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  • I've been working in the fingerprint field

    我一直在指紋領域工作

  • now for over 20 years.

    現在已經超過20年了。

  • Although it can be really intricate

    雖然它可能真的很複雜

  • and time-consuming work,

    和耗費時間的工作。

  • it is just so fantastic when you actually make a match.

    當你真正做一個匹配的時候,它是如此奇妙。

  • Most of us probably think that

    我們大多數人可能認為,

  • we've got a pretty good understanding

    我們已經有了相當好的理解

  • of the basic principles

    的基本原則

  • of forensic science.

    的法醫科學。

  • We binge on true crime TV series,

    我們狂歡於真實犯罪電視劇。

  • we read and buy huge numbers of books,

    我們閱讀和購買大量的書籍。

  • and obsessively download true crime podcasts,

    並痴迷地下載真實犯罪播客。

  • trying to figure out whodunnit.

    試圖弄清誰是凶手。

  • But there are some things about forensic science

    但有一些關於法醫科學的事情

  • that you will probably only know

    你可能只知道

  • if you're an insider.

    如果你是一個內部人士。

  • Let's start with some basics.

    讓我們從一些基本知識開始。

  • Where does all the information a forensic scientist needs come from?

    法醫科學家需要的所有資訊來自哪裡?

  • Well, everywhere really.

    好吧,真的到處都是。

  • In the early 1900s,

    在20世紀初。

  • French criminologist, Edmond Locard,

    法國犯罪學家埃德蒙-洛卡。

  • declared that every contact

    宣佈每一次接觸

  • leaves a trace.

    留下痕跡。

  • This forms the basis

    這形成了一個基礎

  • of what is now called 'Locard's exchange principle'

    現在被稱為 "Locard的交換原則 "的東西

  • which says that whatever you interact with,

    其中說,無論你與什麼人互動。

  • you leave something behind and take something away.

    你留下了一些東西,也帶走了一些東西。

  • One of the areas of forensic science where this is particularly applicable

    這一點特別適用於法醫學的一個領域

  • is forensic botany.

    是法醫植物學。

  • There are around 390,000 different species of plants in the world,

    世界上大約有390,000種不同的植物。

  • each with its own pollen type,

    每個人都有自己的花粉類型。

  • and when it comes to crime scenes, pollen can really tell a story.

    當涉及到犯罪現場時,花粉確實可以說明一個問題。

  • It's all around us, it's on the ground,

    它就在我們周圍,它就在地上。

  • if you walk on soil or vegetation

    如果你在土壤或植被上行走

  • you pick it up, inevitably you pick it up.

    你拿起它,不可避免地你拿起它。

  • Patricia Wiltshire is a forensic ecologist,

    帕特里夏-威爾特希爾是一名法醫生態學家。

  • she uses pollen to help solve crimes.

    她用花粉來幫助破案。

  • Unlike other forms of evidence,

    與其他形式的證據不同。

  • pollen isn't easily washed away.

    花粉不容易被洗掉。

  • It gets into clothes and it can often be found on shoes

    它可以進入衣服,而且經常可以在鞋子上發現它。

  • or on the foot pedals in cars.

    或在汽車的腳踏板上。

  • Pollen and spores are too small to be seen by the naked eye,

    花粉和孢子太小,無法用肉眼看到。

  • so criminals rarely realise

    所以犯罪分子很少意識到

  • that they've picked them up at a crime scene.

    他們在一個犯罪現場撿到了這些東西。

  • Pollen and spores are produced by plants and fungi.

    花粉和孢子是由植物和真菌產生的。

  • They grow in specific places,

    它們生長在特定的地方。

  • so you know very well that this plant will grow in this soil,

    所以你很清楚,這種植物會在這種土壤中生長。

  • that plant will grow in that soil,

    該植物將在該土壤中生長。

  • and because of that, we can predict where they are from.

    也正因為如此,我們可以預測他們來自哪裡。

  • In one particular case of an attempted murder,

    在一個特殊的謀殺未遂案件中。

  • this man tried to strangle a girl underneath a lamp post

    這名男子試圖將一個女孩勒死在燈柱下

  • and he said he hadn't been there, of course,

    他說他沒有去過那裡,當然了。

  • but by taking his clothing apart,

    而是通過拆開他的衣服。

  • I showed that he'd bumped up against a fence with his left shoulder,

    我表明他的左肩撞到了柵欄上。

  • that he'd dragged her through a hedge,

    他把她拖進了樹籬。

  • that he'd knelt, and so on.

    他已經跪下了,等等。

  • And because I sampled the crime scene in detail,

    而且因為我對犯罪現場進行了詳細的採樣。

  • I could see where bits of his body had been

    我可以看到他身體的碎片被放在哪裡

  • so I could actually reconstruct what he did at the time.

    所以我可以實際重建他當時的工作。

  • There are other ways in which nature can help forensic scientists

    大自然還可以通過其他方式來幫助法醫科學家

  • determine when a crime was committed.

    確定犯罪發生的時間。

  • Insects, for example, can provide a lot of information

    例如,昆蟲可以提供很多資訊

  • if you know what to look for,

    如果你知道要找什麼的話。

  • as forensic entomologist, Amoret Whitaker, explains.

    正如法醫昆蟲學家Amoret Whitaker所解釋的那樣。

  • When you die your body starts to break down and decompose

    當你死的時候,你的身體開始分解,分解。

  • basically straight away. And so your body starts giving off certain odours

    基本上是直接的。是以你的身體開始散發出某些氣味

  • and those are very attractive to blowflies.

    而這些對吹蠅來說是非常有吸引力的。

  • If we can work out how old the larvae are that are feeding on the body,

    如果我們能算出以身體為食的幼蟲有多大。

  • then we can work out the minimum time that that person must have been dead.

    那麼我們就可以算出這個人至少應該死了多久。

  • The colder it is, the slower the larvae develop,

    天氣越冷,幼蟲的發育就越慢。

  • the warmer it is, the faster they develop.

    天氣越暖和,它們的發展就越快。

  • Really, the shorter the time span since the death,

    真的,死亡後的時間跨度越短。

  • the more accurate we can be.

    我們就可以做得越準確。

  • Remember Edmond Locard, the French criminologist we mentioned earlier?

    還記得我們之前提到的法國犯罪學家埃德蒙-洛卡嗎?

  • His contribution to forensic science

    他對法醫學的貢獻

  • didn't end at "everything leaves a trace".

    沒有結束在 "一切都留下痕跡"。

  • He developed and contributed to various methods of forensic analysis,

    他開發了各種法醫分析方法並做出了貢獻。

  • including dactylography, the study of fingerprints.

    包括指紋學,對指紋的研究。

  • The interpretation of evidence has changed a lot

    對證據的解釋有了很大的變化

  • since I became a crime scene examiner 20 years ago.

    自從20年前我成為一名犯罪現場檢查員以來,我就一直在關注這個問題。

  • Back then, if I examined a car whose door had been broken open

    那時,如果我檢查一輛車門被撞開的汽車

  • to gain entry, and the only evidence I found

    我發現的唯一證據是

  • was a fingermark on the outside of the driver's door,

    在駕駛室的門外有一個指印。

  • I could reasonably expect

    我可以合理地期望

  • that if the fingermark was identified for someone,

    如果指印被認定為某人。

  • then that person would eventually be charged with the offence

    那麼這個人最終將被指控犯有罪行。

  • and the case would go to court.

    並將此案提交法院審理。

  • However, things are now very different.

    然而,現在的情況非常不同。

  • If the same fingermark was found today,

    如果今天發現了同樣的指印。

  • especially in a relatively non-serious case such as this,

    特別是在這樣一個相對不嚴重的案件中。

  • there would be a strong likelihood that it wouldn't go to court

    很有可能不會上法庭。

  • and this is because the Crown Prosecution Service, or CPS,

    這是因為皇家檢察院,即CPS。

  • they need to be satisfied that there is sufficient evidence

    他們需要確信有足夠的證據

  • to provide a realistic prospect of conviction.

    以提供現實的定罪前景。

  • Their argument for not prosecuting

    他們不起訴的理由是

  • based on the fingermark on the outside of the vehicle

    根據車輛外部的指路標誌

  • might be that anyone could have walked by and leaned on the vehicle,

    可能是任何人都可能走過並倚靠在車輛上。

  • leaving the mark.

    留下痕跡。

  • In the past,

    在過去。

  • defence barristers argued about who the evidence belonged to,

    辯方律師就證據的歸屬進行了爭論。

  • but now they focus on how the evidence got there.

    但現在他們關注的是證據如何到達那裡。

  • Could the evidence have been left

    證據會不會是被留下的

  • by someone other than the person breaking into the car?

    是由闖入汽車的人以外的人所為?

  • If there is any possibility it could be someone else,

    如果有任何可能,那就是其他人。

  • then the CPS tend not to take these cases to court.

    那麼,CPS往往不會將這些案件提交法庭。

  • Forensic science is constantly evolving.

    法醫學是不斷髮展的。

  • In the future, it's possible that many crimes will be solved

    在未來,有可能很多犯罪都會被破獲

  • before they've even been committed,

    在他們還沒有實施之前。

  • as predictive software will mean that police forces

    作為預測性軟件將意味著警察部隊

  • will be able to anticipate when and where a crime is likely to take place

    將能夠預測到犯罪可能發生的時間和地點

  • and even who's likely to commit it.

    甚至是誰有可能會犯。

  • Then there's our microbiome, the tiny microbes in our gut,

    然後是我們的微生物組,我們腸道中的微小微生物。

  • which, according to a new study Harvard,

    其中,根據哈佛大學的一項新研究。

  • can identify us as individuals just like a fingerprint.

    可以像指紋一樣識別我們的個人身份。

  • Despite the rapidly changing world of forensics,

    儘管法醫的世界在迅速變化。

  • Linda says that there's one thing

    琳達說,有一件事

  • that good forensic scientists never forget...

    好的法醫科學家永遠不會忘記...

  • That we're dealing with real people's lives,

    我們面對的是真實的人的生活。

  • and we need to ensure that we work

    而我們需要確保我們的工作

  • in an objective and unbiased way,

    以客觀和不偏不倚的方式。

  • because if we get it wrong, it's people's liberty that's at stake.

    因為如果我們弄錯了,人們的自由就會受到威脅。

I've been working in the fingerprint field

我一直在指紋領域工作

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法醫科學。內幕指南|BBC創意 (Forensic science: An insider's guide | BBC Ideas)

  • 14 3
    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 10 月 21 日
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