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  • Hi, everybody.

  • I’m Esther.

  • Welcome to the grammar video.

  • In this video, I will introduce the present tense.

  • It’s a very important tense for learning English.

  • In this video, I will introduce the present simple, the present continuous, the present

  • perfect, and the present perfect continuous tense.

  • There’s a lot to learn, so keep watching.

  • And let’s get started.

  • Hi, everybody.

  • My name is Esther.

  • I'm so excited to teach you the present simple tense in today's video.

  • Now this lesson can be a little difficult,

  • so I'll do my best to keep it easy and fun for you.

  • My goal is for you to understand how and when to use this grammar by the end of the video.

  • Let's get started.

  • Let's start with the first usage for the present simple tense.

  • The first usage is pretty easy.

  • We use it to talk about facts, truths, and generalizations.

  • Let's look at some examples.

  • The Sun is bright.’

  • Now that's a fact.

  • It doesn't change.

  • Everybody knows that the Sun is bright.

  • It was bright yesterday.

  • It's bright today.

  • And it will be bright tomorrow.

  • That makes it a fact.

  • Pigs don't fly.’

  • That's also a fact.

  • Everybody knows that pigs don't fly.

  • Cats are better than dogs.’

  • Now this you may not agree with.

  • This is my truth.

  • I'm making a generalization about cats and dogs in this example.

  • And finally, ‘It's cold in winter.’

  • This really depends on where you live, but for a lot of people, or let's say for

  • most people, it is cold in the winter,

  • so that's the truth for some people.

  • Now let's look back and see what verb I used in the present simple tense.

  • For the first sentence, we haveis’.

  • I use thebeverbisto talk about the Sun.

  • In the next sentence, I use the negative of do - ‘do not

  • And you'll notice I use the contraction and put these two words together to make itdon't’.

  • Cats are better than dogs.’

  • I use thebeverb "are" to talk about cats becausecatsis plural.

  • And finally, it's cold and winter.

  • Here I use thebeverb "is" again,

  • but I use the contraction to combineitandis

  • and madeit’s’.

  • Let's move on to the next usage.

  • We also use the present simple tense to talk about habits and routines.

  • So things and actions that happen regularly.

  • Let’s look at the examples.

  • ‘I always eat lunch at noon.’

  • You'll notice I use the adverbalwaysbecause I'm talking about something that I

  • do regularly.

  • What is that?

  • Eat lunch at noon.’

  • So I use the present simple tense.

  • And here I use the verbeat’.

  • ‘I eat…’

  • The second example says you play games every day.

  • Do you see the clue that helps you know that this is something that happens regularly?

  • It's ‘every day’.

  • So it's something that happens as a routine or a habit,

  • so you play games.

  • The verb here isplay’.

  • You play…’

  • The next example saysSeth starts work at 9:00 a.m. daily.’

  • Again this is something that happens regularly.

  • Seth goes to work at 9:00 a.m.’ every day.

  • Now you'll notice I put a blue line under the ‘s’ instarts’.

  • Can you figure out why?

  • Well remember that when the subject of a sentence ishe’, ‘she’, orit’,

  • we need to add an ‘s’ oresto the end of the verb in the present simple tense.

  • Seth is a ‘he’, so we need to add an ‘s’.

  • Seth starts work at 9:00 a.m. daily.’

  • And the last example: ‘They study English every Monday.’

  • Again, ‘every Mondaymeans that they do it regularly,

  • and that's why we use the present simple tense.

  • They study…’.

  • So as a review, remember we use the present simple tense

  • to talk about habits and routines that happen regularly.

  • Let's move on.

  • We also use the present simple tense with non-continuous verbs.

  • These are verbs that we don't use in the continuous form,

  • even if they're happening right now.

  • They're also called stative verbs.

  • These are connected with thoughts, opinions, feelings, emotions, and our five senses.

  • Let's look at these examples.

  • ‘I love my mom.’

  • The verb here islove’.

  • That's an emotion, so I use the present simple tense.

  • It smells good.’

  • Smellis one of the five senses, so I use the present simple tense.

  • You'll notice I underlined the ‘s’ because remember the subject isit’.

  • Kelly feels happy.’

  • This is talking about a feeling.

  • Again the subject here isKellywhich is a ‘she’,

  • so I added an ‘s’ to the verb.

  • And finally, ‘They need help.’

  • We don't say, ‘they are needing helpeven though it's happening right now.

  • Needis non-continuous, so we say, ‘they need help’,

  • so remember you also use the present simple tense with non-continuous verbs,

  • connected with thoughts, opinions, feelings, emotions, and our five senses.

  • Let's move on.

  • Speakers occasionally use the present simple tense to talk about something that will happen

  • in the near future.

  • Now this can be a little confusing, but we're not using the future tense,

  • we're using the present simple tense.

  • It's possible to do that and it's actually common for people to do that.

  • Again, for something that will happen in the near future.

  • Let's look at the examples.

  • ‘I have class at 6 p.m.’

  • ‘6 p.m.’ that's pretty soon, so I can say,

  • 'I have class.'

  • - the present simple tense.

  • Lisa arrives on Sunday.’

  • Again the near future, ‘Sunday’.

  • So I use the present simple tense.

  • I added an ‘s’ at the end of arrive, because Lisa, the subject, is a ‘she’.

  • We start work soon.’

  • Again, the near future, ‘soon’,

  • so I use the present simple verbstart’.

  • And finally, ‘My students come tomorrow.’

  • This is something that will happen in the near future,

  • so I use the verbcome’.

  • So remember it is possible, and it is common to use the present simple tense

  • to talk about something that will happen in the near future.

  • Let's go to the next usage.

  • Let's talk about a possible negative usage for the present simple tense,

  • and that isdo notanddoes not’.

  • The first example says, ‘Mike eats bread.’

  • I put an ‘s’ at the end ofeatbecause the subject is Mike which is a ‘he’.

  • Now that's not a negative statement.

  • What happens when I want to turn it into a negative statement?

  • Well I change it like this - ‘Mike doesn't eat bread.’

  • So you'll notice that I didn't move the ‘s’ here, okay.

  • Instead I addeddoesn't’.

  • I tookdoesandnotand I turned it into a contraction by combining the two

  • and making itdoesn't’.

  • So if the subject ishe’, ‘she’, orit’,

  • we usedoes notordoesn't’ to make it negative.

  • You swim well.’

  • In this case, I don't need to put an ‘s’ at the end ofswimbecause the subject

  • isyou’.

  • If I want to make this sentence negative, I usedon't’.

  • You don't swim well.’

  • I use the contraction fordoandnot’.

  • I combine them to makedon't’,

  • so if the subject is ‘I’, ‘you’, ‘we’, orthey’,

  • we usedo notordon't’.

  • So to reviewdo notanddoes notordon't’ anddoesn't’

  • is a possible usage for the negative for present simple

  • tense.

  • Let's continue on.

  • Now I'll talk about one possible question form for the present simple tense

  • and that is by usingdoordoes’.

  • So let's look at the example, ‘They live here.’

  • That's not a question, right?

  • 'They live here

  • In order to turn it into a question, it's really simple.

  • All I have to do is adddoto the beginning and add a question mark at the end.

  • Do they live here?’

  • So if the subject is ‘I’, ‘you’, ‘we’, orthey’,

  • simply adddoto the beginning of the question.

  • How about this one, ‘He plays soccer.’

  • In this statement, the subject isheand that's why you should know by now,

  • I have an ‘s’ at the end ofplay’.

  • However, to turn this into a question, I adddoesat the beginning.

  • Does he play soccer?’

  • What you'll notice here is that I no longer have the ‘s’ at the end of play.

  • Instead I just useddoesat the beginning,

  • so forhe’, ‘she’, orit’, putdoesat the beginning,

  • and don't worry about putting an ‘s’ oresat the end of the verb.

  • So to review, one possible way of forming a question for the present simple tense is

  • usingdoordoesat the beginning.

  • Alright let's move on.

  • Let's start with the first checkup.

  • In this checkup, I want you to focus on thebeverbs.

  • Rememberbeverbs, in the present simple tense, can beis’, ‘am’, orare’.

  • Take a look at the first sentence.

  • It says, ‘She _ blank _ at school.’

  • The subject of this sentence isshe’.

  • Whatbeverb do we use forshe’?

  • The correct answer isis’.

  • Now if you were thinking of the negative, the

  • correct answer would beshe isn't’

  • orshe is not’.

  • That's correct as well.

  • And if we want to use a contraction forshe is’, we can sayshe's at school

  • For the next one, it says, ‘They _ blank _ twenty years old.’

  • The subject of this sentence isthey’.

  • Whatbeverb do we use forthey’?

  • The correct answer isare’.

  • For the negative, you can also usearen't’ orare not’.

  • Also if you want to use the contraction forthey are’, you can say,

  • They're 20 years old.’

  • The next sentence says, ‘His father _ blank_ busy.’

  • The subject of this sentence ishis father’.

  • What subject pronoun do we use forhis father’?

  • The correct answer ishe’.

  • Remember forhe’, ‘she’, ‘it’, thebeverb isis’.

  • For the negative, we can sayisn't’ oris not’.

  • And for a contraction, forfatherandis’, we can say, ‘His father's busy.’

  • Now I want you to try to find the mistakes in this sentence.

  • We isn't good friends.’

  • Did you find the mistake?

  • This is the mistake.

  • The subject isweand thebeverb isare’.

  • Therefore, the correct answer iswe are not’,

  • or the contraction, ‘we aren't good friends.’

  • The next sentence.

  • Can you find the mistake?

  • Are John a teacher?’

  • Think about the subject of this sentence.

  • The subject isJohn’.

  • AndJohn’, the subject pronoun ishe’.

  • Therefore, we don't useare’, we useis’.

  • Is John a teacher?’

  • Is John a teacher?’

  • And finally, ‘It am a puppy.’

  • hmm This one is a big mistake.

  • The subject here isit’.

  • Whatbeverb do we use forit’?

  • The correct answer isis’.

  • So we don't say, ‘It am a puppy,’ we say, ‘It is a puppy.’

  • Great job guys.

  • Let's move on to the next checkup.

  • For the next checkup, I want you to think of some other verbs in the present simple

  • tense.

  • Take a look at the first sentence.

  • He __ blank __ …’, I want you to think of the verb, ‘like his dinner’.

  • What do we do to the verb when the subject ishe’, ‘she’, orit’?

  • Remember we add an ‘s’.

  • He likes his dinner.’

  • For the negative, you can also say, ‘He doesn't like his dinner.’

  • The next sentence says, ‘My students __ blank __…’, I want you to think ofneed’,

  • ‘…books’.

  • What is the subject pronoun formy students’?

  • The correct answer isthey’.

  • If the subject is ‘I’, ‘you’, ‘we’, orthey’, in the present simple tense,

  • we don't change the verb, we keep it as is.

  • So the correct answer is, ‘My students need books.’

  • Now for the negative, you can say, ‘My students don't need books.’

  • The next sentence says, ‘I __ blank __…’, think of the verb,

  • ‘…live in London.’

  • What do we do here?

  • Again the subject is ‘I’, therefore we don't change the verb.

  • The correct answer is, ‘I live in London.’

  • What's the negative?