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  • Most things in the universe happen too slowly for us to see them happening. Stars like the

    宇宙中的大多數事情發生得太慢,我們無法看到它們的發生。像這樣的恆星

  • sun take tens of millions of years to form, and hundreds of millions of years to orbit

    太陽的形成需要幾千萬年的時間,而環繞太陽運行的時間則需要幾億年。

  • their galaxies; colliding galaxies take billions of years to merge. And yet we have a pretty

    他們的星系;碰撞的星系需要幾十億年的時間來合併。而我們卻有一個相當

  • decent understanding of how all these things happen, because there are so many of them

    對所有這些事情是如何發生的有一個體面的理解,因為有這麼多的事情

  • in the observable universe that we can look out and see different versions of similar

    在可觀察到的宇宙中,我們可以向外看,看到不同版本的類似

  • events happening in different places, and because light takes time to get here we see

    在不同的地方發生的事件,由於光需要時間到達這裡,我們看到的是

  • places at different distances at different times thoughout the history of the universe,

    在宇宙的歷史上,不同的時間,不同的距離,不同的地點。

  • and from all that we can piece together an understanding of how stars are born and how

    從所有這些中,我們可以拼湊出一個關於恆星如何誕生以及如何

  • they die, how galaxies develop and interact, and so on. It’s kind of like if you only

    他們的死亡,星系如何發展和互動,等等。這有點像如果你只

  • had ten minutes to study how humans growyou couldn’t see any one person grow very much

    有10分鐘的時間來研究人類如何成長:你無法看到任何一個人成長得很好

  • in that time, but by looking at humans of different ages all around the world, you can

    在那個時代,但通過觀察世界各地不同年齡段的人類,你可以

  • get a pretty good picture of what a human life looks like.

    得到一個相當好的人類生活的樣子。

  • However, the very first galaxies to ever form were so small and dim that we don't have nearly

    然而,最早形成的星系是如此之小,如此之暗,以至於我們幾乎沒有任何證據來證明它的存在。

  • as good an idea of how baby galaxies are born as we do about how they behave and interact

    我們對小星系是如何誕生的,就像我們對它們的行為和互動一樣有一個很好的概念。

  • later in life.

    以後的生活中。

  • Our current understanding is that in the early universe, before any stars had formed, everything

    我們目前的理解是,在早期宇宙中,在任何恆星形成之前,一切

  • was just spread-out gas and a lot of dark matter. Gravity would have caused slightly

    只是分散的氣體和大量的暗物質。重力會造成輕微的

  • denser areas of dark matter to attract into clumps, pulling in bits of gas until they

    在暗物質密度較高的區域吸引成團,將零星的氣體拉入,直到它們

  • were dense enough on their own to gravitationally collapse and start thermonuclear fusion. A

    它們本身的密度足夠大,可以在重力作用下坍縮並開始熱核聚變。A

  • star. Many stars. Clusters of stars and their associated dark matter attracted together

    明星。許多恆星。恆星群和它們相關的暗物質被吸引在一起

  • and merged, and then those clustered-clusters clustered together, eventually forming the

    併合並,然後這些聚類的集群聚在一起,最終形成了

  • most distant (and longest-ago) galaxies we see today.

    我們今天看到的最遙遠的(和最久遠的)星系。

  • But we don’t know exactly how soon after the big bang the clumps of dark matter and

    但我們不知道在大爆炸後多久,暗物質團塊就會出現在我們面前。

  • gas formed; or when during the process of clumping and clustering the first stars ignited;

    氣體的形成;或者在結塊和聚集的過程中,第一批恆星被點燃。

  • or if there was a minimum dark-matter-clump size necessary to attract enough gas to form

    或者,如果有一個最小的暗物質團塊大小,以吸引足夠的氣體來形成

  • stars; or if the very first star clusters came together to form galaxies at allthey

    或者說,如果最初的星團聚集在一起形成了星系--它們

  • might have been so small and fragile they were blown apart when their own stars went

    他們可能是如此之小和脆弱,當他們自己的恆星消失時,他們被吹散了。

  • supernova and the first galaxies may have actually formed from a second round of clumping

    超新星和第一個星系可能實際上是由第二輪的結塊形成的。

  • of gas and dark matter as well as dust from the explosions.

    的氣體和暗物質以及爆炸產生的塵埃。

  • To be honest, we don't even have a good enough definition of what a galaxy is to know when

    說實話,我們甚至對什麼是星系都沒有一個足夠好的定義,不知道什麼時候能知道

  • to stop calling something a cluster of stars and when to start calling it a galaxy.

    停止稱某物為星團,何時開始稱它為星系。

  • What we do know is that today we have bajillions of galaxies in our universe, none of which

    我們所知道的是,今天我們的宇宙中有數十億個星系,其中沒有一個是

  • existed 13.8 billion years ago, so somewhere in between they must all have been babies.

    存在於138億年前,所以在這之間的某個地方,他們肯定都是嬰兒。

  • Big gassy babies surrounded by clumps of dark matter.

    被暗物質團塊包圍的大氣體嬰兒。

  • This video was made with the support of NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope and the Space Telescope

    這段視頻是在美國宇航局的詹姆斯-韋伯太空望遠鏡和太空望遠鏡的支持下製作的。

  • Science Institute. The James Webb Space Telescope is especially sensitive to the infrared wavelengths

    科學研究所。詹姆斯-韋伯太空望遠鏡對紅外波段特別敏感

  • that light from baby galaxies gets stretched to by the time it arrives in our solar system,

    來自嬰兒星系的光在到達我們的太陽系時被拉伸到了。

  • so astronomers are excitedly looking forward to using the JWST to learn more about the

    是以,天文學家們正興奮地期待著利用JWST來了解更多關於

  • very first stars and galaxies that ever formed in the universe.

    宇宙中最早形成的恆星和星系。

Most things in the universe happen too slowly for us to see them happening. Stars like the

宇宙中的大多數事情發生得太慢,我們無法看到它們的發生。像這樣的恆星

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B2 中高級 中文 星系 恆星 物質 宇宙 氣體 形成

銀河系從何而來? (Where Do Galaxies Come From?)

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    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 10 月 08 日
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