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  • After being ghosted by NASA for about 30 years, Venus is back in the limelight.

    在被美國國家航空航天局打入冷宮將近 30 年後,金星又回到了人們的視線中。

  • In June of 2021, NASA announced two bold new missions that will be launched by the end of the decade, DAVINCI+ and VERITAS.

    2021年6月,美國宇航局宣佈了兩項大膽的新任務,DAVINCI+ 和 VERITAS,他們將在2030年前啟動。

  • Although the planet was a focus for early exploration, temperatures that melt lead and clouds of sulfuric acid earned Venus a reputation of beinghard to work with”.

    雖然這顆星球是早期探索的重點,但能融化鉛的高溫和硫酸雲為金星贏得了「難以相處 」的聲譽。

  • Between 1970 and 1985, a number of landers reached Venus' surface, but none lasted more than about two hours.

    1970 年至 1985 年期間,有好些登陸器抵達金星表面,但都沒有辦法待超過兩個小時。

  • So that's why NASA pivoted to Mars, where its Viking 1 lander touched down successfully in 1976.

    所以這就是為什麼美國宇航局的目標轉向了火星,其維京 1 號登陸器於 1976 年在那裡成功著陸。

  • These early discoveries made Mars thego-tospot for future missions and landers.


  • Fast forward to 2020 and scientists announced the discovery of phosphine on Venus, a potential sign of life.

    快轉到 2020 年,科學家宣佈在金星上發現了磷化氫,這是生命存在的潛在跡象。

  • That turned everything around.


  • Although the findings were heavily controversial, it reignited interest in the forgotten planet.


  • In fact, in June 2021, scientists working with old orbiter data spotted something on Venus that kinda looks like plate tectonics.

    事實上,在 2021 年 6 月,研究以前的軌道飛行器數據的科學家在金星上發現了一些東西,這些東西看起來有點像板塊構造。

  • All the more reason to go figure out what's going on.


  • To find out how a world so similar to ours became an inferno, NASA will go to hell...literally.


  • The two missions, DAVINCI+ and VERITAS, also have scientists re-examining two major theories about Venus' origin.

    DAVINCI+ 和 VERITAS 這兩項任務也使科學家們重新審視了關於金星起源的兩個主要理論。

  • In the first theory, when the planet was less than a billion years old, it was cooked by a warming sun, boiling off any existing water.

    在第一個理論中,當這個星球還不到 10 億年的時候,它就被正在變暖的太陽烤熟了,一點水分也不剩。

  • The water vapor, plus the carbon dioxide from a magma ocean, quickly caused a runaway greenhouse effect, and the hope of a habitable paradise went up in flames.


  • In the second theory, there were two habitable Earth-like planets in the early solar system.


  • Venus still ends up with the runaway greenhouse effect, but not before it enjoyed oceans like Earth's for over 3 billion years.


  • Then, massive volcanic eruptions dumped carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, choking the climate.


  • Temperatures went up, the oceans evaporated, and a once temperate planet became hostile.


  • One of these theories is more accurate, but without more data, we don't know which.


  • But DAVINCI+ and VERITAS can help answer this and other questions.

    但 DAVINCI+ 和 VERITAS 可以幫忙回答這個和其他的問題。

  • DAVINCI+ is short for the Deep Atmosphere Venus Investigation of Noble Gases, Chemistry, and Imaging Plus.

    DAVINCI+ 是金星深層大氣中的惰性氣體、化學和成像調查的簡稱。

  • The tandem spacecraft and probe will do two flybys where it will image Venus from above.


  • On its third flyby, it will release a descent probe.


  • On its hour-long journey down to the surface it will sample the chemistry in the atmosphere, including noble gases like xenon, argon, and helium.


  • Since noble gases don't react with other elements, they can tell us whether the planet once had an ocean and how much of it ended up in the atmosphere.


  • The probe will also measure temperature, pressure, and wind speed.


  • It will descend over Alpha Regio, a complex pattern of valleys and ridges known as a “tessera”.

    它將在阿爾法區域上空下降,這是一個由山谷和山脊組成的複雜地形,被稱為 「鑲嵌地塊」。

  • We don't really know what tesserae are, but the probe will snap extremely detailed images of them so we can see if they're related to volcanic activity.


  • Then there's VERITAS, which is short for Venus Emissivity, Radio Science, InSAR, Topography, and Spectroscopy.

    然後是 VERITAS,它是金星發射率、無線電科學、干涉合成孔徑雷達、地形學和光譜學的簡稱。

  • The orbiter will have a radar that can peek through the clouds and map out the surface of the planet in high resolution.


  • It will also be equipped with a near-infrared spectrometer to determine the makeup of the surface.


  • These images will replace the relatively low-resolution ones taken by the Magellan orbiter when it visited the planet in the '90s.

    這些影像將取代麥哲倫飛行軌道器在 90 年代訪問該星球時拍攝的相對低分辨率的影像。

  • VERITAS will also take measurements of Venus's gravitational field, revealing the interior structure of the planet.

    VERITAS 還將對金星的引力場進行測量,顯露出該行星的內部結構。

  • Not only can these missions to Venus tell us more about its origins, but also they can help improve our understanding of exoplanets.


  • To date, NASA has confirmed more than 4000 planets orbiting stars outside our Solar System.

    迄今為止,美國宇航局已確認有 4000 多顆行星圍繞太陽系以外的恆星運行。

  • Some are located in the habitable zone, where liquid water could exist on the surface.


  • If we learn what caused Venus to go apocalyptic, it may help us identify which exoplanets could be habitable and create a roadmap for future exploration.


  • If the return to Venus has you wondering how well you know your neighbor, check out this video on Why Scientists Are Exploring Earth's Dangerous Twin.


  • If you have any space breakthroughs you think we should cover, let us know in the comments below


  • and as always, thanks for watching Seeker.

    一如以往,感謝觀看 Seeker。

After being ghosted by NASA for about 30 years, Venus is back in the limelight.

在被美國國家航空航天局打入冷宮將近 30 年後,金星又回到了人們的視線中。

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金星大揭秘!美國宇航局為何要在30年後重返金星? (Why NASA Wants to Head Back to Venus After 30 Years)

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    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 09 月 21 日