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  • The termdark matteris a placeholder for matter that we're almost certain must

    "暗物質 "一詞是一個佔位符,指的是我們幾乎可以肯定的物質。

  • be out there because we see the effects of its gravitational pull. But that's all we

    是在那裡,因為我們看到了它的引力的影響。但這就是我們的全部

  • see, so we don't know exactly what it is yet.

    看,所以我們還不知道它到底是什麼。

  • There are a lot of competing explanations, and one of them has raised a few eyebrows

    有很多相互競爭的解釋,其中一個解釋引起了一些人的注意

  • recently because it could account for some unexpected experimental results.

    最近,因為它可以解釋一些意外的實驗結果。

  • Maybe most interesting of all, this dark matter candidate opens up the possibility that there

    也許最有趣的是,這個暗物質候選者開啟了一種可能性,即有

  • areghost starsout there in space.

    在太空中存在著 "幽靈星"。

  • I'm talking about dark bosons, hypothetical subatomic particles with a very low mass.

    我說的是暗玻色子,假設的亞原子粒子,品質非常低。

  • In the most widely accepted explanation for quantum phenomena, the standard model of particle

    在對量子現象最廣泛接受的解釋中,粒子的標準模型

  • physics, bosons are force-carrying particles like photons and gluons.

    物理學中,玻色子是像光子和膠子一樣的載力粒子。

  • They're a different category from fermions like electrons, protons, and neutrons and

    它們與電子、質子和中子等費米子是不同的類別,而

  • they play by different rules.

    他們按不同的規則行事。

  • While fermions have mass, bosons can have mass or be massless.

    費米子有品質,而玻色子可以有品質或無品質。

  • Fermions also obey the Pauli exclusion principle,

    費米子也遵守泡利排除原理。

  • which states that no two fermions can occupy the same quantum state.

    其中指出,沒有兩個費米子可以佔據相同的量子態。

  • This means that fermions like electrons can't be in the same place with the same spin at

    這意味著像電子這樣的費米子不可能在同一個地方以相同的自旋在

  • the same time. That's not true for bosons, which means several identical bosons can be

    在同一時間。這對玻色子來說並不正確,這意味著幾個相同的玻色子可以

  • packed into the same spot. Because they can have mass and can occupy

    擠在同一個地方。因為它們可以有品質,可以佔據

  • the same space, it's possible that lots of dark bosons could gravitationally attract

    在同一空間內,很多暗玻色子有可能在引力作用下吸引

  • each other and create an object with a mass comparable to a star.

    彼此之間的關係,並創造出一個品質與恆星相當的物體。

  • A so-called boson star

    一個所謂的玻色子星

  • would behave very differently from the stars made of ordinary matter that we're used to.

    其行為將與我們所習慣的由普通物質構成的恆星非常不同。

  • They wouldn't be capable of fusion, so they wouldn't be able to produce any light. Actually they

    它們不會有核聚變的能力,所以它們不會產生任何光。事實上,它們

  • should be totally invisible, since light wouldn't interact with the particles and instead would

    應該是完全看不見的,因為光不會與粒子相互作用,而是會

  • just pass straight through them, hence theghost starmoniker.

    直接穿過它們,是以有 "幽靈星 "的稱號。

  • Although a ring of plasma could form around them and give them away. They could become

    儘管在他們周圍可能會形成一圈等離子體,並將他們暴露出來。他們可以成為

  • incredibly massive, as massive as the supermassive black holes that are at the center of most

    令人難以置信的巨大品質,其品質與大多數 "黑洞 "中心的超大品質黑洞一樣。

  • galaxies. Some scientists have suggested that a boson star is actually what's at the center

    星系。一些科學家提出,玻色子星實際上是位於中心的東西

  • of our own Milky Way.

    我們自己的銀河系的。

  • A hypothetical dark boson could solve the big mystery of dark matter, namely how it

    一個假想的暗玻色子可以解決暗物質的大謎團,即它如何

  • exerts a gravitational pull while remaining otherwise invisible. But of course a question

    施加引力,同時在其他方面保持不可見。但當然有一個問題

  • this big can't be put to bed without a mountain of evidence. For dark bosons there is, at best,

    在沒有大量證據的情況下,這個大問題是無法得到解決的。對於暗玻色子來說,充其量也就是有。

  • a little bitty pile of dirt.

    小小的一堆土。

  • Still, it's something, and some of that possible evidence came very recently from

    儘管如此,這仍然是一些東西,而其中一些可能的證據最近來自於

  • some big-name experiments.

    一些大名鼎鼎的實驗。

  • One of them is the XENON1T experiment in Italy. XENON1T is a big tank of liquid xenon inside

    其中之一是意大利的XENON1T實驗。XENON1T是一個大的液態氙氣罐,裡面裝著

  • an enormous tank of water buried under a mountain. It's actually looking for an entirely different

    一個埋在山下的巨大水箱。它實際上是在尋找一個完全不同的

  • dark matter candidate, called Weakly Interacting Massive Particles, or WIMPs.

    暗物質候選人,被稱為弱相互作用大品質粒子,或WIMPs。

  • Last summer though, the scientists examining data from the experiment announced they saw

    不過在去年夏天,研究實驗數據的科學家們宣佈他們看到了

  • an excess of electrons that WIMPs couldn't account for. It's possible dark bosons interacted

    電子的過剩是WIMPs無法解釋的。暗玻色子有可能發生相互作用

  • with the Xenon which would explain what the detectors picked up, but so could a more mundane

    氙氣可以解釋探測器發現的情況,但也可能是更平凡的情況。

  • event like radioactive contamination in the experiment.

    實驗中的放射性汙染等事件。

  • Another big name experiment that could be pointing to dark bosons is LIGO, the interferometer

    另一個可能指向暗玻色子的大名鼎鼎的實驗是LIGO,即干涉儀。

  • that famously helped detect gravitational waves

    這就是著名的幫助偵測引力波的 "天眼"。

  • from the merger of two black holes back in 2015.

    早在2015年,兩個黑洞合併產生的。

  • Researchers noticed that one of the many collisions it has since detected was unlike the others.

    研究人員注意到,在它後來探測到的許多碰撞中,有一次與其他碰撞不同。

  • It was missing an initial stage where the two black holes spiral around each other.

    它缺少一個初始階段,即兩個黑洞相互旋轉的階段。

  • The scientists calculated if two unconnected black holes could achieve this with a head-on collision,

    科學家們計算了兩個不相干的黑洞是否能通過正面碰撞達到這一目的。

  • but the math didn't work out.

    但計算結果並不理想。

  • When the researchers substituted boson stars in place of black holes though, things clicked.

    不過,當研究人員用玻色子星代替黑洞時,事情就有了轉機。

  • Still, we are a long way away from calling this case closed. Maybe other explanations

    儘管如此,我們離宣佈此案結案還有很長的路要走。也許還有其他解釋

  • can better account for the odd results from XENON1T and LIGO. Or maybe these detectors

    可以更好地解釋XENON1T和LIGO的奇怪結果。或者說,這些探測器

  • and the more advanced ones in the pipeline will produce more evidence of dark bosons.

    而正在進行中的更先進的將產生更多的暗玻色子的證據。

  • Dark bosons might not be the end of dark matter either. Remember, bosons are force-carrying

    暗玻色子可能也不是暗物質的終結者。請記住,玻色子是攜帶力量的

  • particles, so maybe they're not dark matter itself but the way regular matter interacts

    粒子,所以也許它們不是暗物質本身,而是普通物質相互作用的方式。

  • with some other particle that is dark matter.

    與其他一些粒子,即暗物質。

  • There are still so many question marks, but the thought that there may be massive ghost

    仍有許多問號,但想到可能有大量的鬼魂

  • stars out in space that we have yet to see is a nice reminder that there is still so

    我們還沒有看到的太空中的星星,這很好地提醒我們,仍然有這麼多的星星。

  • much to discover and search for.

    有很多需要發現和尋找的東西。

The termdark matteris a placeholder for matter that we're almost certain must

"暗物質 "一詞是一個佔位符,指的是我們幾乎可以肯定的物質。

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B1 中級 中文 物質 粒子 品質 玻色子 黑洞 實驗

我們的宇宙可能充滿了巨大的暗物質星體 (Our Universe May Be Full of Massive Dark Matter Stars)

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    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 06 月 16 日
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