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  • Multinational companies are getting bigger and bigger.

    跨國公司正變得越來越大。

  • This show will look at what the future might hold.

    本節目將探討未來可能出現的情況。

  • Will countries start to use that power for themselves?

    各國是否會開始為自己使用這種權力?

  • And could the law make companies a force for good?

    而法律是否可以使公司成為一種善的力量?

  • Huawei: the company that many fear is being

    華為:許多人擔心的公司正在被

  • used by China - for spying.

    被中國用來進行間諜活動。

  • And how could the immense power of corporations and their billionaires

    而企業和其億萬富翁的巨大力量怎麼可能

  • be used to help people around the world?

    用來幫助世界各地的人們?

  • Of course, countries will still be powerful in 50 years' time.

    當然,國家在50年後仍將是強大的。

  • Nations will go on competing with each other.

    各國將繼續相互競爭。

  • Businesses have been used as part of that in the past.

    過去,企業一直被用作其中的一部分。

  • Is Chinese phone company, Huawei, already showing how

    中國手機公司華為已經在展示如何

  • old rivalries might look in the future?

    老對手在未來會是什麼樣子?

  • Huawei equipment has been used

    華為設備已被使用

  • in new mobile networks in many western countries

    在許多西方國家的新移動網絡中 -

  • you might even own a Huawei phone.

    你甚至可能擁有一部華為手機。

  • But western intelligence chiefs warn it could be used

    但西方情報部門負責人警告說,它可能被用於

  • by China for spying or even sabotage.

    被中國用於間諜活動甚至破壞活動。

  • They're worried the Chinese government controls the company.

    他們擔心中國政府控制了該公司。

  • Lots of nations are banning its technology.

    很多國家正在禁止其技術。

  • It goes all the way back to them being founded by a former

    這可以追溯到他們是由一位前總統創立的。

  • officer of the Chinese military, to the fact that their organisational

    中國軍隊的官員,對他們的組織結構的事實

  • structure isn't well known, and the fact that there are some

    結構並不廣為人知,而事實上,有一些

  • pretty damning lawsuits out there regarding the theft of trade secrets.

    關於竊取商業祕密的訴訟案相當具有破壞性。

  • Meng Wanzhou, daughter of the company's founder and also

    孟晚舟,該公司創始人的女兒,同時也是

  • Huawei's chief finance officer, has been charged with stealing

    華為的首席財務官被指控偷竊

  • trade secrets by China's main rival, the US.

    中國的主要競爭對手--美國的貿易機密。

  • So, what can the law do if competing countries

    那麼,如果相互競爭的國家,法律能做什麼呢?

  • and their companies become even closer?

    和他們的公司變得更加緊密?

  • Dr Russell Buchan from the University of Sheffield explained

    謝菲爾德大學的拉塞爾-布坎博士解釋說

  • how hard it is to prove a country is hiding behind a company:

    要證明一個國家躲在一家公司後面是多麼困難。

  • A state can be be responsible under international law for

    根據國際法,一個國家可以對以下情況負責

  • the acts of non-state actors, actors, such as companies,

    非國家行為者的行為,行為者,如公司。

  • where the act of that non-state actor can be attributed to the state.

    在這種情況下,該非國家行為者的行為可以被歸於國家。

  • Now, attribution is a very particular technical concept of

    現在,歸屬是一個非常特殊的技術概念,即

  • international law, but in order for attribution be established,

    國際法,但為了確定歸屬問題。

  • certain factors need to be present: for example,

    需要具備某些因素:例如。

  • the state has to instruct or direct the acts of the non-state actor.

    國家必須訓示或指導非國家行為者的行為。

  • The state will will also have to support the acts of the non-state actor:

    國家也將不得不支持非國家行為者的行為。

  • for example, through training, through the provision of finances,

    例如,通過培訓,通過提供資金。

  • or other forms of technical support.

    或其他形式的技術支持。

  • To prove countries are using companies, states have to be

    為了證明各國都在使用公司,各國必須要

  • shown to be supporting a company and telling them what to do.

    顯示出支持一家公司並告訴他們該怎麼做。

  • Why would a country hide behind a company?

    一個國家為什麼要躲在一家公司的後面?

  • If a state acts through a company but the acts of that company

    如果一個國家通過一個公司行事,但該公司的行為

  • cannot be attributed to the state under international law,

    根據國際法,不能將其歸於國家。

  • then it follows that the state will not held responsible legally for any

    那麼,國家就不會對任何 "不公平 "的行為承擔法律責任。

  • violations of international law that that company would otherwise commit.

    否則該公司就會違反國際法。

  • For example, by intervening in the internal affairs of

    例如,通過干預國家的內部事務。

  • other states or, for example, by interfering with the

    其他國家,或者,例如,通過干預

  • human-rights protection of individuals located elsewhere in the world.

    對位於世界其他地方的個人的人權保護。

  • Hiding behind behind a company means countries can avoid certain

    躲在一個公司的背後意味著國家可以避免某些

  • responsibilities: that includes certain human-rights agreements.

    責任:這包括某些人權協議。

  • Is this something international organisations are worrying about?

    這是否是國際組織所擔心的問題?

  • International organisations are very worried about states avoiding

    國際組織非常擔心國家會迴避

  • their legal responsibilities by acting through non-state actors.

    他們的法律責任是通過非國家行為者來實現的。

  • And in recent years we've seen international organisations

    而在最近幾年,我們看到國際組織

  • push for different standards, lower standards,

    推動不同的標準,降低標準。

  • for attributing the acts of non-state actors to states.

    將非國家行為者的行為歸於國家。

  • So, we're moving away from the question of whether states exercise

    是以,我們正在從各州是否行使的問題上移開

  • effective control over non-state actors and looking to more relaxed

    對非國家行為者的有效控制,並期待更寬鬆的

  • and less stringent standards such as, for example, whether the state is

    和不太嚴格的標準,例如,國家是否是

  • exercising overall control over the acts of non-state actors.

    對非國家行為者的行為進行全面控制。

  • International organisations worry about states hiding from

    國際組織擔心國家會躲避

  • the law behind companies. Some are trying to change the law to

    公司背後的法律。一些人正試圖改變法律,以

  • make it it easier to link a company to a country. Will that happen soon?

    使一個公司與一個國家的聯繫變得更加容易。這將很快發生嗎?

  • Including non-state actors within the framework of international

    將非國家行為者納入國際框架內

  • law has always been very difficult,

    法律一直是非常困難的。

  • so it's very unlikely that international law will regulate

    是以,國際法很可能不會規範

  • directly and specifically the acts of of non-state actors.

    直接和具體的非國家行為者的行為。

  • However, international law is increasingly looking to establish

    然而,國際法正越來越多地尋求建立

  • a closer relationship between non-state actors and the state

    非國家行為者與國家之間的關係更加密切

  • and, by doing so, they can ensure that states do not avoid

    而且,通過這樣做,他們可以確保各州不逃避

  • their legal responsibilities under international law.

    他們在國際法下的法律責任。

  • It's very hard to use international law on companies, but lawyers are

    對公司使用國際法是非常困難的,但律師是

  • trying to make sure they follow rules by linking them more to countries.

    試圖通過將他們與國家更多聯繫起來,確保他們遵守規則。

  • So, it's hard to prove that a country is hiding behind a company.

    是以,很難證明一個國家隱藏在一家公司的背後。

  • But lawyers are working to make it easier.

    但律師們正在努力使它變得更容易。

  • Looking to the future, will companies get more powerful than countries?

    展望未來,公司是否會變得比國家更強大?

  • Tesla founder Elon Muskat one point the richest person on the planet

    特斯拉創始人埃隆-馬斯克--曾一度成為地球上最富有的人--

  • is so powerful that when he added '#bitcoin' to his

    是如此強大,以至於當他把 "#比特幣 "加入到他的

  • Twitter profile page, the online currency's market value rose by 50%.

    推特簡介頁面,在線貨幣的市場價值上升了50%。

  • Could the opposite happen in future?

    將來會不會發生相反的情況?

  • Could a giant company ruin a nation by devaluing its currency?

    一家巨頭公司能否通過貨幣貶值來毀掉一個國家?

  • Or could the opposite be true? A company trading in two countries

    或者可能是相反的情況?一家在兩個國家交易的公司

  • works better if those countries get on well enough to allow easy trade.

    如果這些國家相處得足夠好,允許輕鬆的貿易,效果會更好。

  • How could companies use their power to promote peace?

    公司如何利用他們的力量來促進和平?

  • And what about how they behave? Could good working conditions

    那麼他們的行為方式又如何呢?良好的工作條件能否

  • and fair pay be forced on big companies?

    和公平的薪酬被強加給大公司?

  • Would they spread good practices around the world?

    他們會不會把好的做法傳播到世界各地?

  • So, are companies and their owners getting too powerful for the law?

    那麼,公司和它們的所有者是否變得對法律來說過於強大?

  • Ranjan Agarwal, who's dealt with some huge companies, gave us his opinion:

    與一些大公司打過交道的Ranjan Agarwal給了我們他的意見。

  • In many countries there are laws that make officers and directors liable

    在許多國家,有法律規定高管和董事要承擔責任

  • for the acts of their companies. I believe that in recent years

    為其公司的行為。我相信在最近幾年

  • we've seen more and more countries enforce those laws against officers

    我們已經看到越來越多的國家對官員執行這些法律。

  • and directors, in order to not only hold the companies,

    和董事,以便不僅持有公司。

  • but also the leadership of those companies, accountable for

    但也要對這些公司的領導層負責。

  • violations of human-rights law, environmental law and labour laws.

    違反人權法、環境法和勞動法。

  • Ranjan says there are lots of laws which limit powerful companies.

    蘭揚說,有很多法律限制強大的公司。

  • Importantly, many countries are increasingly using their laws against

    重要的是,許多國家正越來越多地利用其法律來反對

  • big companies and their owners. But how about the future?

    大公司和它們的所有者。但未來如何呢?

  • I believe that the law is ever-changing.

    我相信,法律是不斷變化的。

  • So, for example, in many countries one tool

    是以,例如,在許多國家,一個工具

  • that is used to hold companies accountable is class actions,

    用來追究公司責任的是集體訴訟。

  • where a single individual can sue on behalf of an entire community

    一個人可以代表整個社區起訴的地方

  • to hold a company accountable under the domestic law

    根據國內法律追究公司的責任

  • and hopefully change the behaviour of that company

    並希望能改變該公司的行為。

  • and other companies like it in the future.

    和其他類似的公司在未來。

  • Laws such as class actions, where one person sues

    諸如集體訴訟等法律,即一個人起訴

  • on behalf of many people,

    代表許多人的利益。

  • could be used to make companies behave.

    可以用來使公司的行為。

  • But are companies trying to influence lawmakers?

    但公司是否試圖影響立法者?

  • I believe that many companies see themselves as partners

    我相信許多公司把自己看作是合作伙伴

  • in the process of establishing norms

    在建立規範的過程中

  • that can govern environmental and social governance.

    可以管理環境和社會治理。

  • Though these companies in some places may have undue influence,

    儘管這些公司在某些地方可能有不適當的影響。

  • I believe that many states and many political leaders understand that

    我相信,許多州和許多政治領導人都明白,

  • this is a project that has to be run and forwarded by nation states,

    這是一個必須由民族國家運行和推進的項目。

  • using companies as partners, as opposed to influencers.

    將公司作為合作伙伴,而不是影響者。

  • Companies often work with governments to help shape laws,

    公司經常與政府合作,幫助制定法律。

  • but he believes lawmakers are trying to limit their influence.

    但他認為立法者正在努力限制他們的影響。

  • So, is the law good enough to contain big companies in future?

    那麼,法律是否足以在未來遏制大公司?

  • I believe that the current system that we have developed

    我相信,我們目前制定的制度

  • in international law is fit for purpose.

    在國際法中,這一點是符合目的的。

  • I think that requiring nation states to invoke domestic laws

    我認為,要求民族國家援引國內法律

  • at home that mirror international treaties or international norms

    在國內反映國際條約或國際規範的

  • is an effective and efficient way of dealing with the problem.

    是處理問題的有效和高效方式。

  • I think the challenge for the international community

    我認為國際社會面臨的挑戰是

  • is establishing agreement or consensus

    是建立協議或共識

  • on what those expectations or norms should be.

    對這些期望或規範應該是什麼。

  • Ranjan believes that international law is fit for purpose:

    蘭揚認為,國際法是適合的。

  • he says the big challenge is to decide what type of society

    他說,最大的挑戰是決定什麼類型的社會

  • we want the law to protect.

    我們希望法律能夠保護。

  • We've seen that countries can sometimes try to hide

    我們已經看到,國家有時會試圖隱藏

  • behind companies to get round certain international laws,

    在公司背後,他們可以繞過某些國際法律。

  • and that the influence of multinational companies is getting ever bigger.

    而跨國公司的影響力也越來越大。

  • But we've also seen that international law can limit their power

    但我們也看到,國際法可以限制他們的權力

  • and help us decide what kind of world we want to live in.

    並幫助我們決定我們想生活在什麼樣的世界裡。

Multinational companies are getting bigger and bigger.

跨國公司正變得越來越大。

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自動翻譯

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B1 中級 中文 公司 國家 法律 行為 國際 華為

公司的未來 - BBC學習英語 (The future of companies - BBC Learning English)

  • 12 3
    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 10 月 15 日
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