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  • For the first time, scientists were able to directly measure winds in Jupiter's stratosphere.

    科學家們第一次能夠直接測量木星平流層中的風向。

  • The results were astonishing and reveal what a beast the largest planet in our solar system really is.

    結果令人吃驚,揭示了我們太陽系中最大的行星究竟是怎樣的一頭野獸。

  • Jupiter is the oldest planet in our solar system, so by learning more about the planet and its weather,

    木星是我們太陽系中最古老的行星,是以通過學習更多關於這顆行星和它的天氣。

  • we can better understand the early history of our solar system.

    我們可以更好地瞭解我們太陽系的早期歷史。

  • So then, why are we looking at Jupiter's winds?

    那麼,為什麼我們要研究木星的風呢?

  • Well, each planet has its own unique conditions we can learn from, like a natural laboratory with its ownexperiments”.

    嗯,每個星球都有自己獨特的條件,我們可以從中學習,就像一個自然實驗室,有自己的 "實驗"。

  • And as for Jupiter, it's known to be home to some of the stormiest systems.

    至於木星,眾所周知,它是一些最暴風雨系統的所在地。

  • In the lower atmosphere, scientists track Jupiter's winds using the swirling red and white clouds of gas.

    在低層大氣中,科學家利用旋轉的紅色和白色氣體雲來追蹤木星的風。

  • Higher in the planet's upper atmosphere are strong winds that create vibrant auroras at its poles.

    在地球的高層大氣中,有強烈的風,在兩極形成了鮮豔的極光。

  • And then there's the region between these two layers, the stratosphere.

    然後是這兩層之間的區域,平流層。

  • Up until now, we've known little about what's going on in there.

    直到現在,我們對裡面發生的事情知之甚少。

  • Well, researchers had no way to directly measure these winds, since cloud-tracking technologies become useless when there's no clouds.

    好吧,研究人員沒有辦法直接測量這些風,因為在沒有云的情況下,雲層追蹤技術變得毫無用處。

  • That is, unless there's something else they could measure.

    也就是說,除非有別的東西他們可以測量。

  • Nearly three decades ago, a comet named Shoemaker-Levy 9 collided with Jupiter, creating completely new molecules in its stratosphere.

    近三十年前,一顆名為Shoemaker-Levy 9的彗星與木星相撞,在木星的平流層創造了全新的分子。

  • Some of these particles continue to fly in the planet's winds to this very day.

    其中一些顆粒至今仍在地球的風中飛行。

  • Now, a team of astronomers was able to track one of these molecules, hydrogen cyanide,

    現在,一個天文學家小組能夠追蹤這些分子中的一個,即氰化氫。

  • using the high-precision antennas of the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array, or ALMA.

    使用阿塔卡馬大型毫米/亞毫米陣列,或ALMA的高精度天線。

  • When these molecules move in the winds of Jupiter's stratosphere, the frequency of their radiation slightly changes.

    當這些分子在木星平流層的風中移動時,其輻射的頻率略有變化。

  • This is called the Doppler effect, the change in a wave's frequency depending on if the molecule is moving closer to, or farther away from the observer.

    這被稱為多普勒效應,即一個波的頻率變化取決於分子是在靠近還是遠離觀察者。

  • Just like how you can determine the speed of a passing fire truck by the change in its sirens frequency,

    就像你可以通過警笛頻率的變化來確定一輛經過的消防車的速度。

  • the Doppler effect lets scientists measure tiny changes in the frequency of radiation emitted by the molecules.

    多普勒效應使科學家能夠測量分子發射的輻射頻率的微小變化。

  • In just under 30 minutes of observation, scientists were able to

    在短短不到30分鐘的觀察中,科學家們就能夠

  • directly measure the speed of the stratospheric "jets" on Jupiter's poles and equator.

    直接測量木星兩極和赤道上平流層 "噴流 "的速度。

  • Just like the jet streams on Earth, “jetsare the narrow bands of wind in the atmosphere.

    就像地球上的噴流一樣,"噴流 "是大氣層中的狹窄風帶。

  • And the measurements from the stratosphere were completely unexpected.

    而來自平流層的測量結果是完全出乎意料的。

  • According to past research, upper-atmospheric winds at Jupiter's poles would likely slow down and completely disappear before getting to the stratosphere.

    根據過去的研究,木星兩極的上大氣層風很可能在到達平流層之前就會減慢並完全消失。

  • But these results indicate that not only do these winds exist, but they're also super strong.

    但是這些結果表明,這些風不僅存在,而且還超級強大。

  • Scientists found jets with speeds of up to 400 meters per second.

    科學家們發現噴氣機的速度高達400米/秒。

  • This is more than twice the maximum speeds in Jupiter's biggest storm, the Great Red Spot

    這是木星最大的風暴--大紅斑的最大速度的兩倍多。

  • and is more than three times as fast as Earth's most powerful tornadoes.

    並且是地球上最強大的龍捲風速度的三倍以上。

  • These wind patterns at Jupiter's poles could act as a massive vortex, one that's four times the diameter of Earth, and 900 kilometers tall!

    木星兩極的這些風的模式可以作為一個巨大的漩渦,這個漩渦的直徑是地球的四倍,高達九百公里!

  • That makes this vortex one of the most uniquely powerful weather phenomena in our entire solar system.

    這使得這個漩渦成為我們整個太陽系中最獨特的強大天氣現象之一。

  • And soon, we'll be getting even juicier results, from the European Space Agency's mission JUpiter ICy moons Explorer or JUICE.

    而很快,我們將得到更多的結果,來自歐洲航天局的任務JUpiter ICy moons Explorer或JUICE。

  • It launches in 2022, but won't reach Jupiter until seven years later in 2029.

    它在2022年發射,但直到七年後的2029年才會到達木星。

  • JUICE will further investigate Jupiter's weather, from the tops of its clouds down to its thermosphere.

    JUICE將進一步研究木星的天氣,從其雲層頂部一直到熱層。

  • The mission will also explore three of Jupiter's moons, Ganymede, Callisto, and Europa,

    這項任務還將探索木星的三個衛星,即木衛二、卡利斯托和歐羅巴。

  • where evidence suggests there are large bodies of liquid water underneath their icy surfaces.

    其中的證據表明,在其冰冷的表面下有大量的液態水體。

  • Although it'll be awhile before JUICE reaches Jupiter or its moons,

    儘管在JUICE到達木星或其衛星之前還需要一段時間。

  • it'll be worth the wait to discover more about the oldest and largest planet of our Solar System.

    為了發現更多關於我們太陽系中最古老和最大的行星,等待是值得的。

  • Hey there, I'm Niba, a plant geneticist turned science content creator.

    嘿,我是尼巴,一個由植物遺傳學家變成的科學內容創作者。

  • I'm excited to explore all things science, especially talking biology and environmental technologies, with you here on Seeker.

    我很高興能在Seeker上和你一起探索所有的科學事物,特別是談論生物學和環境技術。

  • To learn more about JUICE's mission, check out this Countdown to Launch episode.

    要了解更多關於JUICE的使命,請看這期《啟動倒計時》。

  • If there's any other planetary discovery that you'd like to see us cover, let us know in the comments below.

    如果你希望看到我們報道其他行星發現,請在下面的評論中告訴我們。

  • Thanks for watching and I'll see you next time.

    感謝您的觀看,我們下次再見。

For the first time, scientists were able to directly measure winds in Jupiter's stratosphere.

科學家們第一次能夠直接測量木星平流層中的風向。

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B1 中級 中文 木星 太陽系 行星 兩極 頻率 分子

木星的極地風創造了一個比地球本身大得多的漩渦 (Jupiter’s Polar Winds Create a Vortex Way Bigger Than Earth Itself)

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    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 07 月 23 日
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