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  • The first question is this.

    第一個問題是

  • Our country has two exploration programs.

    我們的國家有兩個探險計畫

  • One is NASA, with a mission to explore the great beyond,

    其一是NASA太空總署,而使命是探測太空

  • to explore the heavens, which we all want to go to if we're lucky.

    探索那個我們都想去的天堂~如果我們夠幸運的話

  • And you can see we have Sputnik, and we have Saturn,

    你可以看到我們有史波尼克(Sputnik)衛星和農神火箭

  • and we have other manifestations of space exploration.

    我們有其他探索太空的形式

  • Well, there's also another program,

    此外,我們還有一個計畫

  • in another agency within our government, in ocean exploration.

    政府有另一個機構負責探索海洋

  • It's in NOAA, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

    也就是NOAA,國家海洋與大氣管理局

  • And my question is this: "why are we ignoring the oceans?"

    而我的疑問是 -- 我們為什麼忽略海洋?

  • Here's the reason, or not the reason, but here's why I ask that question.

    也許這是原因、或者這不是,但這就是我為什麼要問

  • If you compare NASA's annual budget to explore the heavens,

    如果比較太空總署探索太空的年度預算

  • that one-year budget would fund NOAA's budget

    這一年的預算可以支持NOAA

  • to explore the oceans for 1,600 years.

    探索海洋一千六百年

  • Why? Why are we looking up? Is it because it's heaven?

    為什麼?為什麼我們往上看?難道是因為天堂在上面?

  • And hell is down here? Is it a cultural issue?

    而地獄在下面?這是因為文化的影響嗎?

  • Why are people afraid of the ocean?

    為什麼人們害怕海洋?

  • Or do they just assume the ocean is just a dark, gloomy place

    或他們認為海洋只是一片漆黑、又陰森的地方

  • that has nothing to offer?

    一點貢獻也沒有

  • I'm going to take you on a 16-minute trip on 72 percent of the planet, so buckle up.

    繫好安全帶,我將帶領你們在下面16分鐘遊遍這佔地球72%的地方

  • OK. And what we're going to do

    好啦~我們接下來將要

  • is we're going to immerse ourselves in my world.

    讓大家進入我的世界

  • And what I'm going to try -- I hope I make the following points.

    我會試著 -- 我希望可以把以下幾點講清楚

  • I'm going to make it right now in case I forget.

    我得現在講以免忘記--

  • Everything I'm going to present to you

    每一樣各位即將看到的

  • was not in my textbooks when I went to school.

    在我的學校課本裡面都沒有

  • And most of all, it was not even in my college textbooks.

    更重要的是,那也沒不在我大學的課本裡

  • I'm a geophysicist, and all my Earth science books when I was a student --

    我是地球物理學家而我當學生時的地球科學書籍

  • I had to give the wrong answer to get an A.

    我必須填上錯誤的答案才能拿高分

  • We used to ridicule continental drift. It was something we laughed at.

    我們曾揶揄大陸板塊飄移,讓我們笑到不行

  • We learned of Marshall Kay's geosynclinal cycle, which is a bunch of crap.

    我們學習馬歇爾.凱(Marshall Kay)的地槽圈,那真的是鬼話連篇

  • In today's context, it was a bunch of crap,

    今日的課本裡他才是鬼話

  • but it was the law of geology, vertical tectonics.

    但它曾是地質學裡垂直地殼運動的定律

  • All the things we're going to walk through

    我們即將討論的

  • in our explorations and discoveries of the oceans

    是我們在海洋的發現與探索

  • were mostly discoveries made by accident.

    很多是意外發現的

  • Mostly discoveries made by accident.

    很多新發現都來自意外

  • We were looking for something and found something else.

    我們想找某樣東西,卻發現了另一樣

  • And everything we're going to talk about

    而我們即將要講的每件事情

  • represents a one tenth of one percent glimpse, because that's all we've seen.

    都這只是驚鴻一瞥中的十分之一,因為我們也只看到這些

  • I have a characterization.

    我有個描述

  • This is a characterization of what it would look like if you could remove the water.

    是說,這是你想像中把全部的水都移開以後的樣子

  • It gives you the false impression it's a map.

    讓你誤認這是張地圖

  • It is not a map.

    這不是地圖

  • In fact, I have another version at my office

    我有另一個版本在我辦公室裡

  • and I ask people, "Why are there mountains here, on this area here,

    而我問人們:「為什麼這裡,這塊區域有山脈」

  • but there are none over here?" And they go, "Well, gee,

    「而那邊卻沒有呢?」他們通常都會說:「嗯~天啊」

  • I don't know," saying,

    「我不知道耶」

  • "Is it a fracture zone? Is it a hot spot?"

    「這是地質脆弱地區嗎?它是熱點嗎?」

  • No, no, that's the only place a ship's been.

    不不~那些地方只有船去過

  • Most of the southern hemisphere is unexplored.

    大部分的南半球都沒有被探索過

  • We had more exploration ships down there

    我們曾有很多探測船隻在那裡

  • during Captain Cook's time than now. It's amazing.

    是在庫克船長的時代,比現代還多,這真叫人吃驚!

  • All right. So we're going to immerse ourselves

    好啦~我們現在即將潛入

  • in the 72 percent of the planet because, you know,

    這星球的另外72%是因為,你知道嗎

  • it's really naive to think that the Easter Bunny

    如果你認為復活節的兔子

  • put all the resources on the continents.

    會把所有的好東西都放在大陸上嗎,就太天真了

  • (Laughter)

    (眾笑)

  • You know, it's just ludicrous.

    你知道嗎~這真是太荒誕不羈了

  • We are always, constantly playing the zero sum game.

    我們老是玩著零和遊戲

  • You know, we're going to do this, we're going to take it away from something else.

    知道嗎,現在我們要試試看別的路子

  • I believe in just enriching the economy.

    我相信這可以振興經濟

  • And we're leaving so much on the table, 72 percent of the planet.

    我們還有很多籌碼,這72%的地球資源

  • And as I will point out later in the presentation,

    而我會在之後演講中一一指出

  • 50 percent of the United States of America lies beneath the sea.

    美國有50%的領域在海平面以下

  • 50 percent of our country that we own, have all legal jurisdiction,

    我們國家擁有的50%,依法管轄

  • have all rights to do whatever we want, lies beneath the sea

    而可以任意處置的,都在海洋底下

  • and we have better maps of Mars than that 50 percent.

    而火星的地圖卻比這50%更仔細

  • Why? OK. Now, I began my explorations the hard way.

    為什麼?好吧,剛開始探險的時候很辛苦

  • Back then -- actually my first expedition

    在過去 -- 事實上我第一次的探險

  • was when I was 17 years old. It was 49 years ago.

    是49年前,在我十七歲的時候

  • Do the math, I'm 66. And I went out to sea on a Scripps ship

    算算看吧,現在我66歲。當我跟著Scripps的船出海

  • and we almost got sunk by a giant rogue wave,

    還差點因為瘋狗浪而沉沒

  • and I was too young to be -- you know, I thought it was great!

    當時我太年輕了 -- 你知道的,我想說這超棒的!

  • I was a body surfer and I thought, "Wow, that was an incredible wave!"

    我用身體衝浪,還想著「哇~這個浪頭真棒」

  • And we almost sank the ship, but I became enraptured

    而我們差點因此沉船,但是後來我漸漸為此著迷

  • with mounting expeditions. And over the last 49 years,

    經歷很多探險活動,在後來這49年間

  • I've done about 120, 121 -- I keep doing them -- expeditions.

    我一共經歷了120、121次探險 -- 而我還繼續的從事這項工作

  • But in the early days, the only way I could get to the bottom

    不過,早年唯一能讓我到達海底的方式

  • was to crawl into a submarine, a very small submarine,

    就是爬進潛水艇,非常小的潛水艇

  • and go down to the bottom.

    一路沉到海底

  • I dove in a whole series of different deep diving submersibles.

    在一系列的活動我藉著各式潛艇到達各種深度

  • Alvin and Sea Cliff and Cyana,

    艾文號、海蝕崖號以及Cyana號

  • and all the major deep submersibles we have, which are about eight.

    以及其他八艘深海潛水艇為主力

  • In fact, on a good day, we might have four or five human beings

    事實上,天氣好的時候我們大約有四到五位人員

  • at the average depth of the Earth --

    在海洋深處

  • maybe four or five human beings out of whatever billions we've got going.

    大約四到五位人員正在進行任何一項探險

  • And so it's very difficult to get there, if you do it physically.

    親身去做這些工作非常的辛苦

  • But I was enraptured, and in my graduate years

    但我深深著迷,而在我畢業的那幾年

  • was the dawn of plate tectonics. And we realized

    正是板塊構造學說的啟蒙時期,而我們已經知道

  • that the greatest mountain range on Earth lies beneath the sea.

    最偉大的山脈其實躺在海洋底下

  • The mid-ocean ridge runs around like the seam on a baseball.

    大西洋中洋脊就像棒球上的縫線一般跨越地球

  • This is on a Mercator projection.

    這是在麥卡托投影下的地圖

  • But if you were to put it on an equal area projection,

    如果你把放在等區域投影地圖上

  • you'd see that the mid-ocean ridge covers 23 percent

    你會發現中洋脊佔據相當於23%

  • of the Earth's total surface area.

    地球上陸地的面積

  • Almost a quarter of our planet is a single mountain range

    幾乎四分之一的地球被一個山脈佔據

  • and we didn't enter it until after Neil Armstrong

    而我們一直等到尼爾.阿姆斯壯(Neil Armstrong)

  • and Buzz Aldrin went to the moon.

    和巴茲.艾德林(Buzz Aldrin)上了月球之後才發現

  • So we went to the moon, played golf up there,

    我們上了月球,在上面玩了一下高爾夫

  • before we went to the largest feature on our own planet.

    在這之前我們卻沒有去過我們星球上最大的一個地貌

  • And our interest in this mountain range, as Earth scientists in those days,

    當時的地球科學家們對於這山脈的最大興趣

  • was not only because of its tremendous size, dominating the planet,

    不只是因為山脈在這星球上佔據極大面積

  • but the role it plays in the genesis of the Earth's outer skin.

    而是山脈在地球外層形成時所扮演的角色

  • Because it's along the axis of the mid-ocean ridge

    因為他是中洋脊的軸線

  • where the great crustal plates are separating.

    大型地殼向兩邊分離開來

  • And like a living organism, you tear it open,

    像是有機體一般,當你把它撕開

  • it bleeds its molten blood, rises up to heal that wound

    它將會流出古老的熔岩之血,來癒合這個傷口

  • from the asthenosphere, hardens, forms new tissue and moves laterally.

    岩漿來自軟流圈,硬化形成新的組織,向側面擴散

  • But no one had actually gone down

    但是從來沒有人真正到下面去

  • into the actual site of the boundary of creation as we call it --

    到這我們稱作「創造的邊界」的地方

  • into the Rift Valley -- until a group of seven of us

    進入這個裂谷 -- 直到我們七人小組

  • crawled in our little submarines in the summer of 1973, 1974

    在1973~1974年夏天爬近我們小小的潛水艇

  • and were the first human beings to enter the Great Rift Valley.

    而這是人類史上第一次抵達大裂谷

  • We went down into the Rift Valley.

    我們下到這個裂谷

  • This is all accurate except for one thing -- it's pitch black.

    一切描述都十分正確,除了一件事情 -- 下面一片漆黑

  • It's absolutely pitch black, because

    完全沒有任何光線

  • photons cannot reach the average depth of the ocean,

    因為光子不能到達這麼深的海洋

  • which is 12,000 feet. In the Rift Valley, it's 9,000 feet.

    一萬兩千英呎(3,657.6公尺),而裂谷則位於九千英呎(2,743.2公尺)

  • Most of our planet does not feel the warmth of the sun.

    地球大部分地方都感受不到太陽的溫暖

  • Most of our planet is in eternal darkness.

    大部分永遠都在黑暗中

  • And for that reason, you do not have photosynthesis in the deep sea.

    因此,在深海沒有辦法行光合作用

  • And with the absence of photosynthesis

    由於缺乏光合作用

  • you have no plant life, and as a result,

    所以沒有植物,因此

  • you have very little animal life living in this underworld.

    在這個世界裡很少有生物生活

  • Or so we thought. And so in our initial explorations,

    至少我們是這麼認為的,在最初的幾次探險中

  • we were totally focused on exploring the boundary of creation,

    我們全部心力都放在探索這正在形成的邊界

  • looking at the volcanic features running along that entire 42,000 miles.

    在42000英哩(67,592公里)的海裏找尋著火山地形

  • Running along this entire 42,000 miles

    在這42000英哩的地方有著

  • are tens of thousands of active volcanoes.

    成千上萬的活火山

  • Tens of thousands of active volcanoes.

    成千上萬的活火山

  • There are more active volcanoes beneath the sea

    而海平面之下有更多的活躍的火山

  • than on land by two orders of magnitude.

    強度比陸地還大兩倍

  • So, it's a phenomenally active region,

    它是完全是個活躍區

  • it's not just a dark, boring place. It's a very alive place.

    而不是一個漆黑又無聊的地方,充滿了生命

  • And it's then being ripped open.

    而且正被撕裂著

  • But we were dealing with a particular scientific issue back then.

    不過我們當時正著手於特定的科學研究

  • We couldn't understand why you had a mountain under tension.

    不懂為什麼在這個充滿張力的地方有高山

  • In plate tectonic theory, we knew that if you had plates collide,

    在板塊構造理論裏我們知道,如果地殼碰撞

  • it made sense: they would crush into one another,

    會相互的擠壓,這還蠻可以理解

  • you would thicken the crust, you'd uplift it.

    這會使地殼變厚,然後把它抬高

  • That's why you get, you know, you get seashells up on Mount Everest.

    這就是為什麼海裡的貝殼會出現在聖母峰上

  • It's not a flood, it was pushed up there.

    不是因為洪水,而是被擠壓到那裡

  • We understood mountains under compression,

    我們了解山脈是由擠壓產生

  • but we could not understand why we had a mountain under tension.

    但我們不明白為什麼山脈會在拉扯中形成

  • It should not be. Until one of my colleagues said,

    不該是這樣,直到一位我的同事說

  • "It looks to me like a thermal blister, and the mid-ocean ridge

    「看起來像是在高溫下產生的水泡,在這中洋脊上」

  • must be a cooling curve." We said, "Let's go find out."

    「一定是一個冷卻的過程」我們說,「去看看吧」

  • We punched a bunch of heat probes. Everything made sense,

    我們把地熱探針插進去,一切真相大白

  • except, at the axis, there was missing heat. It was missing heat.

    除了在軸線以外,其他地方都不夠熱,熱量不見了

  • It was hot. It wasn't hot enough.

    那很熱,但不足以融化

  • So, we came up with multiple hypotheses:

    因此我們想出很多個假設

  • there's little green people down there taking it;

    在那個下面一定有小綠人在掌控著

  • there's all sorts of things going on.

    所有在那裡發生的事情

  • But the only logical [explanation] was that there were hot springs.

    不過,最合理的假設是下面一定有熱泉

  • So, there must be underwater hot springs.

    所以一定是海底熱泉

  • We mounted an expedition to look for the missing heat.

    我們開始一趟尋找失落的熱度之旅

  • And so we went along this mountain range, in an area along Galapagos Rift,

    沿著加拉巴哥斷層的山脈邊緣尋找

  • and did we find the missing heat.

    而我們的確發現了那失落的熱度

  • It was amazing. These giant chimneys, huge giant chimneys.

    看起來很驚人,這些巨大的煙囪,龐然巨物般的煙囪

  • We went up to them with our submersible.

    我們駕著潛艇靠近他們

  • We wanted to get a temperature probe, we stuck it in there,

    想把溫度探針伸進去,卻卡住了