馬遜雨林,在巴西。

  • the millions of trees maintain the atmosphere

    數以百萬計的樹木維持著大氣層

  • for all of us, all around the world.

    為我們所有人,為全世界的人。

  • But Jair Bolsonaro, elected president of Brazil in 2018,

    但2018年當選巴西總統的賈伊爾-博爾索納羅。

  • had a different view.

    有不同的看法。

  • His government has put the needs of the economy ahead.

    他的政府把經濟的需求放在前面。

  • While he's been in power, much more of the forest has been cut down.

    在他執政期間,更多的森林被砍伐。

  • So, what can the international community do?

    那麼,國際社會能做什麼?

  • A similar story in North America:

    在北美也有類似的故事。

  • 2017 and Donald Trump announces

    2017年,唐納德-特朗普宣佈

  • the US was leaving the Paris Agreement,

    美國將退出《巴黎協定》。

  • an agreement by 191 countries to cut their emissions.

    一個由191個國家達成的減少排放的協議。

  • America rejoined the agreement after Joe Biden became president.

    美國在喬-拜登成為總統後重新加入了該協議。

  • However, when countries break agreements like this,

    然而,當國家破壞這樣的協議時。

  • what can international law do?

    國際法能做什麼?

  • What power does something like the Paris Agreement

    像《巴黎協定》這樣的東西有什麼力量

  • have to protect our world?

    必須保護我們的世界?

  • What happens if a country breaks it?

    如果一個國家破壞了它,會發生什麼?

  • Lydia Omuko-Jung, from the Climate Change Litigation Initiative

    Lydia Omuko-Jung,來自氣候變化訴訟倡議組織

  • and the University of Graz, explained:

    和格拉茨大學,解釋說。

  • So, the Paris Agreement takes a soft law approach

    所以,《巴黎協定》採取了軟法律的方式

  • to its compliance mechanism, so countries will not be punished,

    到它的遵守機制,所以各國不會受到懲罰。

  • or they will not be some sanctions for not being able to comply

    或者他們不會因為不能遵守而受到一些制裁

  • with the binding obligations of the Paris Agreement.

    與《巴黎協定》的約束性義務。

  • So, what happens is that where parties cannot comply,

    是以,發生的情況是,在當事人不能遵守的地方。

  • or where parties have not complied, then it's more of a discussion

    或當事方沒有遵守的情況下,則更多的是討論----。

  • a dialogue: in the compliance committee, it's a dialogue

    對話:在合規委員會中,這是一種對話

  • where they discuss why have... hasn't the country been able to comply

    他們討論為什麼......國家沒有能夠遵守

  • and how can they comply, and then recommendations are made

    以及他們如何能夠遵守,然後提出建議

  • based on these discussions.

    在這些討論的基礎上。

  • The Paris Agreement follows a soft law approach.

    巴黎協定》採用了軟法律的方式。

  • Countries aren't punished for breaking it;

    國家並沒有因為違反它而受到懲罰。

  • instead, discussions happen about how to fix the problem.

    相反,發生了關於如何解決問題的討論。

  • So, could international law stop something

    那麼,國際法能否阻止一些

  • like the Brazilian rainforests being cut down?

    就像巴西的雨林被砍伐一樣?

  • Brazil has a right to explore their resources,

    巴西有權利探索他們的資源。

  • the national resources within their country.

    在其國家內的國家資源。

  • It only becomes problematic when these activities

    只有在這些活動中,才會出現問題

  • within their territory damage the environment of other states.

    在他們的領土上損害其他國家的環境。

  • But then, in terms... in terms of cutting down forests,

    但是,就......就砍伐森林而言。

  • we find that it's quite difficult to identify

    我們發現,要識別出這一點是相當困難的

  • what you'd call transboundary environmental effects...

    你所說的越境環境影響...

  • yeah, some environmental effects in another country

    是的,在另一個國家的一些環境影響

  • because of Brazil's exploitation of its own forests.

    因為巴西對自己的森林進行開採。

  • So, that really is quite a challenge

    是以,這確實是一個相當大的挑戰

  • for the international community to come in.

    為國際社會的介入。

  • Brazil can do what it wants to its own forests.

    巴西可以對自己的森林做它想做的事。

  • You would need to prove an environmental impact in another country,

    你將需要證明在另一個國家的環境影響。

  • called a transboundary effect, to stop thiswhy?

    稱為越境效應,以阻止這種情況--為什麼?

  • Other states can only come in if there are some legally binding obligations

    只有在有一些具有法律約束力的義務時,其他國家才能加入進來

  • that is created by some treaty which mandates,

    這是由某些條約規定的。

  • for instance, states to protect forests.

    例如,國家保護森林。

  • As you're speaking at the moment, we do not have, like,

    正如你此刻所說的,我們沒有,比如。

  • a global legally binding instrument

    一個具有法律約束力的全球文書

  • that creates this state obligation to protect forests,

    創立了這種國家保護森林的義務。

  • which makes it difficult for the international community to get in.

    這使得國際社會很難進入。

  • Countries can't interfere because we don't have laws

    國家不能干涉,因為我們沒有法律

  • that create internationally protected places.

    創建國際保護地。

  • She explained why she thought the Paris Agreement

    她解釋了為什麼她認為《巴黎協定》

  • wasn't good enough to protect Brazil's forests.

    對保護巴西的森林來說,這還不夠好。

  • If you look at the Paris Agreement,

    如果你看一下《巴黎協定》。

  • it recognises the importance of forests

    它認識到森林的重要性

  • in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions,

    在減輕溫室氣體排放方面。

  • but it just provides that parties should take action

    但它只是規定,當事人應採取的行動

  • to conserve and enhance forests.

    以保護和加強森林。

  • So, what we see from this kind of drafting,

    是以,我們從這種起草中看到的是。

  • or from this kind of provision, is that it doesn't create

    或從這種規定,是它不創建

  • a direct responsibility on states,

    是國家的直接責任。

  • or even a binding actual obligation,

    甚至是有約束力的實際義務。

  • because it uses word 'should': 'parties should take action'

    因為它使用了 "應該 "一詞:"各方應該採取行動

  • rather than 'parties shall take action'

    而不是 "各方應採取行動"。

  • to conserve and enhance the environment.

    以保護和改善環境。

  • The Paris Agreement only says

    巴黎協定》只說

  • countries 'should' take action to protect forests,

    各國 "應該 "採取行動保護森林。

  • not 'shall', which means they don't have to do anything.

    而不是'應',這意味著他們不需要做任何事情。

  • So, international laws can't force countries to protect the climate,

    所以,國際法不能強迫各國保護氣候。

  • but could all that be changing?

    但這一切是否會發生變化?

  • One important case might give the Paris Agreement real strength...

    一個重要的案例可能給《巴黎協定》帶來真正的力量...

  • Politicians talk a lot about their plans to save the environment.

    政治家們經常談論他們拯救環境的計劃。

  • What if the law made them do something?

    如果法律讓他們做什麼呢?

  • In 2015, around 900 people

    在2015年,約有900人

  • took the Dutch government to court to do just that.

    荷蘭政府將其告上法庭就是為了這個目的。

  • The court ruled that the state had a responsibility

    法院裁定,國家有責任

  • to act to deal with climate change.

    採取行動,應對氣候變化。

  • The Dutch government cut its coal-fired power stations by 75%

    荷蘭政府削減75%的燃煤發電站

  • and spent €3 billion on other steps to cut emissions.

    並花費30億歐元用於其他減排措施。

  • Dennis van Berkel, one of the Urgenda Foundation's lawyers,

    丹尼斯-凡-伯克爾,烏爾根達基金會的律師之一。

  • said, 'The ruling will encourage others to appeal to human rights,

    他說,'這項裁決將鼓勵其他人向人權提出上訴。

  • when it comes to climate change threats.'

    當涉及到氣候變化的威脅時,'。

  • So, could you use this case in your own country?

    那麼,你能在你自己的國家使用這個案例嗎?

  • And how did the law make the Dutch government change its behaviour?

    而法律是如何使荷蘭政府改變其行為的?

  • Let's hear from Dennis van Berkel

    讓我們聽聽丹尼斯-凡-伯克爾的意見

  • about the laws used in the Urgenda case.

    關於Urgenda案中使用的法律。

  • We used three types of law in our case.

    在我們的案件中,我們使用了三種類型的法律。

  • The first bit of law was tort law,

    第一部法律是侵權法。

  • which tells us what is unlawful behaviour

    它告訴我們什麼是非法行為

  • and which is the law to hold state or private entity liable.

    而這是追究國家或私人實體責任的法律。

  • But, to inform what is lawful and unlawful behaviour

    但是,要告知什麼是合法和非法的行為

  • on the side of the state, we also looked at human rights law,

    在國家方面,我們也看了人權法。

  • particularly the European Convention on Human Rights.

    特別是《歐洲人權公約》。

  • And we also looked at international law: for instance, the Paris Agreement,

    我們還研究了國際法:例如,《巴黎協定》。

  • which tells us that countries need to hold their emissions to well below

    這告訴我們,各國需要將其排放量控制在遠低於2°的水準。

  • and to aim to hold temperature increase to below one and a half degrees.

    並致力於將溫度上升控制在1.5度以下。

  • The lawyers working on this case used a variety of laws:

    處理此案的律師使用了各種法律。

  • tort, human rights and international.

    侵權行為、人權和國際。

  • So, what did the court ruling actually say?

    那麼,法院的裁決究竟是怎麼說的?

  • First of all, the... the judgement said that climate change

    首先,......判決書說,氣候變化

  • is an incredibly big threat and is actually threatening

    是一個令人難以置信的大威脅,實際上正在威脅著

  • our right to life and our right to private life,

    我們的生命權和我們的私人生活權。

  • and that the state therefore has a duty

    是以,國家有義務

  • to protect us against climate change.

    以保護我們免受氣候變化的影響。

  • But moreover, the judgement said that

    但此外,該判決書說

  • every country has its own responsibility

    每個國家都有自己的責任

  • to do its share in solving the problem:

    為解決這個問題儘自己的一份力量。

  • it needs to do its fair share.

    它需要做其公平的份額。

  • And then the... the judgement looked at what precisely is this fair share.

    然後......判決書看了看這個公平份額到底是什麼。

  • The ruling said that climate change is a big threat

    判決書說,氣候變化是一個很大的威脅

  • and every country is responsible for protecting its people.

    而每個國家都有責任保護其人民。

  • But can a ruling in the Netherlands have an international impact?

    但荷蘭的一項裁決能否產生國際影響?

  • So, there have been about 100 cases around the world by now,

    是以,到現在為止,全世界已經有大約100個案例。

  • in which governments have been targeted

    在其中,政府成為目標

  • for not taking enough measures against climate change,

    因為沒有采取足夠的措施應對氣候變化。

  • for instance... for giving permission to open new airfields

    例如......允許開設新的機場

  • or to open new coal-fire power plants,

    或開設新的燃煤電廠。

  • but also there's been a wave of litigation against corporations,

    但也出現了一波針對公司的訴訟。

  • and very recently there was actually a court in the Netherlands

    最近,在荷蘭有一個法院

  • that even concluded that a multinational oil company,

    該報告甚至認為,一家跨國石油公司。

  • such as Shell, has a legal duty to also reduce its emissions:

    如殼牌公司,也有法律義務減少其排放。

  • not only its own emissions, but even the emissions of its consumers.

    不僅是其自身的排放,甚至是其消費者的排放。

  • Many cases around the world have followed this one,

    世界各地的許多案件都遵循這一做法。

  • targeting governments and corporations to fight climate change.

    以政府和企業為目標,對抗氣候變化。

  • Dennis said this was a really important case.

    丹尼斯說這是一個非常重要的案件。

  • We can go to the streets, but we can also go to the courts

    我們可以上街,但我們也可以去法院。

  • and demand answerswhy this problem

    並要求回答 - 為什麼這個問題

  • has not been dealt with sufficiently.

    沒有得到充分的處理。

  • And that's one of the big things that these cases show.

    而這是這些案件所顯示的重要事情之一。

  • And as long as countries do not step up,

    而只要國家不出面。

  • we will see more and more people going to courts

    我們將看到越來越多的人去法院起訴

  • demanding that both their governments

    要求他們的政府

  • and the corporations justify themselves

    而企業則為自己辯解

  • with regards to what they're doing about climate change.

    關於他們在氣候變化方面所做的工作。

  • If governments don't take action to deal with climate change,

    如果政府不採取行動來應對氣候變化。

  • people can use the power of the law to force positive change.

    人們可以利用法律的力量來推動積極的變化。

  • We've seen how current laws, like the Paris Agreement,

    我們已經看到了目前的法律,如《巴黎協定》。

  • are hard to enforce, despite the good intentions behind them.

    儘管其背後有良好的意圖,但很難執行。

  • But, thanks to smart and dedicated lawyers,

    但是,多虧了聰明而專注的律師。

  • countries may soon have to take action

    各國可能很快就要採取行動了

  • to protect our environment for the future.

    以保護我們未來的環境。

Can governments be forced to take the tough steps

能否迫使政府採取強硬措施

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A1 初級 中文 法律 國家 協定 巴黎 氣候 森林

當國家不聽話的時候 - BBC學習英語 (When states don't behave - BBC Learning English)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 10 月 22 日
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