字幕列表 影片播放 列印所有字幕 列印翻譯字幕 列印英文字幕 This video was made possible by Hover. 這部影片是由Hover所製作 Get 10% off your custom domain or email from Hover at Hover.com/Wendover. 請造訪 Hover.com/Wendover以獲得相關折扣 When nuclear bombs obliterate the earth or a virus wipes out the human race or robots 當核彈摧毀地球、病毒或機器人消滅了大部分的人類文明 push mankind out of existence the US Government believes that democracy should continue on. 美國政府相信，民主仍然必須要延續 The country believes that, even if the population of the US ceases to exist, the country should 即便美國人口接近滅絕，國家必須持續運作 go on. 即便美國人口接近滅絕，國家必須持續運作 Akin to its almost paranoid nature, the US government has a series of defined protocols 跟近乎偏執的大自然一樣， 美國政府有一系列的計畫來處理當政府不再延續時 on how to continue the country when the country is no longer—the Continuity of Government 政府應如何延續延續政府的計畫 Plans. 「政府的延續計畫」 You probably already know about part of these plans because you probably know about the 你大概已經有聽過這些計畫了，例如著名的 US president's line of succession. 美國總統繼任順序 If the president dies, there's a list of 17 people ranging all the way from the Vice 如果總統去世了，從副總統一路到國土安全部長 President down to the Secretary of Homeland Security who would take their place. 等十七個順位人選會依序遞補總統職位 With such a long list, the chances of the US going without a president are near none. 有了這麼長的候補清單，美國要在沒有總統的情形下運作應該不太可能 The one time a year when the entire line gathers together—the state of the Union—one individual 每年當所有清單上所有的大人物聚集會面─也就是國情咨文時，清單上的某位人選 in the line of succession is appointed designated survivor to wait out in a bunker to run the 會被安排待在碉堡裡等待會議結束，如果會議遭受攻擊其他人都殉職 government if the rest of it dies. 將由他帶領國家 But the line of succession is the basic stuff, the stuff people already know. 但這個繼承順序是一個大家早就知道的計畫 What's far less known is the semi-secret protocols and places that the government has 而比較少人知道的，是一些政府過去已經 spent billions of dollars and decades building. 花了數十億美元以及數十年準備的半機密設施 However, until just 60 or 70 years ago the US felt it was untouchable. 然而，到了60、70年代， 美國發現這些計畫似乎遙不可及 At no time in history had an enemy existed as relatively close to the US as during the 冷戰時期美國面臨了有史以來最危險的時刻 cold war. 冷戰時期美國面臨了有史以來最危險的時刻 The US' foreign policy always kept in mind that an ocean separated it from its enemies 美國外交政策明白即便太平洋阻擋了蘇聯 but with the invention of nuclear bombs an enemy could go from declaring war on the US 但核彈的發明使的敵人可以在宣戰後 to toppling its government in a matter of hours. 短短幾個小時內便攻擊美國本土 During these days the US government began actively preparing for doomsday. 因此美國開始積極地為了末日進行準備 There are four main bunkers from which the US Government would run the country following 如果末日發生，美國政府可以在四個碉堡內 a world-ending event—the Presidential Emergency Operations Center, Raven Rock Mountain Complex, 繼續治理國家：總統緊急行動中心，烏鴉岩山 Mount Weather Emergency Operations Center, and the Cheyenne Mountain Complex. 緊急行動中心，韋勒山緊急行動中心 以及夏延山核戰碉堡 The President is the most important person to survive doomsday both for symbolic and 當末日發生時，不論就象徵意義或法律上的意義 logistical reasons. 總統都是非常重要的 If a nuclear warhead is inbound to Washington, he or she would most likely evacuate downstairs 若華府受到核彈攻擊，總統可以從白宮樓下前往地下碉堡避難 from the White House into their underground bunker but that's not guaranteed. 但這事情未必會發生 During the Truman administration, the President refused to leave the oval office during what 杜魯門政府時期，即便當局相信美國遭受攻擊 was believed to be an attack. 杜魯門仍拒絕離開白宮 This ended up being a false alarm, but some presidents have said that they believe they 這事情最後證實是一場烏龍警報，但有些總統表示 should ride out an attack with the rest of the population. 他們應該留下來與廣泛的群眾共同渡過危機 It's just like saying “a captain should go down with their ship.” 就像諺語「船長不應該拋下他的船」 The Oval Office, and even the White House Bunker is not the safest place someone can 白宮內的橢圓辦公室或是碉堡並非最安全的地方 be during an attack, but morale saves lives and seeing a President braving out the fight 但士氣能強化民心， 總統選擇留下來的英勇行為能振奮人心 can help create a sense of national unity that would keep the country together. 並營造出全國團結一致的氛圍 A single person is replaceable, but the government as a whole is more delicate. 然而，單一的人是可以被取代的，整個政府就比較複雜 Raven Rock, Pennsylvania would serve as the underground Pentagon. 賓州的烏鴉岩會成為地底下的五角大廈 All the leaders of the armed forces will evacuate by helicopter to this facility in the event 危機發生時，政府官員跟美軍領袖會搭直升機 of an attack and command their troops across the country and the world. 疏散到這些地方繼續指揮國內其他地方以及海外的部隊 During an attack of an apocalyptic scale, it's likely that Martial Law would be imposed 如果末日真的來臨，政府非常可能會實施戒嚴政策與軍事管制法 meaning that the military would take over day-to-day control of the country. 也就是說軍隊將接管國家的日常事務 The commanders would have wide-ranging almost dictatorial powers and habeas corpus would 軍隊指揮官將會被賦予近乎獨裁的廣泛權力 be revoked. 而民眾的人身自由很可能會暫時被剝奪 From distributing food, to serving as law enforcement, to keeping the lights on, the 上至食物配給下至執法與維持電力運作 armed forces would truly work on the front line of rebuilding a destroyed country. 軍隊絕對會是重建國家的第一線組織 The Cheyenne Mountain Complex just out of Colorado Springs, Colorado would serve as 而在科羅拉多溫泉附近夏延山的戰術碉堡 the home to NORAD—the agency responsible for controlling and tracking the skies above 將成為北美防空司令部的總部 the US and Canada. 負責監控美國與加拿大的領空 So, if the above ground world proved too dangerous for the country's leadership, these four 所以，如果地表上對國家領袖說太危險 underground bunkers would serve as home to the bare bones of the US government, but what 這四個地底的碉堡會成為美國政府的臨時指揮中心 about the rest of it? 那其他人呢？ Nearly 4.5 million people are employed by the US federal government and they all work 有將近450萬人是聯邦政府的公務員 to keep it running. 他們的職責是確保政策能順利執行 Where would the hundreds of government agencies go? 那這幾百個機關與其公務員應該去哪？ Well, nobody knows exactly—at least publicly—but we do know how they would relocate. 呃，沒有人知道具體的方案(至少沒有公開)， 但我們知道他們部署計畫 You might have heard of the DEFCON system—it makes frequent appearances in movies—but 在電影中你或許時常聽到DEFCON計畫 few have heard of COGCON. 但卻很少有人聽過COGCON COGCON is a readiness level system that directs agencies how to prepare for an activation COGCON是一個規範政府如何為了強化國家延續 of the government's continuity of government plans. 所準備的系統性計畫 At COGCON 4—the lowest level—every US Government agency must be able to relocate 在COGCON第四級也就是最低層級，所有美國政府的機關必須在12小時內 to an alternate facility and perform basic functions within 12 hours—it's an incredibly 轉移至其他替代場所並維持與執行基本的公務 ambitious plan. 這明顯是一個非常樂觀的計畫 At COGCON 3 this number goes down to 8 hours then at COGCON 2 is when things get real. 在COGCON第三級，機關必須在八小時內移轉完成，而當COGCON第二級發生 At this level doomsday is imminent. 就表示末日已迫在眉梢 Every agency has three sites for their continuity plan—A, B, and C—and the agency would 所有政府機關會擬定三個計畫，計畫A計畫B與計畫C split into three corresponding teams—A, B, and C. The A team would relocate to a secure 機關也會分成三個小組，A小組B小組與C小組，A小組會移防到指揮總部附近 facility near its normal headquarters—probably bunkers under DC—the B team would relocate 八成會是華盛頓底下的碉堡，B小組則 near the Mount Weather Facility, and the C team would relocate to another undisclosed 移防到緊急行動中心內，而C小隊則會轉移到某個不知名的地方 facility. 移防到緊急行動中心內，而C小隊則會轉移到某個不知名的地方 Each team would be ready to take over operations at a moment's notice. 每個小隊都會為非常時期做好準備 The A team would continue operations for as long as possible—either until they're A小隊會盡可能持續運作，直到他們殉職 dead or communications are cut off. 或是訊息無法再被接收 Then the B team would seamlessly take over operations. 然後B小隊會無縫接軌的繼續執行 If the B team falls, the C team would serve as the final chance for the survival of the 當B小隊也失去聯繫，C小隊就成了該機關 government agency. 延續的最後機會 When the surface of the earth is unsurvivable, there is one other place to go other than 當地球表面已不再適合生存， 還有除了地底下的另一個地方 underground—to the sky. 天上 The traditional Air Force One has redundancy upon redundancy and dozens of classified defense 傳統的空軍一號有非常繁瑣複雜的防禦設施 measures, but there's a different plane from which the President might command the 但總統也有可能從另一種飛機發號司令 country after doomsday—the Boeing E-4 Advanced Airborne Command Post. 波音公司的E4：先進空中指揮平台 It became increasingly clear to leadership under the Carter Administration that the bunkers 卡特總統時代，美國意識到面對直接的核彈威脅 would do little to protect against a direct nuclear strike. 地下碉堡對保護總統可能沒什麼太大幫助 In fact, they would just concentrate the very individuals that the enemy would attack into 事實上，敵人可以集中火力瞄準 a few holes in mountains. 每座山裡面的防禦洞窟 Surviving a nuclear blast while seven miles above earth, however, is far more conceivable. 因在讓總統待在七英哩的天空上應該是比較有說服力的方案 This plane is sometimes referred to as, “Air Force One when it matters.” E4有時被視為「重要時刻的空軍一號」 Whenever the President travels, one of these planes is stationed at most a couple hundred 當總統出訪各國時，一架E4就會停靠在附近的機場 miles away. 當總統出訪各國時，一架E4就會停靠在附近的機場 From this plane, the President can command the country indefinitely. 總統能在這架飛機上指揮國家與發佈調度 It can be refueled mid-air by tanker so, barring technical issues, it can remain flying for E4具備空中加油的功能，所以，撇開技術性的問題 as long as the food and water lasts. 它能持續飛行直到食物與飲水消耗完畢 In a doomsday scenario, this plane could literally stay airborne for weeks at a time to keep 當末日發生，這架飛機毫無疑問的 the country's leadership safe. 能載著總統到空中並保障其安全 After armageddon, the United States' goal would be to rebuild the ailing country with 世界末日後，美國的目標是不論有多少倖存者 however many survivors remained, but how would the country continue as the same country when 都要重建這個國家，但當大多數的人都身亡了 most everyone was dead? 要如何讓「這個國家」延續？ Because of the line of succession, the President could be an unknown unelected official with 因為總統繼任順序的順位，總統現在可能由一個未經選舉的不知名官員所擔任 a bare-bones government of just a few thousand people so what's to say to a survivor in 帶領著功能不齊全的政府以及幾千名的倖存者，要如何說服 Texas or Oregon or Alaska that it's still the same country continuing on. 德州、奧勒岡與阿拉斯加的僥倖者， 他們仍然是同一個國家？ Well, what binds America together is a common culture and legacy. 事實上，將美國團結的因素是文化與歷史 Art and historical artifacts are the physical representations of this and their survival 若能擁有過去的藝術品與歷史性的文物 would pose a powerful message about the state of the Union. 就會有非常強力的基礎證明他們就是國家的代表 On Doomsday resources would be scarce and disjointed so officials have had to make decisions 末日發生時，由於資源有限，政府必須決定 about which items to save and which would be left behind. 哪些東西必須帶走，哪些必須捨棄 For example, priority would be given to Leonardo Di Vinci's Ginevra de' Benci over Rogier 因此以順序來說，達文西的「吉內薇拉·班琪」會優先於 van der Weyden's Saint George and the Dragon and the Declaration of Independence would 拉斐爾的「聖喬治與龍」，而「獨立宣言」 be saved before the Constitution. 的優先順序則高於「憲法」 Ideally, though, all three of the nation's most important documents—the Declaration 理想上，美國最重要的三份文獻：「獨立宣言」 of Independence, the Constitution, and the Bill of Rights would be evacuated from Washington. 「憲法」以及「權利法案」會被打包與保護在一起 Grouped together they would be called “Freedom Documents Group I” and while some high level 稱之「第一自由文獻組」，而當其他同樣重要的官員 officials would evacuate Washington by road, these three documents would get their own 必須搭車撤離到疏散點時，這三份重要的文獻 helicopter straight to Mount Weather to continue the powerful legacy of the United States. 將由直升機運送到緊急行動中心， 持續代表美國的核心價值 Nobody knows exactly how or if the US Government will survive doomsday—all we know are some 沒有人確切知道美國政府究竟會如何在末日後生存 of the plans. 我們知道的只是計畫 Plans are just plans though and do not account for the unknown. 計畫只是計畫，並沒有辦法處理所有未知的情形 In the event that the United States is truly threatened by nuclear war, pandemic, or any 當美國真的面臨核子戰爭、瘟疫 another world ending event, who knows if the population will even believe they are still 或其他的末日危機，誰知道大眾甚至會不會 in the United States. 仍視自己為美國人？ Little distinguishes one country from another other than what people think and if people 細微的差異會使國家與國家間產生區隔 believe they are part of the country of Alaska or the Kingdom of California then for the 若民眾認為他們是阿拉斯加國或是加州王國的國民 most part they are. 則某種程度上，他們就是了 If the principles of separation of power, judicial review, checks and balances, limited 若權力分立、司法審查、制衡與監督、有限政府 government, federalism, and popular sovereignty live on past the end, the continuity of government 聯邦主義以及人民主權等精神持續存在， 即便政府官員殉職 plans have succeeded even if the members of government die. 政府延續的計畫依然能達成其目標 These plans are not about saving the president or the secretary of defense or any one person—they're 這些計畫不是為了拯救總統或國防部長或其他任何人 about making sure the structure of democratic government continues on through thick and 而是不論發生任何情形，民主政治的架構與核心 thin. 都會永存 This video was made possible by Hover. 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