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  • Back in 2019, a mysterious comet from a far away star system whizzed by Earth.

    早在2019年,一顆來自遙遠的恆星系統的神祕彗星從地球上呼嘯而過。

  • At first glance, the visitor, named 2I/Borisov, seemed to be rather ordinary,

    乍一看,這位名為2I/Borisov的訪客似乎相當普通。

  • but studies since have revealed signs that it is far from an average comet.

    但此後的研究發現,有跡象表明它遠遠不是一顆普通的彗星。

  • Now, two research studies released in March 2021 have shed new light on our visitor, and helped unveil information

    現在,2021年3月發佈的兩項研究為我們的訪客帶來了新的啟示,並幫助揭開了資訊

  • about our own solar system. When Borisov was first sighted by an amateur astronomer, initial data suggested it was a typical comet.

    關於我們自己的太陽系。當鮑裡索夫第一次被一位業餘天文學家看到時,最初的數據表明它是一顆典型的彗星。

  • Meaning it was made of things like ice, dust, and gassy materials that researchers had all seen before in our solar system.

    這意味著它是由諸如冰、塵埃和氣體材料組成的,研究人員以前都在我們的太陽系中見過。

  • Soon after its finding, NASA's Scout system at JPL automatically identified the comet as a potential interstellar object.

    在它被發現後不久,美國宇航局在JPL的偵察系統自動將這顆彗星識別為潛在的星際物體。

  • This software alerted astronomers across the world, and they quickly pointed their instruments toward Borisov to learn more.

    這個軟件提醒了全世界的天文學家,他們迅速將他們的儀器指向鮑裡索夫以瞭解更多。

  • And what exactly were those astronomers looking for in this alien comet?

    而那些天文學家究竟在這顆外星彗星中尋找什麼呢?

  • In order to study a comet, astronomers take a look at the particles being expelled from the comet's surface.

    為了研究一顆彗星,天文學家看了一下從彗星表面排出的粒子。

  • In fact, you're probably most familiar with images showing a comet shedding their outermost layer, in what's known as a coma.

    事實上,你可能最熟悉的是顯示彗星最外層脫落的影像,即所謂的彗星。

  • The coma forms when comets pass close to their host star and are bombarded by heat and radiation.

    當彗星接近其主星並受到熱量和輻射的轟擊時,彗星就會形成。

  • Dust and debris break off from the comet's main body, and ice sublimates into gas.

    塵埃和碎片從彗星的主體中脫離出來,冰昇華為氣體。

  • And by studying the released particles, observers are able to make educated guesses about the composition

    通過研究被釋放的粒子,觀察者能夠對其組成作出有根據的猜測。

  • and the history of the comet. Previous studies found that Borisov likely contains between nine and twenty-six times

    以及該彗星的歷史。以前的研究發現,鮑裡索夫可能含有九到二十六倍的

  • more carbon monoxide than other comets we've seen before, meaning that Borisov probably formed

    比我們以前見過的其他彗星有更多的一氧化碳,這意味著鮑裡索夫可能形成了

  • in extremely cold temperatures around negative 250 degrees Celsius. And these latest studies have built upon

    在負250攝氏度左右的極冷溫度下。而這些最新的研究是建立在

  • this conclusion to provide additional evidence of the comet's alien nature.

    這一結論為該彗星的外星性質提供了額外的證據。

  • Using different methodologies, two recent studies took a closer look at Borisov's coma.

    使用不同的方法,最近的兩項研究對鮑裡索夫的昏迷進行了仔細的研究。

  • The first from the Armagh Observatory and Planetarium measured the reflected light of the coma.

    第一個來自Armagh天文臺和天文館,測量了彗星的反射光。

  • As the light from the sun scatters through the particles, astronomers are able to determine

    當來自太陽的光通過粒子散射時,天文學家能夠確定

  • size, composition, and shape based on the electromagnetic waves.

    基於電磁波的大小、組成和形狀。

  • The team concluded that the observed light was being reflected through extremely small particles,

    研究小組得出結論,觀察到的光線是通過極小的顆粒反射的。

  • suggesting that the comet is close to its original form.

    這表明這顆彗星接近於它的原始形態。

  • This ultimately helps us to better understand the comet's origin.

    這最終有助於我們更好地瞭解該彗星的起源。

  • And almost simultaneously, astronomers at the European Southern Observatory conducted a separate study

    而幾乎同時,歐洲南方天文臺的天文學家們進行了一項單獨的研究

  • that measured heat signatures from Borisov's coma.

    測量鮑裡索夫昏迷時的熱信號。

  • With a combination of data from VLT and the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, or ALMA, for short,

    通過VLT和阿塔卡馬大型毫米/亞毫米陣列(簡稱ALMA)的數據組合。

  • the team discovered millimeter-sized grains rich in carbon monoxide and water being expelled from the comet.

    研究小組發現了從彗星上排出的富含一氧化碳和水的毫米級顆粒。

  • These findings suggest two things: number one, that Borisov comes from an extremely cold environment,

    這些發現表明了兩件事:第一,鮑裡索夫來自一個極其寒冷的環境。

  • and number two, that it was more of a traveler than a stationary rock,

    第二,它更像是一個旅行者,而不是一個固定的岩石。

  • beginning in the inner area of a star system before being pushed outward and collecting ice along its journey.

    從一個恆星系統的內部區域開始,然後被向外推送,沿途收集冰。

  • Borisov likely moved further and further away until finally resting in an area deep within its star system

    鮑裡索夫很可能越走越遠,直到最後在其恆星系統深處的一個區域休息。

  • and undisturbed by either heat or radiation. Astronomers believe the process of Borisov exchanging materials

    並且不受熱量或輻射的干擾。天文學家認為鮑裡索夫交換材料的過程

  • was influenced by giant planets in the early universe through a process calledgravitational stirring”.

    在早期宇宙中,通過一個稱為 "引力攪拌 "的過程,受到巨型行星的影響。

  • And this same process is thought to have contributed to the formation of our solar system.

    而這一過程也被認為有助於我們太陽系的形成。

  • Unfortunately for researchers, Borisov has made its exit out of our Solar System, and they won't be able to make

    對研究人員來說,不幸的是,鮑裡索夫已經離開了我們的太陽系,而他們將無法使

  • any new observations of the comet.

    對該彗星的任何新觀察。

  • These studies have left the astronomy community with many questions:

    這些研究給天文學界留下了許多疑問。

  • Is the star system Borisov hails from really so different from our own?

    鮑裡索夫所來自的星系與我們的星系真的如此不同嗎?

  • And how much has the comet actually changed since its creation?

    而這顆彗星自誕生以來究竟發生了多大的變化?

  • And we'll hopefully get closer to answering some of these questions as teams across the world

    隨著世界各地的團隊,我們將有望更接近於回答其中的一些問題

  • are looking to study comets more closely, and learn about the star systems they originally come from.

    他們希望更仔細地研究彗星,並瞭解它們最初來自的恆星系統。

  • The Vera C. Rubin Observatory is set to open in late 2022 and will hopefully detect interstellar objects while surveying the sky.

    維拉-C-魯賓天文臺將於2022年底開放,並有望在勘測天空時探測到星際物體。

  • And the European Space Agency aims to launch its Comet Interceptor mission in 2029

    而歐洲航天局的目標是在2029年發射其彗星攔截器任務

  • to pursue traveling objects as they move through our Solar System, hoping to give us an even closer look

    追蹤穿越太陽系的天體,希望能讓我們更近距離地看到它們。

  • at visitors from distant galaxies.

    在來自遙遠的星系的訪客。

  • Including Borisov, did you know that humans have only seen two objects from outside our solar system?

    包括鮑裡索夫,你知道人類只見過兩個來自太陽系外的物體嗎?

  • The first discovered in 2017, Oumuamua, which is the flat rock thought by many to be an alien spacecraft.

    2017年發現的第一個,Oumuamua,這是許多人認為是外星飛船的扁平岩石。

  • To learn more about the first interstellar comet, check out this episode on Oumuamua here.

    要了解有關第一顆星際彗星的更多資訊,請在這裡查看有關Oumuamua的這一集。

  • Make sure to subscribe and thanks for watching.

    請務必訂閱,並感謝您的觀看。

Back in 2019, a mysterious comet from a far away star system whizzed by Earth.

早在2019年,一顆來自遙遠的恆星系統的神祕彗星從地球上呼嘯而過。

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B2 中高級 中文 彗星 天文學家 太陽系 研究 恆星 外星

認識幫助繪製太陽系演變圖的星際彗星 (Meet the Interstellar Comet Helping Map the Solar System’s Evolution)

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    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 07 月 12 日
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