Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

自動翻譯
  • For as long as humans have looked at the stars,

    自從人類看了星星之後,就一直如此。

  • we have wondered how they got there -

    我們一直想知道他們是如何到達那裡的 -

  • and what lies beyond them.

    以及它們之外的東西。

  • Scientists have long searched for a simple theory

    科學家們長期以來一直在尋找一種簡單的理論

  • that explains how the universe works,

    解釋了宇宙如何運作。

  • a theory of everything.

    一個萬物理論。

  • Many theories have been tested

    許多理論已經得到了驗證

  • and so far, every one of them has failed to fully explain

    到目前為止,他們中的每一個人都未能充分解釋

  • what we see in our universe.

    我們在我們的宇宙中看到的東西。

  • But there is one particularly enticing idea

    但有一個特別誘人的想法

  • that some theoretical physicists think might just beit’,

    一些理論物理學家認為這可能就是 "它"。

  • String Theory.

    弦理論。

  • String theory is finite.

    弦理論是有限的。

  • It doesn't blow up.

    它不會被炸燬。

  • It doesn't collapse on itself.

    它不會自己倒塌。

  • That's why we believe in it.

    這就是為什麼我們相信它。

  • Other theories do collapse. Other theories do blow up.

    其他理論確實崩潰了。其他的理論也會被炸燬。

  • But string theory does not.

    但弦理論卻沒有。

  • Dr Michio Kaku has spent decades

    米喬-卡庫博士花了幾十年時間

  • grappling with - and attempting to answer -

    探討並試圖回答以下問題

  • some of life’s biggest questions.

    一些生活中的最大問題。

  • What happened before the Big Bang?

    大爆炸之前發生了什麼?

  • Are there other universes?

    是否存在其他宇宙?

  • What lies on the other side of creation?

    創作的另一面是什麼?

  • The other side of a black hole?

    黑洞的另一面?

  • Are gateways possible?

    門路是可能的嗎?

  • Wormholes? Higher dimensions?

    蟲洞?更高的維度?

  • Do we live in a multiverse?

    我們生活在一個多元宇宙中嗎?

  • All these questions cannot be answered

    所有這些問題都不能被回答

  • using our present-day understanding.

    使用我們今天的理解。

  • When Dr Kaku talks about our present-day understanding,

    當卡庫博士談到我們今天的理解時。

  • he means our current best theories about the way the universe works.

    他是指我們目前關於宇宙運行方式的最佳理論。

  • In truth, they contradict each other.

    事實上,它們是相互矛盾的。

  • And sometimes even give conflicting results -

    有時甚至會給出相互矛盾的結果--

  • Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity works perfectly well

    阿爾伯特-愛因斯坦的廣義相對論運行得非常好

  • for predictions about the movements of stars and galaxies,

    用於預測恆星和星系的運動。

  • but doesn’t work when applied to the behaviour of subatomic particles.

    但在應用於亞原子粒子的行為時卻不起作用。

  • Conversely, quantum theory is great with atoms

    相反,量子理論對原子來說是很好的。

  • but predicts the whole universe should collapse into a black hole,

    但預測整個宇宙應該坍縮成一個黑洞。

  • which it clearly doesn't because were all still here!

    但顯然沒有,因為我們都還在這裡!"。

  • So, will we ever find a single theory that explains everything?

    那麼,我們會不會找到一個能解釋一切的單一理論?

  • Two thousand years ago, Pythagoras asked himself that question.

    兩千年前,畢達哥拉斯問自己這個問題。

  • The great Greek mathematician

    偉大的希臘數學家

  • said that there must be a unifying principle,

    說,必須有一個統一的原則。

  • a paradigm by which to summarise the vast creation

    用來總結龐大的創作的範式

  • that we see all around us of the universe that we know.

    在我們周圍看到的我們所知道的宇宙的一切。

  • And he looked around and saw a lyra string.

    他環顧四周,看到了一條里拉繩。

  • You pluck a lyra string and you get a note,

    你撥動里拉的弦,就會得到一個音符。

  • you pluck another one, you get another note.

    你撥動另一個,你會得到另一個音符。

  • And then he said, aha, the mathematics of music is rich enough

    然後他說,啊哈,音樂的數學是足夠豐富的

  • to explain the diversity of everything we see around us.

    來解釋我們周圍看到的一切事物的多樣性。

  • And only recently have we come up with a new idea

    而最近,我們才想出了一個新的想法

  • based on the Pythagorean idea of music.

    基於畢達哥拉斯式的音樂思想。

  • In other words, string theory.

    換言之,弦理論。

  • So how do we go from Pythagorasmusical musings to proper physics?

    那麼,我們如何從畢達哥拉斯的音樂思索到正確的物理學?

  • The first port of call would be a particle accelerator

    第一個港口將是粒子加速器

  • like the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Switzerland,

    如瑞士歐洲核子研究中心的大型強子對撞機。

  • where tiny particles are smashed to pieces in high energy collisions

    小顆粒在高能碰撞中被擊碎的地方

  • and then closely studied.

    然後密切研究。

  • These experiments are our best way of testing theories

    這些實驗是我們檢驗理論的最好方法

  • about how the universe works.

    關於宇宙如何運作。

  • So what does string theory predict we would see?

    那麼,弦理論預測我們會看到什麼?

  • We now believe that all these subatomic particles,

    我們現在相信,所有這些亞原子粒子。

  • hundreds of subatomic particles

    數以百計的亞原子粒子

  • that we get by smashing protons at the Large Hadron Collider,

    我們通過在大型強子對撞機上粉碎質子得到的。

  • they're nothing but musical notes as Pythagoras believed.

    它們只不過是畢達哥拉斯認為的音符。

  • If I had a super microscope

    如果我有一個超級顯微鏡

  • and I could peer into an electron,

    而我可以窺視一個電子。

  • what would I see?

    我將會看到什麼?

  • I would see a rubber band,

    我會看到一個橡皮筋。

  • a vibrating rubber band.

    一個振動的橡皮筋。

  • Of course, Dr Kaku doesn’t mean an actual rubber band.

    當然,卡庫博士並不是指真正的橡皮筋。

  • But rather something rubber-band-like.

    而是類似橡皮筋的東西。

  • Or to put it another way - the strings in string theory.

    或者換一種說法--弦理論中的弦。

  • And just like the strings on a musical instrument,

    而就像樂器上的弦一樣。

  • if you put some energy into them, they vibrate.

    如果你給它們注入一些能量,它們就會振動。

  • It vibrates one way, we call it an electron.

    它以一種方式振動,我們稱它為電子。

  • We vibrate it another way, it's called a neutrino.

    我們以另一種方式振動它,它被稱為中微子。

  • We vibrate it another way, it's called a quark.

    我們以另一種方式振動它,它被稱為夸克。

  • But it's the same rubber band.

    但這是同一條橡皮筋。

  • So, string theory offers a tantalising possibility -

    是以,弦理論提供了一種誘人的可能性--

  • an explanation for the vast variety we see in the universe,

    解釋我們在宇宙中看到的巨大變化。

  • from the collisions of stars to the collisions of atoms.

    從恆星的碰撞到原子的碰撞。

  • Of course, string theory is just that - a theory.

    當然,弦理論僅僅是一個理論。

  • Its critics point out that many of its predictions are untestable -

  • something Dr Kaku himself acknowledges.

    這是卡庫博士自己承認的。

  • Its proponents though, consider it to be

    但其支持者認為,它是

  • the best hope of unifying physics.

    是統一物理學的最大希望。

  • Dr Kaku believes string theory

    卡庫博士認為弦理論

  • could even explain the mystery that is dark matter.

    甚至可以解釋暗物質之謎。

  • Dark matter makes up most of the matter of the universe.

    暗物質構成了宇宙的大部分物質。

  • It is invisible and it holds the galaxies together,

    它是無形的,它把星系固定在一起。

  • but how do we prove it?

    但我們如何證明它呢?

  • We think that dark matter could be the next octave of the string.

    我們認為,暗物質可能是弦的下一個八度。

  • If you could magnify all the particles you see around us,

    如果你能把你在我們周圍看到的所有粒子放大。

  • we would see a lot of rubber bands,

    我們會看到大量的橡皮筋。

  • a lot of rubber bands vibrating at different frequencies.

    很多橡皮筋以不同的頻率振動。

  • But the rubber band has higher octaves.

    但橡皮筋有更高的八度。

  • That, we think, is dark matter.

    我們認為,這就是暗物質。

  • If Dr Kaku is right, the huge complexity of the entire universe

    如果卡庫博士是對的,整個宇宙的巨大複雜性

  • could be reduced to the simple and elegant vibration of strings.

    可以簡化為簡單而優雅的絃樂振動。

  • I think the one thing that people should realise

    我認為,人們應該意識到的一點是

  • is that physics, at the fundamental level,

    是,物理學,在基本水準上。

  • gets simpler and simpler the deeper we go,

    越往深處走越簡單。

  • but becomes more powerful, the deeper we go.

    但越是深入,就越有力量。

  • The universe is simpler than we thought.

    宇宙比我們想象的要簡單。

For as long as humans have looked at the stars,

自從人類看了星星之後,就一直如此。

字幕與單字
自動翻譯

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B2 中高級 中文 理論 橡皮筋 宇宙 粒子 博士 物質

弦理論--瞭解宇宙的簡單方法 | BBC思想 (String theory - a simple way to understand the universe | BBC Ideas)

  • 24 2
    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 10 月 07 日
影片單字