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  • In mid-May 2021, billionaire Elon Musk sent a tweet that crashed the cryptocurrency market.

    2021年5月中旬,億萬富翁埃隆-馬斯克發了一條推文,使加密貨幣市場崩潰。

  • The Tesla CEO announced the electric vehicle company would no longer be accepting bitcoin

    特斯拉CEO宣佈電動汽車公司將不再接受比特幣

  • for purchases due to its environmental impact.

    因其對環境的影響而被採購。

  • People have long been warning about the insane amount of energy that's required to mine Bitcoin.

    長期以來,人們一直在警告開採比特幣所需要的瘋狂的能量。

  • So why does bitcoin use so much energy?

    那麼,為什麼比特幣會使用如此多的能源?

  • And do other cryptocurrencies have the same problem?

    而其他加密貨幣也有同樣的問題嗎?

  • Most of the money we use today has been issued by a central bank.

    我們今天使用的大多數貨幣都是由中央銀行發行的。

  • You're familiar with them; the U.S. Federal Reserve, the European Central Bank

    你對它們很熟悉;美國聯邦儲備局、歐洲中央銀行

  • or the Bank of Japan, for example.

    或日本銀行,例如。

  • What made bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies revolutionary was cutting these institutions

    使得比特幣和其他加密貨幣具有革命性的原因是削減了這些機構

  • out of the picture and using a decentralized ledger, known as blockchain, instead.

    出,而使用被稱為區塊鏈的去中心化的賬本。

  • To learn more, I called in one of CNBC's resident crypto experts, Ryan Browne.

    為了瞭解更多資訊,我叫來了CNBC的常駐加密貨幣專家之一Ryan Browne。

  • Hi, Ryan.

    嗨,瑞安。

  • Hi, Nessa.

    嗨,妮莎。

  • People around CNBC were saying that you were one of the main guys to go to when we're

    CNBC周圍的人都說,你是我們要去找的主要人員之一。

  • talking about cryptocurrencies.

    談論加密貨幣。

  • Having been covering this space for I think four years now, it's definitely been

    報道這個領域已經有四年時間了,這絕對是個好機會。

  • a learning experience.

    一個學習經驗。

  • What was one of the early big hurdles for this kind of digital currency?

    這種數字貨幣的早期大障礙之一是什麼?

  • One of the big problems with cryptocurrency was the question around double spending.

    加密貨幣的一個大問題是圍繞雙重消費的問題。

  • And this is essentially the idea that a coin virtually could be used more than once.

    而這本質上是一種想法,即一枚硬幣實際上可以被多次使用。

  • And that would essentially be theft and if that were to happen, confidence would be completely

    而這基本上是盜竊,如果發生這種情況,信心就會完全喪失。

  • lost in the Bitcoin network.

    在比特幣網絡中丟失。

  • So how did they solve this issue?

    那麼,他們是如何解決這個問題的呢?

  • Well, this is where bitcoin-mining comes in.

    嗯,這就是比特幣開採的作用。

  • Now, every computer in the network has a full list of bitcoin transactions to make sure

    現在,網絡中的每臺電腦都有一份完整的比特幣交易清單,以確保

  • that they're valid.

    他們是有效的。

  • If one single participant in the network doesn't have the same list, everything falls apart.

    如果網絡中的一個參與者沒有同樣的名單,一切都會崩潰。

  • This is how they prevent theft from happening.

    這就是他們防止盜竊發生的方法。

  • So if Person A is sending Bitcoin to Person B, that transaction needs to be verified by miners.

    是以,如果A君向B君發送比特幣,該交易需要經過礦工的驗證。

  • Once verified, each part of the blockchain needs to be updated with that transaction.

    一旦得到驗證,區塊鏈的每個部分都需要用該交易進行更新。

  • Miners are then rewarded in some bitcoin.

    然後,礦工會得到一些比特幣的獎勵。

  • Okay, I know that's a lot, but stick with me.

    好吧,我知道這是一個很大的問題,但請堅持下去。

  • Mining was this ingenious solution to a big problem, but it also has problems of its own.

    採礦是這個大問題的巧妙解決方案,但它也有自己的問題。

  • The whole point of cryptocurrency mining, and what makes it so secure is this proof

    加密貨幣挖礦的全部意義,以及使其如此安全的原因是這個證明

  • of work mechanism that underpins everything.

    的工作機制,支撐著一切。

  • Miners effectively have to solve these very complex math puzzles that are generated every

    礦工實際上必須解決這些非常複雜的數學謎題,這些謎題每隔一段時間就會產生。

  • 10 minutes.

    10分鐘。

  • The point of this is to make sure that the blockchain is cryptographically secured, so

    這樣做的目的是確保區塊鏈的加密安全,所以

  • that we don't have any of those security issues that we've mentioned.

    我們沒有任何我們提到的那些安全問題。

  • Now the result of that, you then have more computers being logged on to the network essentially.

    這樣做的結果是,你有更多的計算機被登錄到網絡上,基本上是這樣。

  • Right, and this process takes up a lot of energy.

    對,而這個過程佔用了大量的能量。

  • That's correct.

    這是正確的。

  • And as the price goes up, more and more miners will want to reap the rewards.

    而隨著價格的上漲,越來越多的礦工將希望獲得回報。

  • Because it can be potentially very lucrative, right?

    因為這有可能是非常有利可圖的,對嗎?

  • We've seen the price of Bitcoin rise wildly this year.

    我們看到比特幣的價格在今年瘋狂上漲。

  • Sometimes, they will combine into these mining pools which pool together computing resources

    有時,他們會組合成這些礦池,將計算資源集中起來。

  • to effectively improve their chances of cracking that puzzle, so you're just going to get

    以有效提高他們破解該謎題的機會,所以你只是要得到

  • more and more energy being consumed all over the world.

    世界各地正在消耗越來越多的能源。

  • Large-scale electricity consumption is measured in terawatt-hour, which is equal to one trillion watts.

    大規模的電力消耗是以太瓦時為組織、部門,相當於一萬億瓦特。

  • A report by Cambridge University says that the bitcoin network alone consumes more than

    劍橋大學的一份報告稱,僅比特幣網絡的消耗就超過了

  • 116 TWh per year, about 0.5% of total electricity in the world.

    每年116太瓦時,約佔世界總電量的0.5%。

  • Bitcoin's annual electricity consumption is higher than countries like the Netherlands,

    比特幣的年耗電量比荷蘭等國家還要高。

  • Philippines and Singapore.

    菲律賓和新加坡。

  • In fact, if bitcoin were a country, it'd be number 33 on the list of top energy consumers.

    事實上,如果比特幣是一個國家,它將會是能源消耗大戶名單上的第33位。

  • So how is that possible?

    那麼,這怎麼可能呢?

  • There is a direct correlation people have been noticing between the rising price of Bitcoin,

    人們已經注意到比特幣價格上漲之間有一種直接的關聯。

  • and the level of network difficulty and competitiveness of all these miners trying

    以及所有這些礦工嘗試的網絡難度和競爭力水準

  • to participate in the network over time, and so it gets higher and higher.

    隨著時間的推移,參與網絡的人越來越多,所以它越來越高。

  • And is this just a bitcoin problem? What about other crypto?

    而這僅僅是一個比特幣的問題嗎? 其他加密貨幣呢?

  • It's definitely not just a Bitcoin problem.

    這絕對不只是一個比特幣的問題。

  • Those other cryptocurrencies, some of them are using the same protocol that Bitcoin uses,

    那些其他的加密貨幣,其中一些正在使用比特幣使用的相同協議。

  • which requires you to use all of this computing power to figure out those puzzles.

    這需要你利用所有這些計算能力來解決這些難題。

  • So where is this mining taking place?

    那麼,這種開採是在哪裡進行的?

  • The U.S., Russia, Kazakhstan and Malaysia are all big players, but the vast majority,

    美國、俄羅斯、哈薩克斯坦和馬來西亞都是大玩家,但絕大部分。

  • some 65%, is happening in China..

    約65%,發生在中國。

  • A lot of miners will migrate to southwestern provinces in China, which are rich in hydropower.

    很多礦工將遷移到中國的西南省份,那裡有豐富的水電資源。

  • Which obviously, is a renewable source of energy.

    顯然,這是一種可再生的能源。

  • Now on the flip side, if the cheapest source of energy is fossil fuels, that is where

    現在反過來說,如果最便宜的能源來源是化石燃料,那就是

  • Bitcoin mining gets a little dirtier.

    比特幣挖礦變得更髒了一些。

  • In Iran, when it comes to bitcoin mining, one of the big concerns there was, it started

    在伊朗,當涉及到比特幣挖礦時,那裡的一個大問題是,它開始了

  • leading to blackouts, power outages, in parts of the cities.

    導致部分城市停電、斷電。

  • And that really speaks to just the amount of energy that is required to mine cryptocurrency.

    而這確實說明了開採加密貨幣所需的能源量。

  • China, United States, they all have carbon neutral targets.

    中國、美國,他們都有碳中和的目標。

  • But they're countries with noteworthy mining facilities or at least, mining habits, right.

    但他們是有值得注意的採礦設施的國家,或者至少是有采礦習慣的國家,對吧。

  • So how are these governments responding?

    那麼,這些政府是如何應對的呢?

  • We have already seen signs of increased regulation from the U.S. on cryptocurrencies at the moment.

    目前,我們已經看到美國對加密貨幣加強監管的跡象。

  • In China, the Inner Mongolia region has effectively cracked down on mining by shutting down

    在中國,內蒙古地區有效地打擊了採礦業,關閉了

  • Bitcoin mining completely.

    比特幣開採完全。

  • Cryptocurrency advocates, however, argue all this energy use is worth it, if it means crypto

    然而,加密貨幣的倡導者認為,所有這些能源的使用是值得的,如果這意味著加密貨幣

  • can democratize the world's financial system.

    可以使世界的金融體系民主化。

  • Crypto advocates also say they are making efforts to use renewable energy, and that

    加密貨幣倡導者還表示,他們正在努力使用可再生能源,並表示

  • it's not just them consuming energy.

    這不僅僅是他們在消耗能量。

  • Online banking platforms and data centers use a lot of energy too.

    網上銀行平臺和數據中心也使用大量的能源。

  • Global data center electricity demand was about 200 TWh in 2019, which makes up 0.8%

    2019年全球數據中心的電力需求約為200太瓦時,佔0.8%。

  • of global electricity demand.

    的全球電力需求。

  • We need to look at the entire Internet and how it is powered, and at the moment

    我們需要審視整個互聯網和它的供電方式,而目前

  • it is, by and large, quite dirty.

    總的來說,它是相當骯髒的。

  • The effort going forward will be making sure that the Internet is powered by renewables,

    今後的努力將是確保互聯網由可再生能源驅動。

  • and you've got massive tech companies, mind you, like Amazon, Microsoft and others, they

    你有大規模的科技公司,注意,像亞馬遜、微軟和其他公司,他們

  • are trying to do exactly this.

    正試圖這樣做。

  • The only counterpoint that critics of Bitcoin will have is how much is Bitcoin used, as

    責備比特幣的人唯一的反駁是比特幣的使用量有多大,因為

  • opposed to all of these online platforms and services that we use every single day.

    與所有這些我們每天都在使用的在線平臺和服務相對應。

  • The general consensus is it's fractionally much lower.

    普遍的共識是,它在分數上要低得多。

  • Now, an interesting thing about Ethereum is that it's trying to become a bit more energy

    現在,關於以太坊的一個有趣的事情是,它正試圖變得更有能量

  • efficient, so it's actually in the process of upgrading its network.

    高效,所以它實際上正在升級其網絡。

  • I'm finding it hard to understand how is that possible, if they're using the same

    我發現很難理解這怎麼可能,如果他們使用相同的

  • technology, using the same blockchain technology?

    技術,使用相同的區塊鏈技術?

  • I don't blame you at all, Nessa, this topic, it is almost intentionally difficult to understand.

    我一點也不怪你,妮莎,這個話題,幾乎是故意讓人難以理解。

  • What the Ethereum network is essentially proposing is that it upgrades itself to a new protocol.

    以太坊網絡本質上提出的是,它將自己升級到一個新的協議。

  • And this is very significant because it will move Ethereum into a new mechanism which essentially

    而這是非常重要的,因為它將使以太坊進入一個新的機制,基本上是

  • validates transactions, and the validators of those transactions, they don't have to

    驗證交易,而這些交易的驗證者,他們不需要

  • do all those complex competing puzzles that we've been discussing.

    做我們一直在討論的所有那些複雜的競爭性難題。

  • I had to ask Ryan: Is there any cryptocurrency available out there that's actually worth

    我不得不問瑞安:是否有任何可用的加密貨幣實際上值得

  • it to mine, or at least able to break even?

    它的開採,或至少能夠實現收支平衡?

  • If you're a believer in crypto, you certainly think it's worth the massive computational

    如果你是加密貨幣的信徒,你肯定認為它值得大量的計算。

  • effort to mine cryptocurrencies, because believers in cryptocurrency will say well, it is a decentralised

    挖掘加密貨幣的努力,因為加密貨幣的信徒會說,好吧,它是一個去中心化的

  • currency, it's outside of government control.

    貨幣,它是在政府控制之外的。

  • I mean, the remarkable thing about cryptocurrency is that it has survived so long, through all

    我的意思是,加密貨幣的非凡之處在於,它已經生存了這麼久,通過所有的

  • the hacks and scandals and questions about money laundering and illegal activities.

    黑客和醜聞以及關於洗錢和非法活動的問題。

  • They're still seeing lots and lots of money flowing into them.

    他們仍然看到很多很多的錢流入他們。

  • And right now, it's a trillion-dollar market at least.

    而現在,這至少是一個萬億美元的市場。

  • And that certainly says something about the potential staying power of these cryptocurrencies.

    而這當然說明了這些加密貨幣的潛在持久力。

  • Now, whether all of them will exist in their current form in several years' time,

    現在,是否所有這些都會在幾年後以目前的形式存在。

  • that's obviously up for debate.

    這顯然還有待商榷。

  • I have a joke. Do you want to hear the joke?

    我有一個笑話。你想聽這個笑話嗎?

  • Absolutely.

    絕對的。

  • How many crypto-miners does it take to change a light bulb?

    換一個燈泡需要多少個加密貨幣礦工?

  • How many?

    有多少人?

  • A million.

    一百萬。

  • 1 to do it, and the rest to determine who gets the credit.

    1人去做,其餘的人決定誰能得到功勞。

  • That's good.

    這很好。

  • I'm gonna use that one.

    我要用這一招。

In mid-May 2021, billionaire Elon Musk sent a tweet that crashed the cryptocurrency market.

2021年5月中旬,億萬富翁埃隆-馬斯克發了一條推文,使加密貨幣市場崩潰。

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為什麼比特幣使用如此多的能源?| CNBC的解釋 (Why does bitcoin use so much energy? | CNBC Explains)

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    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 06 月 16 日
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