字幕列表 影片播放 自動翻譯 列印所有字幕 列印翻譯字幕 列印英文字幕 Five languages, but seven countries. 五種語言，但七個國家。 What words have you picked up while reporting at the G7, Steve? 史蒂夫，你在報道七國集團的時候掌握了哪些詞彙？ I speak fluently French, Italian, all kinds of languages, so very few. 我可以說流利的法語、意大利語，各種語言，所以非常少。 No that's a lie. Experiences rather than words, 不，那是一個謊言。經驗而不是語言。 I've got to be honest with you Silvia. 我必須對你說實話，西爾維婭。 The G7, or Group of Seven, is an organization made up 七國集團，即七國集團，是一個由以下方面組成的組織 of the world's quote “most influential” and “advanced” economies. 的世界上引用 "最有影響力 "和 "先進 "經濟體。 Every year, the leaders of the United States, United Kingdom, 每年，美國、英國的領導人。 Canada, France, Germany, Italy and Japan gather in a fancy location to talk global affairs. 加拿大、法國、德國、意大利和日本聚集在一個豪華的地點，談論全球事務。 But how did this group come together and what do they do? 但是，這群人是如何走到一起的，他們是做什麼的？ To learn more, I caught up with CNBC anchor Steve Sedgwick. 為了瞭解更多，我採訪了CNBC主播史蒂夫-塞奇威克。 Steve has interviewed countless international leaders, including at the G7 summits. 史蒂夫曾採訪過無數的國際領導人，包括在七國集團首腦會議上。 A lot of issues being discussed, some they don't seem to want to discuss 正在討論很多問題，有些問題他們似乎不想討論 and others I'm not sure that they're going to get anywhere on as well. 以及其他我不確定他們是否會得到任何東西。 2009, where I went to the G7 meeting in a place called L'Aquila in Abruzzo in Italy, 2009年，我去參加了在意大利阿布魯佐一個叫拉奎拉的地方舉行的七國集團會議。 which was held by Silvio Berlusconni, which was originally supposed to be in Sardinia, 這是由西爾維奧-貝盧斯科尼持有的，原本應該是在撒丁島的。 then we had devastating earthquakes in Italy so he moved it to L'Aquila 然後我們在意大利發生了破壞性的地震，所以他把它移到了拉奎拉。 so there I was on the edge of an earthquake zone with military and fire personnel everywhere, 所以我在地震區的邊緣，到處是軍隊和消防人員。 on the outskirts of a G-meeting. That was extraordinary. 在一個G-會議的外圍。這很不尋常。 The G7 originates from an informal meeting of finance ministers from the U.S., West Germany, France and the U.K. 七國集團起源於美國、西德、法國和英國的財政部長的非正式會議。 Held in the White House's library, they became known as the “Library Group.” 在白宮的圖書館舉行，他們被稱為 "圖書館小組"。 The G number is something almost not worth getting worked up about, because it started off as a G4. G數字是幾乎不值得大驚小怪的東西，因為它一開始是G4。 Then it became G5 with Japan coming on board, then Italy G6. 然後變成了G5，日本也加入進來，然後是意大利G6。 In 1975, they made it official. France and Germany invited the heads of government 1975年，他們將其正式化。法國和德國邀請政府首腦們 for the six nations to the Chateau de Rambouillet, 30 miles southwest of Paris, for a meeting. 六個國家在巴黎西南30英里處的朗布依埃城堡舉行了會議。 The next year, Canada joined the Group, rounding it out to what we now know as the G7. 第二年，加拿大加入了該集團，使之成為我們現在所知的七國集團。 This was a coordinated response from some of the biggest nations on the planet 這是來自地球上一些最大的國家的協調反應 to what were enormous macroeconomic challenges. We had a devastating oil shock 以應對巨大的宏觀經濟挑戰。我們有一個破壞性的石油衝擊 and of course a huge recession and inflation problems in the 70s. 當然還有70年代的巨大衰退和通貨膨脹問題。 While the group's focus started with the economy, it wasn't long before its scope extended 雖然該小組的重點從經濟開始，但不久後其範圍就擴大了 to include foreign policy and security. 以包括外交政策和安全。 Williamsburg in 1983, Bonne in 1985, at these key summits, 1983年的威廉斯堡，1985年的波昂，在這些重要的首腦會議上。 security and energy security, these were specifically mentioned, 在安全和能源安全方面，這些都被特別提及。 and you have got to look at what was going on in the world at that time. 你必須看一看當時世界上發生了什麼。 You had this devastating war at the center of the Middle East 你在中東的中心有這場破壞性的戰爭 between two of the largest oil players in the world: i.e. Iran and Iraq. 世界上兩個最大的石油生產國之間：即伊朗和伊拉克。 You had the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in the 80s as well. 你在80年代也有蘇聯對阿富汗的入侵。 So there were a whole lot of geopolitical tensions, with the backdrop of course of the Cold War, 是以，有一大堆地緣政治的緊張局勢，當然還有冷戰的背景。 where security and economic policy, they very, very severely overlapped. 在安全和經濟政策方面，它們非常、非常嚴重地重疊在一起。 Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, 1991年蘇聯解體後。 Russia regularly attended G7 meetings. It officially became a member of the group in 1998, 俄羅斯定期參加七國集團會議。它於1998年正式成為該集團的成員。 forming the G8. But the relationship was short-lived. 組成八國集團。但這種關係是短暫的。 I remember that very, very well. In 2014, I was down in Ukraine 我記得非常、非常清楚。2014年，我在烏克蘭的時候 and that was the reason why Russia got booted out, 而這正是俄羅斯被趕出的原因。 because of the annexation of Crimea and the invasion of that part of Ukraine. 因為吞併克里米亞和入侵烏克蘭的這一部分。 The rest of the group boycotted Russia's G8 meeting in Sochi that year, meeting in Brussels instead. 該集團的其他成員抵制了俄羅斯當年在索契舉行的八國集團會議，而是在布魯塞爾開會。 Do you think that the G7 will ever be the G8 again? 你認為G7會再次成為G8嗎？ Not with Russia for the foreseeable future, 在可預見的未來，不會與俄羅斯合作。 the antagonism between the West and Russia is just too great at the moment, 目前，西方和俄羅斯之間的對立實在是太大了。 but could it be a G8 with another party? Quite possibly. 但會不會是與另一黨派組成的八國集團？很有可能。 What Steve is hinting at here is the notable absence of some major economies from the group, and he's not alone. 史蒂夫在這裡暗示的是，一些主要經濟體在該集團中明顯缺席，而且他並不孤單。 There are plenty of questions about who should be in the group moving forward. 關於誰應該在小組中前進，有很多問題。 One study suggests that by 2050, six of the seven 一項研究表明，到2050年，7個國家中的6個 largest economies in the world will be countries currently outside the G7, 世界上最大的經濟體將是目前七國集團以外的國家。 including the rapidly growing nations of China, India and Brazil. 包括快速增長的中國、印度和巴西等國家。 If these growth projections prove right, we could see a transformation 如果這些增長預測被證明是正確的，我們可以看到一個轉變 in either the composition of the G7, or its relevance. 無論是七國集團的組成，還是其相關性。 The G7 did partially address these concerns by creating the G20 in 1999. 七國集團確實通過在1999年創建20國集團來部分解決這些問題。 The G7 finance ministers decided that they needed more people at the table to discuss the economic crisis at the time. 七國集團的財政部長們決定，他們需要更多的人在桌子上討論當時的經濟危機。 Do you think it couldn't work just with the seven? Why did they need more people at the table? 你認為只靠這七個人就不能成功嗎？為什麼他們需要更多的人在餐桌上？ Absolutely, it couldn't work as well because despite the fact that even to this day 絕對的，它不可能有好的效果，因為儘管即使到了今天 the original seven members, plus Russia, represent a vast amount of global wealth, 最初的七個成員，加上俄羅斯，代表了大量的全球財富。 a vast amount of global GDP, look at where the crises were. 巨大的全球GDP，看看危機發生在哪裡。 We had a hedge fund collapse for a start, which had global ramifications, 首先，我們有一個對沖基金倒閉，這對全球產生了影響。 we had a Russian financial crisis in the late 1990s, we had the east Asia crisis 我們在20世紀90年代末發生了俄羅斯金融危機，我們有東亞危機 plus you had a Mexican Peso crisis. So all of these crises had roots 加上你有一個墨西哥比索危機。是以，所有這些危機的根源在於 in different parts of the world, and it just wasn't feasible 在世界的不同地方，這是不可行的。 for the G7 to approach this, and start telling China, India, East Asian countries 七國集團應採取這種做法，並開始告訴中國、印度和東亞國家 what they should be doing without their participation as well. 沒有他們的參與，他們也應該做什麼。 So absolutely. That's how the G20 was born. 所以絕對是這樣。這就是20國集團誕生的原因。 This group became even more prominent during the financial crisis of 2008, 在2008年的金融危機期間，這個群體變得更加突出。 when the U.S. suggested the G20 should include heads of state too. 當美國建議G20也應包括國家元首時。 The leaders have met in this format, in addition to the G7, every year since 2010. 自2010年以來，除七國集團外，各國領導人每年都以這種形式舉行會議。 Today, the G20 is comprised of 19 countries and the European Union. 今天，20國集團由19個國家和歐盟組成。 It accounts for 80% of global GDP and 60% of the world population. 它佔全球GDP的80%，佔世界人口的60%。 Meanwhile, the G7 accounts for 40% of global GDP and a tenth of the world's population. 同時，七國集團佔全球GDP的40%，佔世界人口的十分之一。 So, based on that, would you say that the G20 是以，基於這一點，你是否會說，20國集團 has become more important and perhaps more efficient than the G7? 已經變得更加重要，也許比七國集團更加有效？ Yes and no, there you go, there's my clear answer. 是的，也不是，你去吧，這就是我明確的答案。 London, April 2009 which was just the finest moment for the G20 倫敦，2009年4月，這正是20國集團最美好的時刻。 when the big powers including Saudi, China, India, stepped up 當包括沙特、中國、印度在內的大國加強了 and said we will have a big global coordinated response. 並說我們將有一個大的全球協調反應。 That said, I don't think the G20 has had such a fine moment in the following 12 years, 也就是說，我不認為20國集團在隨後的12年裡有過如此美好的時刻。 and I am not sure that coordination has always seemed possible amongst 20 countries 我不確定20個國家之間的協調是否總是可能的。 with 20 different interests as well. So whilst the G7 is perhaps too small 也有20種不同的利益。是以，雖然七國集團可能太小 to make these global decisions, one could argue 來做出這些全球性的決定，人們可以說 the efficiency of the G20 is just not there because you've got too many disparate interests. 20國集團的效率是不存在的，因為你有太多不同的利益。 And of course now we have transpacific antagonism between China and the U.S., 當然，現在我們有中國和美國之間的跨太平洋對立。 has that devalued the common purpose of the G20? So, it's a very nuanced situation. 這是否貶低了20國集團的共同目的？所以，這是一個非常微妙的情況。 So, the G7 talks through some of the world's biggest challenges, but have they actually achieved anything? 是以，七國集團討論了世界上一些最大的挑戰，但他們是否真的取得了什麼成果？ The group's response to that question would be: absolutely. 該小組對這個問題的回答是：絕對的。 It takes credit for being behind the Muskoka Initiative, which reduced maternal and infant mortality 它在降低母嬰死亡率的 "馬斯科卡倡議 "中功不可沒。 and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. 和全球抗擊艾滋病、結核病和瘧疾基金。 It also says it supported the implementation of the Paris Climate Deal, 它還說，它支持實施巴黎氣候協議。 which renewed carbon emission reduction targets in many parts of the world. 其中更新了世界許多地區的碳減排目標。 At the end of each meeting, the group signs a communique, which outlines their joint commitments. 在每次會議結束時，該小組簽署一份公報，其中概述了他們的共同承諾。 It was not so long ago we saw the G7 reach an agreement over a common statement 就在不久前，我們看到七國集團就一項共同聲明達成了協議 and then the then U.S. president Donald Trump decided to revoke his signature essentially. 而後，當時的美國總統唐納德-特朗普決定基本上撤銷他的簽名。 A communique, a common statement, the grand piece at the end of these meetings. 一份公報，一份共同聲明，是這些會議結束時的大作品。 What's it worth sometimes? Sometimes they are so watered down, Silvia, 有時值得嗎？有時它們是如此的水到渠成，西爾維婭。 that you wonder what's the worth of it. And so I do actually have 你想知道它的價值是什麼。是以，我實際上有 a lot of common understanding with Donald Trump on this issue, 在這個問題上與唐納德-特朗普有很多共同的理解。 very often you have a bland statement with grand protestations which potentially 很多時候，你有一個平淡無奇的聲明，並有宏大的抗議，這有可能是對的。 tie the members into situations that aren't necessarily in their national interest. 把成員綁在不一定符合其國家利益的情況下。 I have seen communiques in the past where I know for a fact there have been 我在過去看到過一些公報，我知道在那裡有一個事實，那就是 transgressors on currency issues, where people have really wanted to name names, 在貨幣問題上的越軌者，人們真的想指名道姓。 but they refused to name names because they don't want to upset anyone as well. 但他們拒絕透露姓名，因為他們也不想讓任何人難過。 So the statement at the end of it is very often watered down and actually very meaningless. 所以最後的聲明很多時候是水到渠成的，實際上是非常沒有意義的。 So, what is next for the G7? 那麼，G7的下一步是什麼？ Now, this is very interesting because don't forget that the G7 doesn't have a secretariat. 現在，這非常有趣，因為別忘了，七國集團沒有一個祕書處。 It doesn't have a big ongoing body to talk about these issues on a multi-year basis. 它沒有一個大的持續機構，在多年的基礎上討論這些問題。 And so the G7 is very much about the agenda of the day and the agenda of the host government as well. 是以，七國集團在很大程度上是關於當天的議程和東道國政府的議程。 If Brazil does join the G7, do you want to know a few words in Portuguese, just in case? 如果巴西真的加入G7，你想知道幾個葡萄牙語單詞，以備不時之需嗎？ Absolutely, yeah! 絕對的，是的! I mean Portuguese is a big gulf in my knowledge, so fire away Silvia. 我的意思是，葡萄牙語在我的知識中是一個很大的鴻溝，所以，西爾維婭，開火吧。 I will just teach you two very simple ones. 'Obrigado' for 'thank you' and 'por favor' for 'please'. 我將只教你們兩個非常簡單的詞。Obrigado "表示 "謝謝你"，"por favor "表示 "請"。 Por favor, that sounds like many other Latin languages I think, I think I can get that one. Por favor，這聽起來像許多其他的拉丁語，我想，我可以得到這個。 And the first one again? 又是第一個？ Obrigado. Obrigado. Obrigado. Obrigado. Very good. There you go! 非常好。這就對了!