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  • On Valentine's Day in 1895, the most famous  playwright in the English speaking world,  

    在1895年的情人節,英語世界中最著名的劇作家。

  • Oscar Wilde, presented his new play, The  Importance of Being Earnest, in London at  

    奧斯卡-王爾德在倫敦舉辦了他的新劇《做人的重要性》的演出。

  • St. James Theatre. The audience was packed with  celebrities, aristocrats and famous politicians,  

    聖詹姆斯劇院。觀眾席上擠滿了名人、貴族和著名政治家。

  • eagerly awaiting another triumph from  a man universally heralded as a genius.  

    他們熱切地等待著這位被普遍譽為天才的人的又一次勝利。

  • At the end of the performance, there wasstanding ovation. Critics adored the play  

    演出結束時,全場起立鼓掌。評論家們對該劇大加讚賞

  • and so did audiences, making it Wilde's  fourth major success in only three years

    觀眾也是如此,使之成為王爾德在短短三年內的第四次重大成功。

  • Yet, only a few short months later, Wilde  was bankrupt and about to be imprisoned.  

    然而,僅在短短几個月後,王爾德就破產了,並即將被關進監獄。

  • His reputation was in tatters and his life  ruined beyond repair. It was, as everyone  

    他的名聲破滅了,他的生活被毀得無法修復。正如每個人都知道的那樣,這就是

  • then and now agreed, a tragedy, the swift fall  of a great man due to a small but fateful slip

    當時和現在都同意,這是一個悲劇,一個偉大的人由於一個小的但致命的失誤而迅速墮落。

  • The story of how Oscar Wilde went  from celebrity playwright to prisoner,  

    奧斯卡-王爾德如何從知名劇作家變成囚犯的故事。

  • in such a short space of time, has much to  teach us about disgrace and infamy. We don't  

    在這麼短的時間內,有很多關於恥辱和惡名的東西可以教給我們。我們不

  • have to be acclaimed to understand that Wilde's  poignant tragedy urges us to abandon our normal  

    要理解王爾德的悽美悲劇敦促我們放棄我們的正常生活,就必須受到讚揚。

  • moralism and have sympathy for those who  stray, it calls for us to extend our love  

    我們要把我們的愛擴大到更多的人,而不是僅僅侷限於道德主義,對那些誤入歧途的人表示同情。

  • not just to those who obviously deserve  it but precisely to those who seem not  

    不僅僅是對那些明顯應得的人,而且恰恰是對那些似乎不應得的人。

  • to. We talk a lot of what a civilised world  should be like. We might put it like this: a  

    到。我們經常談論一個文明的世界應該是什麼樣子。我們可以這樣說:一個

  • civilised world would be one in which Oscar Wilde  could have been forgivenand in which those who  

    文明世界將是一個奧斯卡-王爾德可以被原諒的世界--在這個世界裡,那些人

  • make errors of judgement could be treated with  high degrees of sympathy and, even, of kindness.  

    判斷錯誤的人可以得到高度的同情,甚至是善意的對待。

  • It would be a world in which we could remember  that good people can at times do bad things –  

    這將是一個我們能夠記住好人有時也會做壞事的世界。

  • and should not pay an eternal price for them. Wilde's tragedy began several years earlier,  

    而不應該為它們付出永恆的代價。王爾德的悲劇始於幾年前。

  • when he was introduced to a beguiling young  man named Lord Alfred Douglas. Douglas,  

    當他被介紹給一個名叫阿爾弗雷德-道格拉斯勳爵的誘人的年輕人時。道格拉斯。

  • known to family and friends as 'Bosie',  was extremely handsome, charming and  

    被家人和朋友稱為 "Bosie",非常英俊、有魅力和

  • arrogant.

    傲慢的。

  • By 1892, a year after they had met, the two men  

    到1892年,在他們相遇的一年後,兩個人

  • had fallen profoundly in love. Although Wilde  was married with two children, he spent much of  

    他深深地陷入了愛河。雖然王爾德已經結婚並有兩個孩子,但他大部分的時間都花在了

  • his time with Bosie: there was a sixteen year age  gap, Douglas was twenty-four, Wilde forty. They  

    他與波西的時間:有16年的年齡差距,道格拉斯24歲,王爾德40歲。他們

  • travelled together, stayed in hotels and  hosted large dinners for their friends.

    他們一起旅行,住在酒店裡,併為他們的朋友舉辦大型晚宴。

  • By 1894, the pair were constantly seen together  in public and rumours of their love affair had  

    到了1894年,人們不斷看到這對夫婦在公眾面前出現,關於他們愛情的傳言也越來越多。

  • spread as far as Bosie's father, the Marquess  of Queensbury. The Marquess was a cruel,  

    波西的父親,即昆斯伯裡侯爵夫人,也被傳得很遠。侯爵夫人是個殘忍的人。

  • aggressive character, known for inventing  the 'Queensbury Rules' of amateur boxing.  

    咄咄逼人的性格,因發明了業餘拳擊的 "Queensbury規則 "而聞名。

  • Having decided that Wilde was corrupting his sonhe demanded that the pair stop seeing each other

    在認定王爾德在腐蝕他的兒子後,他要求這對夫婦停止交往。

  • When Wilde refused, Queensbury began to hound  him across London, threatening violence against  

    當王爾德拒絕後,Queensbury開始在倫敦各地追捕他,威脅要對他採取暴力行動。

  • restaurant and hotel managers if they  allowed Wilde and Bosie onto the premises

    餐館和酒店經理,如果他們允許王爾德和波西進入場所。

  • Queensbury booked a seat for the opening  night of The Importance of Being Earnest.  

    昆斯伯裡預訂了《做人的重要性》開幕之夜的一個座位。

  • He planned to throw a bouquet of rotting  vegetables at Wilde when he took to the stage

    他計劃在王爾德上臺時向他扔一束腐爛的蔬菜。

  • When Wilde heard about the stunt, he had  him barred from the theatre and Queensbury  

    當王爾德聽說這個特技時,他讓人禁止他進入劇院,而昆斯伯裡也被禁止進入。

  • flew into a rage. He tried to accost Wilde  after the performance at the Albemarle Club  

    頓時大發雷霆。他試圖在阿爾伯瑪爾俱樂部的演出後與王爾德搭訕

  • in Mayfair. When the porters refused to let  him in, he left a calling card which publicly  

    在梅菲爾。當門衛拒絕讓他進去時,他留下了一張電話卡,公開表示

  • accused Wilde of having sex with other men. Since homosexuality was illegal and deeply  

    指責王爾德與其他男人發生了性關係。由於同志是非法的,而且深

  • frowned upon in Victorian society this was a dangerous accusation

    在維多利亞時代的社會中,這是個危險的指控。

  • Seeing no end to Queensbury's bullying behaviour,  

    看到Queensbury的欺凌行為沒有盡頭。

  • Wilde decided to take legal action. By suing  Queensbury for libel, Wilde hoped to clear  

    王爾德決定採取法律行動。通過起訴昆斯伯裡的誹謗,王爾德希望能夠清除

  • his name and put an end to the harassment.

    他的名字,並結束了騷擾行為。

  • When the trial began, Wilde was confident.  

    審判開始時,王爾德很有信心。

  • He took the stand and gave witty, distracting  answers during his cross-examination

    他站在證人席上,在盤問過程中給出了詼諧的、分散注意力的答案。

  • Within a few days, however,  

    然而,在幾天之內。

  • the tide had turned against him.

    潮流已經轉向對他不利。

  • It became clear that Queensbury's lawyers  

    很明顯,昆斯伯裡的律師們

  • had hired private detectives to uncover an  uncomfortable truth: that both Wilde and Bosie had  

    僱傭私人偵探來揭開一個令人不安的真相:王爾德和波西都曾是

  • hired male prostitutes. Some had even blackmailed  Wilde in the past, successfully extorting  

    僱傭的男妓。有些人甚至在過去敲詐過王爾德,成功地敲詐了

  • money from him in return for their silence. The trial was hopeless and Wilde withdrew his  

    從他那裡得到金錢以換取他們的沉默。審判無望,王爾德撤回了他的請求。

  • case, but events had spiralled beyond his control. Queensbury's lawyers forwarded their evidence to  

    但是,事件的發展已經超出了他的控制。昆斯伯裡的律師將他們的證據轉交給了

  • the Director of Public Prosecutions and Wilde  was soon arrested on charges of gross indecency

    檢察長和王爾德很快以嚴重猥褻罪的指控被逮捕。

  • The legal costs left him bankrupt and  theatres were forced to abandon his plays

    法律費用使他破產,劇院被迫放棄他的戲劇。

  • Wilde's criminal trial began at the Old Bailey  on April 26. He faced twenty-five charges,  

    王爾德的刑事審判於4月26日在老貝利法庭開始。他面臨25項指控。

  • all of which surrounded his sexual  relationships with younger men

    所有這些都圍繞著他與年輕男子的性關係。

  • Wilde continued to deny the allegations  and the jury could not reach a verdict,  

    威爾德繼續否認這些指控,陪審團無法達成裁決。

  • but when the prosecution were allowed to try Wilde  

    但當檢方被允許審判王爾德時

  • a second time he was eventually found guilty.

    第二次,他最終被認定有罪。

  • The judge said at his sentencing, “It is the worst  

    法官在對他的判決中說:"這是最糟糕的一次

  • case I have ever tried. I shall pass the severest  sentence that the law allows.  

    我曾經審理過的案件。我將作出法律允許的最嚴厲的判決。

  • Wilde was sentenced to two years' of hard labour.  

    王爾德被判處兩年的苦役。

  • Inmates in London's Pentonville Prison, where  he was sent, spent six hours a day walking on  

    他所在的倫敦本頓維爾監獄的囚犯們每天花六個小時走在

  • a heavy treadmill or untangling old  rope using their hands and knees

    沉重的跑步機或用他們的手和膝蓋解開舊繩子。

  • For someone of Wilde's luxurious background, it  was an impossible hardship. His bed was a hard  

    對於像王爾德這樣出身豪門的人來說,這是一種不可能的困難。他的床是一個硬

  • plank which made it difficult to fall asleepPrisoners were kept alone in their cells and  

    這使人難以入睡。 囚犯們被單獨關在牢房裡,而且

  • barred from talking to one another. He suffered  from dysentery and became physically very frail

    被禁止互相交談。他患了痢疾,身體變得非常虛弱。

  • After six months, he was transferred  to Reading Gaol. As he stood on the  

    6個月後,他被轉移到雷丁監獄。當他站在

  • central platform of Clapham Junction, with  handcuffs around his wrists, passers-by began  

    他的手腕上戴著手銬,在克拉珀姆樞紐站的中央平臺上,路人開始

  • to recognise the celebrity playwright. They  laughed and mocked. Some even spat at him

    來認識這位著名的劇作家。他們大笑和嘲弄。有些人甚至向他吐口水。

  • 'For half an hour I stood  there,' he wrote afterwards,  

    我在那裡站了半個小時,"他事後寫道。

  • 'in the grey November rain surrounded byjeering mob. For a year after that was done to me,  

    '在灰色的十一月雨中,被一群嘲笑的暴徒包圍。在那之後的一年裡,我一直在做這件事。

  • I wept every day at the same hour  and for the same space of time.'

    我每天都在同樣的時間和空間裡哭泣'。

  • During his last year in prison,  

    在他入獄的最後一年裡。

  • Wilde wrote an anguished essay, De Profundis:  'I once a lord of language, have no words in  

    王爾德寫了一篇痛苦的文章,De Profundis:"我曾經是語言的主宰,卻無言以對。

  • which to express my anguish and my shame…  Terrible as was what the world did to me,  

    以此來表達我的痛苦和羞愧......世界對我的所作所為是可怕的。

  • what I did to myself was far more terrible still….  The gods had given me almost everything. But I let  

    我對自己所做的事情要可怕得多,仍然....。 諸神幾乎給了我一切。但我卻讓

  • myself be lured into long spells of senseless and  sensual ease…I allowed pleasure to dominate me.  

    我自己被引誘到長時間的無意識和感官上的輕鬆......我允許快樂支配我。

  • I ended in horrible disgrace. There is only  one thing for me now, absolute humility… I  

    我在可怕的恥辱中結束。現在對我來說只有一件事,就是絕對的謙卑......我

  • have lain in prison for nearly two years… I have  passed through every possible mood of suffering…  

    在監獄裡躺了將近兩年......我經歷了各種可能的痛苦情緒......。

  • The only people I would care to be with now  are artists and people who have suffered:  

    我現在唯一關心的人是藝術家和遭受過痛苦的人。

  • those who know what beauty is, and those who  know what sorrow is: nobody else interests me.' 

    那些知道什麼是美,和那些知道什麼是悲傷的人:沒有其他人能引起我的興趣'。

  • In May 1897, Wilde was finally released. He set  sail for Dieppe in France the very same day

    1897年5月,王爾德終於被釋放。就在同一天,他啟程前往法國的迪耶普。

  • His wife, Constance, had changed her name  and moved abroad with their two sons,  

    他的妻子康斯坦絲已經改名換姓,帶著他們的兩個兒子搬到了國外。

  • Vyvyan (now 11) and Cyril (12). Wilde would never  see his children again; he missed them every day.

    維維安(現在11歲)和西里爾(12歲)。王爾德再也見不到他的孩子了;他每天都在想念他們。

  • Constance agreed to send him money on the  

    康斯坦茨同意給他寄錢。

  • condition that he end his relationship  with Bosie, but only a few months later,  

    條件是他結束與波西的關係,但只是幾個月後。

  • the pair reunited and the money stopped. They moved to Naples and Wilde began using  

    這對夫婦重逢了,錢也停止了。他們搬到了那不勒斯,王爾德開始使用

  • the name Sebastian Melmoth, inspired by  the great Christian martyr Saint Sebastian  

    名為Sebastian Melmoth,靈感來自於偉大的基督教殉道者Saint Sebastian

  • and a character from a Gothic novel  who had sold his soul to the devil

    和一個哥特式小說中的人物,他把自己的靈魂賣給了魔鬼。

  • They hoped to find privacy abroad, but the scandal  seemed to follow them wherever they went. English  

    他們希望能在國外找到隱私,但無論他們走到哪裡,醜聞似乎都會跟著他們。英語

  • patrons recognised them in hotels and demanded  they be turned away. After Constance stopped  

    食客們認出了他們在酒店,並要求將他們拒之門外。在康斯坦茨停止

  • sending money, Bosie's mother offered to pay their  debts if he returned home and the pair once again  

    波西的母親提出,如果他回家,就為他們還債。

  • parted ways; it proved equally impossible. Scorned by many of his former friends,  

    分道揚鑣;事實證明這同樣是不可能的。被他以前的許多朋友鄙視。

  • Wilde moved to Paris where he lived in relative  poverty. He spent most of his time and money in  

    王爾德搬到了巴黎,在那裡他過著相對貧窮的生活。他的大部分時間和金錢都花在

  • bars and cafes, borrowing money whenever  he could and drinking heavily. His weight  

    酒吧和咖啡館,一有機會就借錢,並大量飲酒。他的體重

  • ballooned and his conversation dragged. He  was slowly inebriating himself to death

    膨脹,他的談話拖拖拉拉。他正慢慢地把自己灌醉到死。

  • When a friend suggested he try to write another  comic play, he replied: “I have lost the  

    當一位朋友建議他嘗試再寫一部滑稽劇時,他回答說。"我已經失去了

  • mainspring of life and art […] I have pleasuresand passions, but the joy of life is gone.” 

    生活和藝術的主要動力[......]我有快樂,有激情,但生活的快樂已經消失"。

  • His final piece of writing, a poem, The Ballad of  Reading Gaol, was published in 1898. The author's  

    他的最後一部作品是一首詩《雷丁高爾的歌謠》,於1898年出版。作者的

  • name was listed as 'C.3.3.' – Wilde's cell block  and cell number from his time in the prison

    名字被列為 "C.3.3"。- 王爾德在監獄裡時的牢房區和牢房號。

  • Towards the end of 1900, Wilde developed  meningitis and became gravely ill.  

    1900年底,王爾德患上了腦膜炎,病得很重。

  • A Catholic priest visited his hotel  and baptised him into the church.  

    一位天主教牧師參觀了他的旅館,併為他舉行了入教洗禮。

  • He died the following day at the age of 46. 

    第二天他就去世了,享年46歲。

  • More than a century later, in 2017, a law was  passed to exonerate those who had been convicted  

    一個多世紀後,在2017年,通過了一項法律,為那些被定罪的人開脫罪責

  • due to their sexuality and Oscar  Wilde received an official pardon  

    由於他們的性行為,奧斯卡-王爾德獲得了正式赦免

  • from the UK government. 'It is hugely important,'  declared a government minister, 'that we pardon  

    來自英國政府的消息。一位政府部長宣稱:"這非常重要,'我們要赦免

  • people convicted of historical sexual offences  who would be innocent of any crime today.' 

    被判定犯有歷史上的性犯罪的人,在今天看來是無罪的。

  • Our society has become generous towards  Wilde's specific behaviourbut it  

    我們的社會對王爾德的具體行為已經變得慷慨了--但它

  • remains moralistic towards a huge number of other peoples   

    對大量的其他民族仍持道德主義態度

  • and ways of life 

    和生活方式

  • Many of us wouldacross the ageswant to comfort and befriend Oscar Wilde. It's a touching hope,  

    我們很多人都會--跨越時代--想要安慰和結交奧斯卡-王爾德。這是一個令人感動的希望。

  • but one that would be best employed in extending  understanding to all those less talented and less

    但最好的辦法是將理解擴大到所有那些天賦較低和較差的人。

  • witty figures who are right now facing grave difficulties  

    現在正面臨嚴重困難的詼諧人物

  • and still, deserve compassion. That

    而且,仍然值得同情。 這一點

  • would be true civilisation and a world in which  Wilde's horrifying downfall had not been in vain.

    這將是真正的文明和一個世界,在這個世界上,王爾德的可怕墮落並沒有白費。

  • Our online shop has a range of books and gifts that address the most important and often neglected aspects of life. Click now to learn more.

    我們的網上商店有一系列的書籍和禮品,涉及生活中最重要和經常被忽視的方面。 現在點擊瞭解更多。

On Valentine's Day in 1895, the most famous  playwright in the English speaking world,  

在1895年的情人節,英語世界中最著名的劇作家。

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奧斯卡-王爾德的墮落 (The Downfall of Oscar Wilde)

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    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 10 月 13 日
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