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  • this is a subway pole a turnstile a seat and this is what's underneath.

    這是一個地鐵桿,一個轉門,一個座位,這就是下面的東西。

  • We did see some geothermal Phyllis species which can survive on rocks and and hot environments.

    我們確實看到了一些地熱植物物種,它們可以在岩石和和熱環境中生存。

  • We've also seen staphylococcus epidermis.

    我們還看到了表皮葡萄球菌。

  • The most common species was cute back near acne which is something that's a normal skin flora bacteria.

    最常見的物種是可愛的背上靠近痤瘡的東西,這是一種正常的皮膚菌群細菌。

  • That is really just being shed off of our human bodies into the transit system.

    這實際上只是從我們的人體上脫落到交通系統中。

  • Hello I am Christopher mason, a professor of genomics, physiology and biophysics at Weill Cornell medicine Dr Mason and his team started swapping subway stations in 2013 we set up an app a tracking system.

    你好,我是克里斯托弗-梅森,威爾康奈爾醫學院的基因組學、生理學和生物物理學教授。 梅森博士和他的團隊在2013年開始交換地鐵站,我們建立了一個應用程序一個跟蹤系統。

  • Developed a protocol and we went and swab every single subway station in triplicate across new york city they're looking to discover and categorize the microbiome found in city subways.

    我們制定了一個協議,並對紐約市的每一個地鐵站進行了一式三份的採樣,他們正在尋找發現城市地鐵中的微生物組並對其進行分類。

  • The microbiome is the collection of microorganisms that are either in on or all around you.

    微生物組是你身上或周圍的微生物的集合。

  • And they include bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites really.

    它們包括細菌、病毒、真菌和寄生蟲,真的。

  • Any little organism that you can't quite see but that has a strong, really powerful feature of mediating health and disease.

    任何你不太看得見,但具有強大的、真正強大的調解健康和疾病的功能的小生物體。

  • There are large cities today where we just don't have a sense of what they look like or even many environments really.

    今天有一些大城市,我們只是沒有感覺到它們看起來像什麼,甚至沒有很多環境真的是這樣。

  • Most of the world's environments.

    世界上大多數的環境。

  • We don't have a microbial or macroscopic view of the biology that's there's So what do cities actually look like underneath the microscope.

    我們沒有一個微生物或宏觀的生物學觀點,所以城市在顯微鏡下實際上是什麼樣子。

  • Yeah we normally swab at least three services for each city which is consistently the turnstiles the kiosks and the benches like for example in new york city.

    是的,我們通常為每個城市至少抽查三個服務項目,即持續抽查旋轉門、亭子和長椅,例如在紐約市。

  • There was geo bacillus thermally of orange which is this really hardy microbes that can survive on rocks and soil and even be desiccated or dried out.

    橙色的地球杆菌是一種非常頑強的微生物,可以在岩石和土壤上生存,甚至可以被幹燥或晒乾。

  • And you know really takes a licking and keeps on ticking and goes on fine.

    而且你知道真的需要舔,並繼續滴答滴答地走下去,很好。

  • Like I think new Yorkers, you can see that these really hardy microbes have evolved for the harsh surfaces of the cities in Naples.

    就像我認為的紐約人一樣,你可以看到這些真正堅韌的微生物已經為那不勒斯的城市的嚴酷表面而進化了。

  • We could actually see a lot of mediterranean microbes that have already been found and isolated in the shores of italy or in Greece that could pop up in the cities.

    實際上,我們可以看到很多已經在意大利或希臘海岸發現和隔離的地中海微生物,它們可能會在城市中出現。

  • But then we could see other food related microbes that would pop up as well.

    但隨後我們可以看到其他與食物有關的微生物也會冒出來。

  • So certain kinds of yeast that are associated even with cooking pizza and sort of baking bread we get sometimes pick up more in Naples than in other cities.

    是以,某些種類的酵母甚至與烹飪比薩餅和烘烤麵包有關,我們在那不勒斯得到的酵母有時比在其他城市更多。

  • That was kind of interesting to see.

    看到這一點很有意思。

  • We started sampling before during and after the 2016 Olympics.

    我們在2016年奧運會期間和之後開始採樣。

  • And we could actually see, you know, this change because a million people swarmed into Rio and started to actually add their microbiome to the cities.

    而我們實際上可以看到,你知道,這種變化是因為一百萬人湧入里約,並開始在城市中實際添加他們的微生物組。

  • So we've seen the burst of new species emerging as there's a mass increase of humans coming into a city.

    是以,我們已經看到了新物種的爆發,因為有大量的人類進入一個城市。

  • And so that disrupted a bit of what the city looks like at the microbial perspective, but it also added some diversity to what's present.

    是以,從微生物的角度來看,這打亂了城市的面貌,但它也為現有的東西增加了一些多樣性。

  • So I actually think that the olympics served not only as a gathering for sports and human endeavors but also gives this interesting addition probiotic to a city essentially in a way.

    是以,我實際上認為,奧運會不僅作為體育和人類努力的聚會,而且還在某種程度上給一個城市增加了有趣的益生菌。

  • Tokyo actually has the greatest amount of novel peptides or new sort of biology that we've discovered from any of the cities so far and why this is not entirely clear.

    東京實際上是我們迄今為止從任何一個城市發現的新型肽或新的生物種類最多的城市,為什麼這一點並不完全清楚。

  • So there's a chance that some of the novel biology that we find there is because it's been so isolated from the rest of the world at earlier centuries.

    是以,我們在那裡發現的一些新奇的生物,有可能是因為它在早期的幾個世紀中與世界其他地方如此隔絕。

  • And so you know that's a hypothesis.

    所以你知道這是一個假說。

  • So we have to really test that but we're trying to not really blend microbial ecology.

    是以,我們必須真正測試這一點,但我們正試圖不真正融合微生物生態學。

  • Modern genetics plus history to get a more comprehensive view of what's happening in the cities and their people.

    現代遺傳學加上歷史,以更全面地瞭解城市及其人民正在發生的事情。

  • Tokyo also had a range of neuf ages or these viruses that attack bacteria that we didn't see anywhere else in the world, including some pages that are specific for C.

    東京也有一系列neuf ages或這些攻擊細菌的病毒,我們在世界其他地方沒有看到,包括一些專門針對C的頁面。

  • Acne or very common skin microbe.

    痤瘡或非常常見的皮膚微生物。

  • So we can actually see that these ecosystems on the surface and on the skin of people in these cities really have their own geography and their own specificity wherever you are in the world.

    是以,我們實際上可以看到,在這些城市的表面和人們的皮膚上的這些生態系統真的有自己的地理和自己的特殊性,無論你在世界何處。

  • While each city has a unique microbial footprint dr Mason and his team have identified a core set of commonalities that cities share Across all the systems.

    雖然每個城市都有獨特的微生物足跡,但梅森和他的團隊已經確定了一套核心的共同點,即城市在所有系統中都有共同點。

  • We've analyzed.

    我們已經分析了。

  • There's actually 31 species of bacteria and microbes that are really consistently found.

    實際上,有31種細菌和微生物是真正持續存在的。

  • We find them in 97% of every squad that we take.

    我們在每支隊伍中的97%發現了它們。

  • So on the one hand, there's this core set of microbes That includes things like you to back your acne or geothermal Phyllis species.

    是以,一方面,有這個核心的微生物集 這包括像你到揹你的痤瘡或地熱菲利斯物種。

  • Humans have evolved a tolerance for milk over the past few 10,000 years and this even is reflected in the subway.

    在過去的幾萬年裡,人類已經進化出對牛奶的耐受性,這甚至反映在地鐵上。

  • Some of the species of lactobacillus are showing up things that you find in milk or in dairy products that we can also see riding on people's hands and skin and then show up in the cities.

    一些乳酸菌的種類顯示出你在牛奶或乳製品中發現的東西,我們也可以看到騎在人們的手上和皮膚上,然後在城市中顯示出來。

  • We've seen a good number of extremophiles on the subway in particular.

    特別是在地鐵上,我們已經看到了相當數量的極端生物。

  • Some that can survive in say the cooling waters of nuclear power plants like Dina caucus radio Duran's is one or other bacteria that are known to survive on stone or survive under high UV light or a lot of radiations.

    一些可以在例如核電站的冷卻水中生存的細菌,如Dina caucus radio Duran's就是一種,或者其他已知可以在石頭上生存的細菌,或者在高紫外線或大量輻射下生存的細菌。

  • The subway system and the city's surfaces in rich for and probably select for these hardier microbes that can survive on rough surfaces full of toxins and radiation.

    地鐵系統和城市的表面有豐富的資源,而且可能選擇了這些更頑強的微生物,它們可以在充滿毒素和輻射的粗糙表面上生存。

  • But at the same time we find that there's a lot of species that are very unique to one part of the world that even give us a forensic capacity.

    但同時我們發現,有很多物種在世界的某個地方非常獨特,甚至給我們帶來了取證的能力。

  • Tell You know, what city did you come from?

    告訴你,你來自哪個城市?

  • And if you look at your shoe for example, we could tell with about 90% certainty where in the world you came from?

    例如,如果你看一下你的鞋子,我們可以用大約90%的確定性來判斷你來自世界的哪裡?

  • Just from the microbes that you're carrying with you with subways teeming with bacteria should commuters start to worry about the microbes will encounter on the subway.

    僅僅從你攜帶的微生物與地鐵中充斥的細菌來看,上班族應該開始擔心地鐵上會遇到的微生物。

  • There is some good news in that there is not an avalanche of pathogens waiting to greet you at the subway systems.

    有一些好消息是,沒有雪崩式的病原體在地鐵系統中等著迎接你。

  • A pathogen is an organism that is known to cause an infection and disease.

    病原體是一種已知可導致感染和疾病的生物體。

  • We've seen no evidence of wealth of harmful pathogens or really even that many opportunistic pathogens in the city centers or transit systems.

    我們沒有看到有害病原體豐富的證據,甚至沒有看到城市中心或交通系統中真的有那麼多機會主義病原體。

  • But rather have actually seen it seemed to be relatively safe environment.

    但實際上已經看到它似乎是相對安全的環境。

  • And even if we look at things like antibiotic resistance or these anti microbial resistance genes, what you'll find in the subway and transit systems is often less than what you find in the soil or even in your own stomach.

    即使我們看一下像抗生素抗性或這些抗微生物抗性基因這樣的東西,你在地鐵和交通系統中發現的東西往往比你在土壤中甚至在你自己的胃中發現的要少。

  • From the first study.

    來自第一項研究。

  • My favorite fact then and now is actually the about half of the D.

    我當時和現在最喜歡的事實其實是D的大約一半。

  • N.

    N.

  • A.

    A.

  • That we sequenced matched no known species.

    我們測序的結果與任何已知物種都不匹配。

  • It's never been seen before.

    這是以前從未見過的。

  • A new species means that it has to be at least 20% divergent from anything that's been seen before.

    一個新的物種意味著它必須與以前見過的任何東西至少有20%的差異。

  • I mean If it was 100 page book of the genetic code, at least 20 pages would be completely new and never been seen before.

    我的意思是,如果這是一本100頁的遺傳密碼書,至少有20頁是全新的,以前從未見過的。

  • But some but evolution is conservative.

    但有些人但進化是保守的。

  • So actually a lot of pieces of DNA that we have.

    所以實際上我們有很多的DNA片段。

  • Our bacteria viruses get recycled and reused, There is subway swabs and covered over 11,000 new bacteria and viruses.

    我們的細菌病毒得到回收和重複使用,有地鐵拭子和覆蓋超過11000個新的細菌和病毒。

  • There was all this unknown life really under our fingertips.

    在我們的指尖下,真的有所有這些未知的生命。

  • But then other species we could see it looked like they were bacteria that were associated more with rats.

    但隨後我們可以看到的其他物種,看起來它們是與老鼠關係更密切的細菌。

  • Or sometimes we actually see the rat DNA itself.

    或者有時我們真的看到老鼠的DNA本身。

  • Actually you can see cucumber DNA.

    實際上,你可以看到黃瓜的DNA。

  • We could see plants and animals, we could see more plant DNA closer to the parks for example.

    我們可以看到植物和動物,例如,我們可以在靠近公園的地方看到更多的植物DNA。

  • So we could actually see this entire ecosystem of life really reflected in the surfaces of the subway.

    是以,我們實際上可以看到整個生命的生態系統真正反映在地鐵的表面。

  • We've also seen a lot of new CRISPR or raise.

    我們也看到了很多新的CRISPR或提高。

  • These are basically the bacterial immune systems that are defending against other viruses and they also could serve as a new way to understand how do the CRISPR systems work?

    這些基本上是防禦其他病毒的細菌免疫系統,它們也可以作為了解CRISPR系統如何工作的一種新方式?

  • Can use them for new actually therapies or drugs or even treatments CRISPR is even being used right now for gene therapies.

    可以將它們用於新的實際上的療法或藥物,甚至治療CRISPR甚至現在就被用於基因治療。

  • And so finding these new bacterial functions could potentially lead the way towards new medicines.

    是以,發現這些新的細菌功能有可能導致新的藥物的出現。

  • So for commuters riding subways around the world, you might not want to touch the polls, turnstiles and seats like you used to, but the microbes underneath our fingers serve a purpose.

    是以,對於在世界各地乘坐地鐵的通勤者來說,你可能不想像以前那樣觸摸投票器、旋轉門和座位,但我們手指下的微生物是有作用的。

  • I would actually think it's okay to grab the subway pole.

    實際上,我認為抓住地鐵桿是可以的。

  • If anything, the ecosystem we discovered shows that is a very consistent core microbiome that humans probably have evolved with.

    如果有的話,我們發現的生態系統表明,是一個非常一致的核心微生物群,人類可能已經進化了。

  • And essentially probably could use the exposure to that environment.

    而且基本上可能需要接觸這種環境。

  • So instead of being afraid of the subway, you could even go in with reckless abandon and uh, and grab it with some confidence.

    是以,與其害怕地鐵,你甚至可以不顧一切地進去,呃,帶著一些信心去抓住它。

this is a subway pole a turnstile a seat and this is what's underneath.

這是一個地鐵桿,一個轉門,一個座位,這就是下面的東西。

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 08 月 28 日
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