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  • As devastating droughts threaten regions across the world,

    由於破壞性的乾旱威脅著世界各地的地區。

  • scientists have proposed a solution that sounds like science fiction.

    科學家們提出了一個聽起來像科幻小說的解決方案。

  • If the water doesn't come during the winter in the form of snowfall, and doesn't come during the spring in the form of rain...

    如果水在冬天不以降雪的形式出現,而在春天不以雨水的形式出現......

  • what if we just make it rain? Literally?

    如果我們只是讓它下雨呢?從字面上看?

  • While this may seem like a far-fetched fix, this idea is actually based on technology that's been around since the 1940s.

    雖然這可能看起來像一個牽強的解決方案,但這個想法實際上是基於自20世紀40年代以來一直存在的技術。

  • It's called cloud seeding, and it is what it sounds like:

    這被稱為 "雲播種",和它聽起來一樣。

  • Tiny particles are released into the air, either by an aircraft or an automated machine.

    微小的顆粒被釋放到空氣中,可以由飛機或自動機器來完成。

  • This technique relies on the answer to one key question: where do clouds come from?

    這種技術依賴於對一個關鍵問題的回答:雲從哪裡來?

  • The simple answer is that clouds have nuclei, but not the kind that atoms have.

    簡單的答案是,雲有核,但不是原子的那種核。

  • Water evaporates into the atmosphere as part of the water cycle.

    作為水循環的一部分,水會蒸發到大氣中。

  • That evaporated water accumulates around micro-scale solid or liquid particles made of dust or pollen...or even bacteria.

    蒸發的水積聚在由灰塵或花粉......甚至是細菌組成的微觀規模的固體或液體顆粒周圍。

  • These are called condensation nuclei.

    這些被稱為凝縮核。

  • As more and more water vapor clings onto a condensation nucleus, it starts to form a cloud droplet.

    隨著越來越多的水蒸氣附著在凝結核上,它開始形成一個雲滴。

  • Once the droplets get big and heavy enough, they fall from the cloud in the form of precipitation

    一旦液滴變得足夠大和重,它們就會以降水的形式從雲中落下。

  • that can be rain, snow, even hail!

    可以是雨,可以是雪,甚至可以是冰雹!

  • The scientists who came up with the idea of cloud seeding assumed that the limiting factor to how big clouds get

    提出雲播種想法的科學家們認為,限制雲層變大的因素是什麼?

  • or how likely it is they'll precipitate is these condensation nuclei.

    或者說它們沉澱的可能性有多大,就是這些凝結的核。

  • So, they decided to add some.

    是以,他們決定增加一些。

  • They chose silver iodide particles because their crystal structure is assumed to be very similar to that of real ice,

    他們選擇了碘化銀顆粒,因為他們的晶體結構被認為與真正的冰非常相似。

  • providing a scaffold for water to cling to.

    為水提供一個腳手架,使其附著在上面。

  • Adding these particles to growing clouds helps water vapor freeze around the nuclei at higher temperatures than it would naturally,

    將這些顆粒添加到成長中的雲中,有助於水蒸氣在核周圍以比自然界更高的溫度結冰。

  • making precipitation come faster.

    使降水來得更快。

  • And after its invention, cloud seeding was widely adopted.

    而在其發明之後,雲播種被廣泛採用。

  • It was put to work by the U.S. governmentmost notably during the Vietnam War, with the goal of flooding enemy supply routes.

    它被美國政府投入使用--最引人注目的是在越南戰爭期間,其目的是淹沒敵人的供應路線。

  • But in the 70s, the UN adopted a resolution to ensure that all its member states would only use weather modification

    但在70年代,聯合國通過了一項決議,以確保其所有成員國只使用天氣改變--

  • like cloud seedingfor peaceful purposes from then on.

    像雲播種一樣--從那時起就用於和平目的。

  • So, it may sound like a simple and effective solution:

    是以,這聽起來可能是一個簡單而有效的解決方案。

  • Just make more clouds to make more rain, right?

    只要製造更多的雲來製造更多的雨,對嗎?

  • But there are four main pitfalls that mean we gotta switch the faucet off on that excitement.

    但是,有四個主要的陷阱,意味著我們必須關閉這種興奮的水龍頭。

  • One: we still don't really know if it works.

    一:我們仍然不知道它是否真的有效。

  • Or if it does work, how effective it is.

    或者,如果它確實有效,它的效果如何。

  • See, once you've seeded a cloud, it's tough to say how much precipitation that cloud would have yielded if you didn't seed it.

    你看,一旦你在雲中播種,就很難說如果你不播種,那片雲會產生多少降水。

  • One recent study DID find that some seeding produced snow where it would not have fallen otherwise...

    最近的一項研究發現,一些播種產生了雪,否則它不會落下。

  • but the amount of snow was negligible.

    但雪的數量可以忽略不計。

  • And in areas where precipitation was expected, it's still hard to say if seeding made a difference either way

    而在預計會有降水的地區,仍然很難說播種是否產生了不同的效果。

  • in what would have fallen naturally.

    在本來自然落下的東西。

  • We also don't actually know HOW water vapor forms around condensation nuclei into cloud droplets in the first place

    我們實際上也不知道水蒸氣是如何在凝結核周圍形成雲滴的。

  • although there's a lot of interesting research into this right now too, so...

    雖然現在也有很多有趣的研究,所以...

  • there are just a LOT of unknowns.

    只是有很多未知的因素。

  • Problem two: You can only seed clouds that are already there

    問題二:你只能對已經存在的雲進行播種--

  • you can't make clouds appear out of thin air.

    你不可能讓雲彩憑空出現。

  • There has to be enough water vapor in the air already for cloud seeding to work,

    空氣中必須有足夠的水蒸氣才能使雲播種發揮作用。

  • so in extremely dry areas already devastated by drought,

    所以在已經受到乾旱破壞的極度乾旱地區。

  • this isn't much of a fix.

    這並不是什麼好的解決辦法。

  • Three: We don't yet fully understand the implications of adding seeding chemicals to our water cycle.

    三。我們還沒有完全理解在我們的水循環中加入播種化學品的影響。

  • Take silver iodide, for example.

    以碘化銀為例。

  • Silver is toxic to many aquatic organisms in large doses, so we need to monitor the levels of these compounds

    大劑量的銀對許多水生生物是有毒的,所以我們需要監測這些化合物的水準

  • that may make their way into the water cycle.

    可能會使它們進入水循環。

  • And while dry ice, potassium chloride, and more can also be used for cloud seeding, depending on the situation,

    而乾冰、氯化鉀等也可用於雲層播種,具體視情況而定。

  • the environmental effects of these will need to be considered too.

    也需要考慮這些的環境影響。

  • And four: Does cloud seeding upset the balance of nature even more than climate change-induced drought already has?

    還有四點。雲播種會不會比氣候變化引起的乾旱更加破壞大自然的平衡?

  • Some scientists worry that increasing the volume of clouds in one place will pull moisture from another area,

    一些科學家擔心,增加一個地方的雲量會從另一個地區拉走水分。

  • interrupting rain that could have fallen there insteadbut again.

    導致原本可以落在那裡的雨水被打斷......但又是這樣。

  • The dynamics at play in clouds are so complex that it's really hard to say where rain would have fallen if we had left everything alone.

    在雲中起作用的動力是如此複雜,以至於很難說如果我們不理會一切,雨水會落在哪裡。

  • The fact remains that by 2030, almost half the world's population will live in highly water-stressed areas due to climate change.

    事實是,到2030年,由於氣候變化,世界上幾乎一半的人口將生活在水資源高度緊張的地區。

  • And at least 52 countries all over the worldincluding the U.S., China, India, and Russia

    而全世界至少有52個國家--包括美國、中國、印度和俄羅斯--都是如此。

  • have invested in weather modification technologies in the hope of bending the weather to their will.

    他們投資於改變天氣的技術,希望能使天氣適應他們的意願。

  • So, while we investigate if and how cloud-seeding could help,

    是以,在我們調查雲播種是否有幫助以及如何幫助時。

  • it's important to remember that it's really just a band-aid.

    重要的是要記住,這真的只是一個Ok繃。

  • Experts say that if these strategies are seriously considered as a drought solution,

    專家說,如果認真考慮將這些戰略作為乾旱的解決方案。

  • they must be part of a larger plan that involves smart water management.

    它們必須是涉及智能水管理的更大計劃的一部分。

  • And even if things like cloud-seeding will help, they treat a symptom, not the cause.

    而且,即使像雲播種這樣的事情會有幫助,它們也是治標不治本。

  • To ensure long-lasting solutions to droughts worldwide, change that will actually make a fundamental difference,

    為了確保長期解決全世界的乾旱問題,改變將真正帶來根本性的變化。

  • we have to address the root causes of the climate crisis too.

    我們也必須解決氣候危機的根本原因。

  • If this video left you thirsty for more info on clouds, check out this other video on cloud complexity here,

    如果這段視頻讓你渴求更多關於雲的資訊,請看這段關於雲複雜性的其他視頻。

  • and let us know down in the comments what else you're interested in learning about weather modification.

    並在評論中告訴我們,你還想了解哪些關於天氣變化的資訊。

  • Subscribe to Seeker to keep up with all your news on weather and climate, and as always, thanks for watching.

    訂閱Seeker以瞭解所有關於天氣和氣候的新聞,並一如既往地感謝您的關注。

  • I'll see ya next time.

    下次見。

As devastating droughts threaten regions across the world,

由於破壞性的乾旱威脅著世界各地的地區。

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B1 中級 中文 乾旱 顆粒 解決 天氣 氣候 雨水

我們能否通過控制天氣來解決極端乾旱的問題? (Could We Control the Weather to Solve Extreme Droughts?)

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    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 06 月 28 日
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