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  • It's safe to say that vaccines have come a long way. Gone are the days of scraping some

    可以說,疫苗已經有了長足的進步。刮痧的日子已經一去不復返了。

  • pus from a cow and giving it to your wife and sons. Sure it was worth it to prevent

    從一頭牛身上取下膿包,然後給你的妻子和兒子們吃。當然這是值得的,以防止

  • smallpox, but still...

    天花,但仍然...

  • After the last year we've seen just how progressive we can be at developing a vaccine. Never before have we

    經過去年,我們已經看到了我們在開發疫苗方面可以有多大的進步。以前我們從未

  • made one so efficiently, but COVID has done more than

    如此高效地製作了一個,但COVID所做的工作超過了

  • just spark the development of COVID-specific vaccines, it has actually helped advance the

    這只是引發了COVID特異性疫苗的開發,它實際上幫助推進了

  • entire industry in an unprecedented way.

    整個行業以一種前所未有的方式發展。

  • Vaccinology has been a Field of Dreams that's been replete with innovation for the last

    疫苗學一直是一個充滿創新的夢想領域,在過去的日子裡

  • 225 years. And I think the COVID 19 pandemic that started more than a year ago has brought

    225年。我認為一年多前開始的COVID 19大流行病已經帶來了

  • this to the fore. My name is Bali Pulendran, I am a professor of pathology and microbiology

    這一點值得關注。我的名字是巴里-普倫德蘭,我是一名病理學和微生物學的教授

  • and immunology.

    和免疫學。

  • When it comes to the future of vaccines, there are a lot of avenues that are making strides

    談到疫苗的未來,有很多途徑正在取得進展

  • with things like mRNA vaccines, delivery systems, epigenetics, and universal vaccines... and spoiler

    諸如mRNA疫苗、輸送系統、表觀遺傳學和通用疫苗......以及破壞者

  • alert, we're getting a lot closer to a certain type of universal vaccine than you may think.

    警報,我們比你想象的更接近某種類型的通用疫苗。

  • Vaccinology is a discipline that is positioned at the focal point of immunology, virology

    疫苗學是一門定位在免疫學、病毒學和生物技術之間的學科。

  • microbiology, public health, economics, sociology, ethics, and even international diplomacy.

    微生物學、公共衛生、經濟學、社會學、倫理學,甚至是國際外交。

  • So when one thinks about the future of vaccines, one has to think about each of these elements,

    是以,當人們思考疫苗的未來時,必須考慮到這些元素中的每一個。

  • the future of each of these elements.

    這些要素中的每一個的未來。

  • One of the most exciting developments for the invention and distribution of vaccines

    疫苗的發明和傳播最令人激動的發展之一是

  • is mRNA.

    是mRNA。

  • mRNA vaccines is of course the new kid on the block, they've been extraordinarily efficacious

    mRNA疫苗當然是這一領域的新生事物,它們已經有了超乎尋常的功效

  • in protecting against COVID-19. And the thing that everyone says is that these vaccines

    在防止COVID-19方面。而大家都說的是,這些疫苗

  • were developed in such a short time, in a period of 11 months or so. But the important point

    是在這麼短的時間內,在11個月左右的時間內發展起來的。但重要的一點是

  • to remember is that it's not as if we didn't know about the mRNA vaccines prior to the

    需要記住的是,我們並不是不知道mRNA疫苗的存在。

  • emergence of COVID-19, there were teams of scientists working on this concept for years.

    COVID-19的出現,有一些科學家團隊多年來一直在研究這個概念。

  • It just so happened that when COVID-19 emerged, they were rapidly able to pivot and to use

    碰巧的是,當COVID-19出現時,他們能夠迅速地進行透視並使用

  • that technology, that investment that they had made over the last decade.

    他們在過去十年裡所做的技術和投資。

  • mRNA or messenger RNA vaccines are such game changers because of how they're made, a traditional

    mRNA或信使RNA疫苗之所以能改變遊戲規則,是因為它們的製作方式,傳統的

  • viral vaccine will deliver an inactivated, weakened or small piece of a virus to stimulate

    病毒疫苗將提供一個滅活的、弱化的或小塊的病毒,以刺激

  • an immune response. But the neat thing about mRNA vaccines, is that they deliver the genetic

    免疫反應。但是,關於mRNA疫苗的好處是,它們可以將遺傳基因傳遞給病人。

  • instructions directly to your cells, telling them exactly how to make the specific protein

    直接向你的細胞發出指令,準確地告訴它們如何製造特定的蛋白質。

  • needed to generate that immune response. It's tapping into the way that mRNA typically helps

    產生這種免疫反應所需的。它正在挖掘mRNA通常幫助的方式

  • cells to build, maintain and repair things in our bodies using proteins.

    細胞利用蛋白質來建立、維護和修復我們體內的東西。

  • Now why this is so unique is that if you didn't have this mRNA technology, you would not have

    現在,為什麼這是如此獨特的是,如果你沒有這種mRNA技術,你就不會有

  • access to our own cellular factories the so called ribosomes, we would be so dependent

    如果我們能夠獲得我們自己的細胞工廠,即所謂的核糖體,我們將如此依賴

  • on manmade factories to produce these proteins and protein production is a whole new step

    靠人造工廠來生產這些蛋白質,蛋白質的生產是一個全新的步驟。

  • and that can take a very long time several months perhaps a year or longer. So effectively

    而這可能需要很長的時間,幾個月也許一年或更長。是以,有效地

  • what we've done is to bypass that entire protein production and use our body's own factories

    我們所做的是繞過整個蛋白質生產,使用我們身體自身的工廠。

  • to our benefit.

    對我們有利。

  • Right so mRNA means that you don't have to wait for all those proteins to be made, you

    對,所以mRNA意味著你不必等待所有這些蛋白質被製造出來,你

  • can just teach cells, how to make it on their own. It's a teach a man to fish kind of thing,

    就可以教細胞,如何自己做。這是一種授人以魚不如授人以漁的事情。

  • or like a teach a ribosome to mass produce a spike protein kind of thing. But even mRNA

    或者像教一個核糖體大量生產穗狀蛋白的那種東西。但即使是mRNA

  • vaccines are limited in that they teach the immune system to respond specifically to one

    疫苗的侷限性在於,它們教導免疫系統專門對一種疾病作出反應。

  • virus. So what if our vaccines didn't have to be so specialized per virus, or in the

    病毒。那麼,如果我們的疫苗不必對每種病毒如此專門化,或者在

  • case of something like influenza, so specific to each variant of the virus, the development

    在像流感這樣的情況下,每一種病毒的變體都有其特殊性,是以,發展

  • of a vaccine is predicated on the concept of teaching the immune system to recognize

    疫苗的概念建立在教導免疫系統識別的基礎上

  • a very specific antigen, and priming cells that recognizes antigen in this case. Now,

    一個非常具體的抗原,並在這種情況下給識別抗原的細胞打底。現在。

  • this is the concept on which vaccines are made immunological memory so that when this

    這是一個概念,在此基礎上,疫苗被製成了免疫記憶,是以,當這

  • person encounters that particular pathogen decades afterwards, he or she has these memory

    如果一個人在幾十年後遇到了那個特定的病原體,他或她就會有這些記憶

  • cells that recognize that pathogen and have the capacity to respond in a much more accelerated

    識別該病原體並有能力以更快的速度作出反應的細胞。

  • manner and a much more invigorated or enhanced manner.

    方式和更多的振奮或加強的方式。

  • But if we could pull everything we know about influenza viruses or the different kinds of

    但是,如果我們能夠把我們所知道的關於流感病毒或不同種類的

  • coronaviruses and teach the immune system to look for more than just individual antigens,

    冠狀病毒,並教導免疫系統不僅僅尋找個別抗原。

  • then we would bypass the need for these hyper specific vaccines. This vaccine would teach

    那麼我們就會繞過這些超特異性疫苗的需求。這種疫苗將教導

  • the immune system to respond to anything that looks like a flu virus, even if it hasn't

    免疫系統對任何看起來像流感病毒的東西作出反應,即使它還沒有

  • encountered its exact makeup before.

    以前遇到過它的確切構成。

  • So I would say over the next five to 10 year frame and I think I'm being quite conservative.

    所以我想說在未來5到10年的框架內,我認為我是相當保守的。

  • I wouldn't be surprised if we have something that looked like a universal influenza vaccine

    如果我們有類似通用流感疫苗的東西,我也不會感到驚訝

  • that's ready for deployment. That's great,

    已經準備好進行部署。這很好。

  • but let's zoom out even further. Are we at all close to a vaccine that would just fight

    但讓我們進一步放大。我們是否已經接近一種疫苗,可以直接對抗

  • off anything? One shot to rule them all?

    關閉任何東西?一槍定江山?

  • Within a few seconds of you getting your COVID vaccine shot your innate immune system is

    在你注射COVID疫苗的幾秒鐘內,你的先天免疫系統就會

  • activated, and it teaches the T cells and the B cells to launch a vaccine response.

    激活,並教導T細胞和B細胞發起疫苗反應。

  • Now, recent work over the last, I would say two or three years, suggests that the innate

    現在,最近的工作,我想說的是,在過去的兩三年裡,表明先天的

  • immune system can have another role. It's not just a short-lived response that merely

    免疫系統可以有另一個作用。它不僅僅是一種短暫的反應,只是

  • teaches the T and B cells to do their job, but it can also have a response that lasts

    教導T和B細胞做他們的工作,但它也可以有一個持續的反應

  • a bit longer, not just a few days but perhaps a few weeks and maybe even a few months, and

    再長一點,不只是幾天,也許是幾周,甚至是幾個月,而且

  • that response can actually fight off infections.

    這種反應實際上可以抵禦感染。

  • And this is where it gets interesting. Instead of having to wait for your adaptive immune

    這就是它變得有趣的地方。與其等待你的適應性免疫力

  • system that's those T and B cells to learn how to find and fight or virus, triggering

    系統,讓那些T和B細胞學會如何尋找和對抗病毒,引發了

  • what are called epigenetic changes in the cells of the innate response could simply

    先天性反應的細胞中所謂的表觀遺傳學變化可能只是

  • tell the immune system to kill a virus right away.

    告訴免疫系統要立即殺死病毒。

  • So if you could deliver an adjuvant that could cause epigenetic imprinting and a heightened

    是以,如果你能提供一種佐劑,可以引起表觀遺傳學印記和增強的

  • degree of resistance in the innate immune system for some period of time, perhaps, you

    在先天性免疫系統中的抵抗程度在一段時間內,也許,你

  • know, a few weeks or maybe a few months, that would provide an effective sort of stopgap

    知道,幾個星期或幾個月,這將提供一種有效的權宜之計。

  • measure that would confer a degree of protection against any virus that could emerge, then

    採取措施,對可能出現的任何病毒提供一定程度的保護,然後

  • effectively you bridge that gap that critical window of time of a few months in which people

    你可以有效地彌合這一差距,在這幾個月的關鍵時間窗口中,人們

  • are now being exposed to this virus but we don't have conventional vaccines.

    現在正在接觸這種病毒,但我們沒有常規疫苗。

  • So in short, you'd be getting a vaccine that turbocharges the innate response via epigenetic

    是以,簡而言之,你會得到一種疫苗,它通過表觀遺傳學為先天反應提供渦輪增壓。

  • imprinting to blast any virus that comes along, but that could be enough for us to keep a

    印記,以炸燬任何出現的病毒,但這可能足以讓我們保持一個

  • disease at bay while we develop long term adaptive vaccines, when we have a mysterious

    在我們開發長期的適應性疫苗時,當我們有一個神祕的

  • new virus going around. But while we wait for these turbo vaccines, those of us with

    新的病毒正在四處蔓延。但在我們等待這些渦輪增壓疫苗的同時,我們這些擁有

  • trypanophobia, just want to know when we can get vaccines that don't require a needle,

    錐體恐懼症,只想知道我們什麼時候能得到不需要打針的疫苗。

  • Are we

    我們是否

  • always going to get an injection, or are there other types of vaccines? Well this is a question

    總是去打針,還是有其他類型的疫苗?嗯,這是個問題

  • my 11 year old daughter asks me constantly, there are efforts underway to mucosal

    我11歲的女兒不斷地問我,目前正在努力實現粘膜的 "無菌化"。

  • vaccines. These are vaccines that can be delivered orally, perhaps intranasally, and the great

    疫苗。這些是可以口服的疫苗,也許是鼻內注射的疫苗,而大

  • advantage of mucosal vaccines, is that they could be administered, much more easily and these

    粘膜疫苗的優點是,它們可以更容易地進行管理,這些

  • issues come into play in the developing world.

    在發展中世界,這些問題開始發揮作用。

It's safe to say that vaccines have come a long way. Gone are the days of scraping some

可以說,疫苗已經有了長足的進步。刮痧的日子已經一去不復返了。

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B1 中級 中文 疫苗 免疫 細胞 病毒 反應 蛋白質

通用疫苗可能比你想象的更接近 (A Universal Vaccine May Be Closer Than You Think)

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    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 07 月 09 日
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