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  • This video was made possible by Brilliant.

    這影片是由Brilliant贊助播出

  • The first 97 people to sign up at brilliant.org/Wendover will get 20% off their premium subscription.

    用 brilliant.org/Wendover連結註冊的前97個人可享高級訂閱的八折優惠

  • Antarctica is earth’s coldest, most desolate, most isolated, windiest, driest, and southernmost

    南極洲是地球上最冷,最荒蕪,最孤寂,最多風,最乾,又最靠南

  • continent.

    的大陸

  • All but 2% of the land-mass is covered in ice thousands of feet thick.

    除了2%以外的大陸面積都被幾千英尺的冰給覆蓋

  • Human eyes did not gaze upon the continent until 1820.

    直到在1820年人類才第一次目睹其樣貌

  • Human feet did not touch Antarctica until 1895.

    直到1895年的時候人類才第一次踏上南極洲

  • It is not a place built for humans but still, thousands of people live there for up to years

    他不是一個給人類居住的地方,但是有數以千計的人要連續數年住在那裡

  • on end, but how do they get there, how do they live there, and how does Antarctica work?

    但他們是怎麼到那裡的?他們在那怎麼生活?南極洲到底怎麼運作?

  • Antarctica has thousands of residents, significant infrastructure, and a large transport network

    南極洲有幾千個居民、重要的交通建設、跟一套大規模的運輸網絡

  • and yet it’s one of the very few areas of land on earth not part of any country.

    然而它還是地球上極少數不隸屬任何國家範圍內的陸地區域

  • Seven countries have made Antarctic claimsChile, Argentina, the United Kingdom, Norway, Australia,

    有七個國家對南極宣稱有主權—智利、阿根廷、英國、挪威、澳洲

  • France, and New Zealandbut they are exactly that, claims.

    法國和紐西蘭—但也僅僅是,宣稱而已

  • The only real gauge of whether a country’s territorial claim is real is if other countries

    實際上,一國對某土地的所有權是否成立的唯一標準是其他國家是否承認

  • recognize it and, overwhelmingly, these claims are not recognized.

    然後,以壓倒性之姿,這些宣稱都沒有被承認

  • Australia’s claim, for example, is only recognized by the United Kingdom, Norway,

    像澳洲宣稱的領地,就只有被英國、挪威、法國和紐西蘭承認

  • France, and New Zealandcountries which clearly have a vested interest in the recognition

    都是一些很明顯想要在認同南極領地這件事上分一杯羹的

  • of Antarctic claims.

    那種國家

  • For the most part, these claims are ignored.

    大部分來說,這些宣稱都是被忽略的

  • One doesn’t go through customs upon arrival in the claims and certain of them overlap

    任何人到這些領地時都不用過海關,而且某部分國家的領地還跟其他

  • with other claims.

    國家的領地重疊

  • The more universally recognized interpretation is that Antarctica is an international zone.

    比較被普世所接受的解讀是南極洲為一個國際共有的區域

  • Just like outer space and the ocean, Antarctica is considered part of the common heritage

    跟太空以及海洋一樣,南極大陸被視為人類共同遺產,意味著它

  • of mankind meaning that it should be preserved immaculately for all future generations, forever,

    應該為將來的世世代代永遠地被保存,乾淨無瑕的那種

  • but that’s easier said than done.

    但何嘗像說的一般容易

  • The seminal piece of legislation regulating the continent is the Antarctic Treaty.

    管制這塊大陸最有效的法律條文為《南極條約》

  • Just as the cold war was heating up in the late 1950’s, the United States, the Soviet

    正當50年代的冷戰加溫的時候,美國、蘇聯

  • Union, and all other countries with an interest in Antarctica gathered together to decide

    還有其他覬覦南極大陸的國家們聚在一塊來決定

  • how the continent would be used.

    要怎麼使用這塊大陸

  • They emerged with a future-facing treaty that solved most political disputes and issues

    他們就制定一份條約來顧及未來,以及解決這大陸大部分政治爭議和糾紛

  • with the continent, except for one.

    但就是沒解決一點

  • In its text, the treaty specifically says, “Nothing contained in the present treaty

    條約在文字中明確指出:「本條約的任何規定不得解釋為:

  • shall be interpreted as a renunciation by any Contracting Party of previously asserted

    締約任何一方放棄在南極原來所主張的

  • rights of or claims to territorial sovereignty in Antarctica.”

    領土主權權利或領土的要求。」

  • Essentially, they didn’t solve the sovereignty issue because it was too difficult to solve,

    本質上來說,他們跟本沒有解決主權問題,因為真的太難解決了

  • but they did ban military presence, mining, and nuclear explosions which has helped enormously

    不過他們是有禁止軍事活動、採礦以及核子試爆以確保

  • in keeping the last continent pristine.

    以保持最後一塊大陸的純樸無瑕

  • So that brings us to today.

    於是就延續至今

  • There are no large scale commercial operations in Antarctica thanks to that treaty.

    多虧於此條約,南極洲沒有任何大規模的商業活動

  • The vast majority of individuals are there for research.

    在那裡的絕大多數人都是科研人員

  • Of course, living and maintaining a base on the world’s most desolate continent is hugely

    想當然爾,要在最荒涼的大陸上生活跟維護基地會貴得要命

  • expensive, but it’s worth it for the research that can only be conducted in Antarctica.

    但是為了只能在南極進行的研究這些都值得

  • Some individuals are there to study the continent itselfit’s wildlife, its geology, and

    部分的人到那邊為了研究大陸的本體—野生生物、地質還有氣候

  • its climatebut others use the area to study the entire world.

    其他人用這塊土地研究全世界

  • Ice cores can be used to track historic atmospheric carbon levels, underground ponds can be tapped

    冰芯可以用來研究各時期大氣中碳含量的變化,取地底湖水可以

  • to find ancient microbial life unique to the area, and ice thickness can be monitored to

    發掘古代當地特有的微生物,而觀察冰層的厚度可以理解

  • understand how sea levels will rise.

    海水的漲幅程度

  • Scientists even use Antarctica to look at space.

    科學家甚至還用南極洲觀察外太空

  • As such as isolated place, Antarctica has very low background radiation and virtually

    南極這種偏僻的地方有著低程度的背景幅射又幾乎沒有

  • no light pollution which allows astronomers to use various techniques to peer into deep

    光害,天文學家就可以用各種方法窺探

  • space.

    宇宙的深處

  • Scientists are performing groundbreaking research in Antarctica, but how do they even get there?

    科學家在南極洲做開創性的研究,他們又是怎麼到那裡的呢?

  • The difficulty in getting to Antarctica all stems from its weather.

    到達南極洲的難處起源於它的氣候

  • The all-time record high at the south pole is 9.9 degrees Fahrenheit.

    南極點的史上最高溫是華氏九點九度

  • The coasts are significantly warmer where the average summer high is about 30 degrees

    沿海地區明顯溫暖許多,夏季高溫大約為華氏三十度

  • Fahrenheit but still, weather above freezing anywhere in Antarctica is an anomaly.

    不過在南極洲任何地方,高於冰點的天氣都算異象

  • As mentioned, this means that there is virtually no bare groundnearly the entire continent

    有如前面提到的,這代表這裡幾乎沒有裸露的陸地—幾乎整塊大陸

  • is covered in thick ice and snow.

    都被厚厚的冰雪覆蓋

  • Therefore, the only real choice when building an Antarctic airstrip is whether to make it

    因此,當要建造一個南極飛機跑道時唯一實際的選擇是要蓋在冰上

  • on ice or snow.

    還是雪上

  • One thing to remember is that Antarctica is a desert.

    不要忘記南極洲是荒漠

  • The coastal regions, where most of the research bases are, do experience the most snow but

    多數研究基地所在的沿海地區能得到最多的降雪

  • still then, that’s a maximum of eight inches per year.

    但最高年降雪還是只有8英吋

  • The south pole, meanwhile, only sees about 2-3 inches of snowfall per year.

    另一方面,南極點只會見到一年2~3英吋的降雪

  • It doesn’t snow much, but when it does, it sticks around for centuries.

    不常下雪,但一下就保留好幾百年

  • Therefore, a runway built on ice or snow is fairly permanent.

    於是乎,把跑道建造於冰或雪地之上還算是長久之計

  • It doesn’t get buried as one might in Canada or Russia.

    不像在俄羅斯或加拿大一樣會被雪蓋掉

  • McMurdo Station’s Pegasus Field, for example, was used for more than 40 years before it

    像是麥克默多站的 Pegasus 機場在2016被新的

  • closed in 2016 to be replaced by the new Phoenix Airfield.

    Phoenix機場取代之前已經使用了40年

  • Phoenix Airfield is a compacted snow runway.

    Phoenix機場是硬雪跑道

  • Machines are used to pack the snow until it’s dense enough to support a fully loaded, half-million

    機器把雪壓緊實,直到能夠支撐一台滿載貨物,重達

  • pound C-17 wheeled cargo plane.

    五十萬磅的C-17貨機

  • But compacted-snow runways have a disadvantagethey can melt.

    但硬雪跑道有一個劣勢—它們會融化

  • During the warmest months of the summer, the snow can warm and soften enough that it is

    在夏天最溫暖的幾個月,雪地可能會加溫和軟化到

  • no longer safe to land wheeled aircraft so that’s why there’s the other type of runwayblue

    讓一台有輪子的飛機降落是不再安全的,這就是為什麼有另一種跑道—

  • ice runways.

    藍冰跑道

  • These ice runways are built on areas of glacial ice where’s there’s no snow accumulation.

    這些藍冰跑道建造於沒有積雪的冰河地區

  • Ice is much more resilient to warmer temperatures so these runways can be used year-round.

    冰的難熱程度強得多所以這些跑道可以全年被使用

  • Runways on the sea-ice are also used typically at the beginning of the summer research season

    在十一到十二月當南半球的夏天來臨而且冰層

  • in early November until December when the southern hemisphere’s summer begins and

    開始破裂的研究季節初期也會使用在海面

  • the ice starts to break up.

    結冰層上的跑道

  • Once the coasts are ice-free, cargo ships can also bring supplies in to the major coastal

    一當沿海地區的結冰消去,貨櫃船就可以運送補給給大多數

  • stations, and from there the internal logistics network gets to work.

    靠海邊的研究站,這時在內部的物流網就可以上工了

  • Large planes are used to get as much cargo and as many passengers to the continent as

    大型飛機被用來以最經濟實惠的方式運送最多的貨櫃還有乘客到

  • inexpensively as possible.

    這塊大陸上

  • There are certain airports on other continents that serve as gateways to the Antarctic.

    有幾個在其他大洲的機場作為前往南極洲的門戶

  • Christchurch, New Zealand Airport, for example, sends about 100 flights per year and 5,500

    比如紐西蘭的基督城機場每年送100個航班和5500個乘客到南極洲

  • passengers to Antarctica and serves as the staging area for the New Zealand, American,

    而且還作為紐西蘭、美國、義大利南極

  • and Italian Antarctic logistics operations.

    物流網集散中心

  • From there, it’s only a five hour flight to McMurdo Stationthe largest Antarctic

    從那裡只需要飛五個小時就可以到南極最大的研究站

  • research base.

    麥克默多站

  • While Christchurch is the major Antarctic gateway, flight do also leave from Cape Town,

    雖然基督城是前往南極洲的大門戶,也有從南非開普敦和

  • South Africa and Punta Arenas, Chile.

    智利蓬塔阿雷納斯出發的航班

  • These larger intercontinental planes typically land at the major blue-ice and compacted snow

    大型的跨洲飛機一般都將落於靠近沿海的藍冰跑到和硬雪跑道

  • runways near the coast, but then many of these passengers and much of this cargo needs to

    但很多的乘客和貨物需要前往

  • get inland.

    內陸地區

  • The inland research bases tend to be smaller and there are fewer of them, but they are

    內陸的研究基地大多偏少又偏小,但他們的重要性

  • still significant.

    依然不減

  • The American AmundsenScott South Pole Station, for example, has a population of 150 people

    像是美國的阿蒙森-斯科特南極站在夏季時,人口數量就多達150人

  • in the summer and there are also smaller Italian, French, Russian, Japanese, and German stations

    而且還有其他比較小的義大利、法國、俄羅斯、日本和德國研究站

  • away from the coasts.

    也都不靠海

  • For the American Antarctic operations, McMurdo station operates as the logistics hub.

    對美國南極物流網來說,麥克默多站被當作貨物的樞紐

  • Nearly all cargo and passengers arrive there on larger cargo planes or cargo ships.

    幾乎所有的乘客都搭乘較大的貨機或貨輪都到那裡

  • From there, passengers and some cargo are transferred most often onto Lockheed LC-130

    乘客跟貨物大多從那邊搭乘C-130運輸機

  • planes.

    轉機

  • These prop planes are specifically designed for Arctic and Antarctic operations.

    這些改裝飛機是特別為南極洲還有極地任務設計的

  • They have retractable skis that allow them to land on soft, non-compacted snow and there

    他們有可回收的雪板讓他們可以在鬆軟不緊實的雪地上降落

  • are only ten in existence.

    而且世界上只有十台

  • Polar operations often mean taking off at high altitudes where the air in thin.

    極地任務也常常代表要在空氣稀薄的高海拔地區起飛

  • The AmundsenScott South Pole Station, where the plane often flies to, for example, is

    像飛機時常要去的阿蒙森-斯科特南極站出人意料地是處於

  • surprisingly at 9,300 feet above sea-level.

    9300英尺的高海拔地區

  • That’s even higher than the highest elevation commercial airport in the US.

    這還比全美最高的商業機場機場還要高

  • When the air is thin wings generate less lift so the speed needed to takeoff is higher and

    當空氣稀薄時,機翼產生的升力較少,所以起飛時所需的速度就較高

  • so, in order to be able to takeoff at higher elevations, this LC-130 plane has rockets

    所以,為了要能在較高海拔高度起飛,這種C-130運輸機配有火箭推進器

  • to help speed it up at take-off.

    在起飛時幫助加速

  • Thanks to its skis, this plane can operate to those places like the South Pole station

    多虧有這些雪板,這種飛機可以在像南極站那種沒有硬雪跑道

  • that don’t have compacted snow or blue ice runways.

    或藍冰跑道的地方運作

  • While passengers and some cargo like fresh food take the quick two hour flight from McMurdo

    當旅客和一些像是新鮮食材的貨物從麥克默多站花兩個小時快速的飛到南極點

  • Station to the South Pole, there is another way.

    的同時,還有一個替代方案

  • Flights are hugely expensive and the United States Antarctic Program works on a limited

    飛行要花非常多的錢,而且美國南極洲計劃的經費有限

  • budget so there’s an effort being made to reduce shipping costs.

    所以他們不遺餘力減少運輸費用

  • Therefore, they built a road.

    於是乎,他們蓋了條路

  • Just like the runways this road is made from compacted snow and stretches 995 miles from

    與飛機跑道同理,這條路是用壓實的雪所建,又從麥克默多站

  • McMurdo Station to the South Pole.

    一路延伸995英哩到南極點

  • Using this South Pole Traverse, the United States Antarctic Program runs convoys of tractors

    美國南極洲計劃在這條南極大道上,用牽引機護航放在雪橇上

  • pulling sleds of cargo across the ice and snow.

    的補給品橫越冰天雪地

  • This trip takes about 40 days one-way, but it still is significantly cheaper than flights

    這趟旅程單趟要四十天,但是比飛行顯著的便宜許多

  • and can handle cargo too large to fit in an LC-130 cargo plane.

    而且還可以處理C-130運輸機放不下的大型貨物

  • Of course, Antarctica is still Antarcticaone of the harshest climates in the world.

    當然南極終究是南極—有著最險惡的氣候之一

  • Whenever a plane leaves from New Zealand or South Africa or Chile to Antarctica, it’s

    任何從紐西蘭和南非和智利出發的飛機,都要帶上足夠的燃料

  • required to take enough fuel to fly all the way to its destination, attempt landing, then

    好能夠飛到目的地,嘗試降落,然後在無法降落

  • fly back to its origin if landing is not possible.

    的情況下飛回原點

  • Planes fail, equipment breaks, and weather changes, so Antarctica just isn’t a place

    飛機會失靈,設備會損壞,天氣又變化多端,南極可不是個

  • conducive to reliability.

    穩定的地方

  • For this reason, planes are prohibited from landing or taking off in the dark and of course,

    有鑒於此,飛機禁止於黑暗中起降然後

  • in the winter in Antarctica, it’s dark for 24 hours a day.

    在南極洲冬天,當然一天24個小時都是黑的

  • Therefore, for seven months out of the year, there are no planes, no boats, no link at

    因此,1年當中有7個月,南極洲以及剩下的全世界之間,完全沒有任何的

  • all between Antarctica and the rest of the world.

    飛機或船或任何連結

  • The lack of transport links during the winter have as much to do with the cold as the dark.

    在冬季時交通運輸缺乏的情況,與其嚴寒的關係不亞於與其黑暗的關係

  • At McMurdo station where most ships dock on the coast, the winter temperature rarely rises

    多數船隻停泊的麥克默多站在冬天的時候很少高於華氏0度

  • above zero degrees Fahrenheit meaning the coast is blocked with sea-ice and meanwhile

    代表沿海地區都被結冰的海水阻隔

  • at the South Pole station, the average July high temperature is -67 degrees Fahrenheit

    同時在南極點站七月的平均溫度是華氏-67度

  • meaning that if any plane landed there, its fuel would freeze within minutes.

    代表假使有任何飛機在那邊降落,燃料會在幾分鐘之內結凍

  • Of course, the large bases, like McMurdo Station which balloons to well over 1,000 residents

    像麥克默多站夏季居民高達1000人的大型基地,

  • in the summer, need maintenance over the winter and some science experiments need to be conducted

    冬天也需要修繕,還有一些科學研究需要全年運作

  • year round so people have to stay in Antarctica, alone, in the dark, for the entire winter

    所以就有人需要留在南極洲,孤獨地,黑暗地

  • with no link to the outside world.

    與世隔絕

  • In recent years there have been a small number of exceptions to this lack of flights in winter,

    近幾年來有對於冬天缺乏航班的少數例外情況

  • mostly due to medical evacuation flights, but for the most part, once the last plane

    大多是醫療撤離相關的航班,但照常理來說,一旦在二月的最後一架

  • leaves in February, everyone still in Antarctica is stuck there until the following November.

    飛機離開之後,所有還在南極洲上的人到十一月之前都會被困在那裡

  • All food, fuel, and supplies are stocked there well before and a small number of people—45

    所有的食物、燃料還有補給品都要被存好,而少數的幾個人

  • in the case of the south pole stationstick around to keep the bases running.

    像南極點站就是45人,留下來讓維持基地運作

  • In a sense, these people who stay the winter in Antarctica are even more isolated than

    就某種層面上來說,在冬天留在南極洲的人比國際太空航站上的人

  • the astronauts on the International Space Station.

    還要來得更孤寂

  • There are few places humans can go where they are seven months away from medical care, from

    沒有幾個人類能夠到達的地方是距離其他醫療照護,食物

  • food, from civilization.

    還有文明長達七個月的

  • Those living and working on the last continent endure some of the harshest conditions on

    在最後一塊大陸上居住以及工作的人們,要承受地球上最堅苦的生活環境

  • this earth, but for the pursuit of science, all this hardship, all this work, and all

    但為了追求科學,這所有的苦難,所有的勞動

  • this cost is worth it.

    以及所有的花費都值得

  • If you want to live and work in Antarctica, your best shot to get there is if youre

    如果你想在南極洲上居住以及工作,你能夠去的最好機會是當

  • a scientist.

    一個科學家

  • In particular, a lot of those working there are astronomers and the best place to get

    或明確來說,很多在那工作的人是天文學家而brilliant.org

  • a basic understanding of astronomy is brilliant.org.

    是習得基礎天文學最好的寶地

  • Brilliant’s interactive quizzes teach you by developing your intuition, not by rote

    Brilliant的互動性出題方式用培養你直觀的方式教導你

  • memorization.

    而不是靠死記

  • With their straightforward explanations and simple graphics, you really learn a lot quickly.

    有他們直截了當的解釋還有簡易的圖像,你能夠快速又大量的學習

  • I usually have a blast while taking a Brilliant coursestheyre designed to be interestingand

    當我上Brilliant為趣而設的課程時時常歡樂無比

  • in this astronomy course you can learn things like how to measure the size of the universe,

    像在這個天文學課程中你可以學到的東西如怎麼測量宇宙的大小

  • if life on other planets is possible, and how everything on earth is actually made of

    在其他是星球上是否有生命的存在,還有為什麼地球上的所有事物都是由古老的恆星

  • old stars.

    所構成

  • By going to Brilliant.org/Wendover, you can get started for free and then, by being one

    只要前往,你就可以免費入手而且

  • of the first 97 people to upgrade to the Premium Subscription, you will get 20% off.

    只要你是升級為高級訂閱的前97個人就可以享八折優惠

This video was made possible by Brilliant.

這影片是由Brilliant贊助播出

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 美國腔 南極洲 跑道 大陸 飛機 機場 貨物

生活在南极洲的物流(The Logistics of Living in Antarctica)

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    joey joey 發佈於 2021 年 06 月 10 日
影片單字