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  • In 2020, the world saw its first glimpse of a living robot.

    2020年,世界首次看到了活生生的機器人的影子。

  • Known as the Xenobot, this microscale organism could move, self-heal, and work with other bots to meet a common goal.

    這種被稱為Xenobot的微型生物體可以移動,自我修復,並與其他機器人合作以達到共同的目標。

  • But all these features have gotten a massive upgrade including..memory.

    但所有這些功能都得到了大規模的升級,包括......內存。

  • Say hello to Xenobot 2.0.

    向Xenobot 2.0問好。

  • The original Xenobots were developed by a team of biologists and computer engineers at Tufts University and the University of Vermont.

    最初的Xenobots是由塔夫茨大學和佛蒙特大學的一個生物學家和計算機工程師團隊開發的。

  • These micromachines measured less than a millimeter wide and could work together to push payloads.

    這些微型機械的寬度不到一毫米,可以一起工作,推動有效載荷。

  • They were formed using skin and heart muscle cells harvested from the embryos of the African claw-toed frog.

    它們是用從非洲爪趾蛙的胚胎中採集的皮膚和心肌細胞形成的。

  • The team then used a sophisticated algorithm to generate a variety of Xenobot designs.

    然後,該團隊使用一種複雜的算法來生成各種Xenobot設計。

  • From those designs, scientists performed microsurgery to poke, prod, and shape the stem cells according to the algorithm.

    根據這些設計,科學家們進行了顯微外科手術,根據該算法對幹細胞進行戳刺、鞭策和塑造。

  • They had a variety of looks, from two-lobed blobs to hollow structures depending on what task was needed for the little bot to accomplish.

    它們有各種不同的外觀,從兩葉的小球到空心的結構,這取決於需要小機器人完成什麼任務。

  • And they could do a lot, like propel themselves in straight lines and circles,

    他們可以做很多事情,比如以直線和圓圈推動自己。

  • and herd loose particles into tiny heaps together.

    並將鬆散的顆粒趕到一起形成小堆。

  • And now, Xenobots are headed to the next level.

    而現在,Xenobots正走向更高的水準。

  • Instead of using muscle cells, Xenobot 2.0 moves using cilia,

    Xenobot 2.0沒有使用肌肉細胞,而是使用纖毛來移動。

  • which are tiny hair-like features that move similarly to how oars propel a rowboat through water.

    它們是微小的毛髮狀特徵,其運動方式類似於船槳在水中的推進方式。

  • By extracting skin stem cells from a frog's embryo, the team then allowed the cells to self assemble as they naturally would.

    通過從青蛙的胚胎中提取皮膚幹細胞,該團隊然後讓細胞像自然的那樣自我組裝。

  • They independently formed into spheres, and after approximately four days,

    它們獨立形成球體,大約四天後。

  • some of those stem cells started to moveall due to the presence of hundreds of individual cilia along the surface of the cell.

    其中一些幹細胞開始移動--所有這些都是由於沿細胞表面存在數百個單獨的纖毛。

  • This allowed the individual self-assembled cell to freelyswimusing theirhairsto propel them across surfaces.

    這使得單個自我組裝的細胞能夠自由地 "游泳",使用它們的 "毛 "來推動它們穿過表面。

  • The development of cilia is a perfect example of how the genetic makeup of the frog has been preserved.

    纖毛的發展是一個完美的例子,說明青蛙的基因構成是如何被保存下來的。

  • This makeup also has the ability to recover from damage.

    這種化妝品還具有從損害中恢復的能力。

  • The original Xenobots could self-repair, but biologists have really dialed things up with the next generation.

    最初的Xenobots可以自我修復,但生物學家在下一代中真正撥動了東西。

  • The new bots are more durable and capable of recovering from a full-length cut after just five minutes of injury.

    新的機器人更加耐用,能夠在受傷僅5分鐘後從全長的切割中恢復過來。

  • Additional testing has also found that 100% of injured Xenobots completely healed within 15 minutes.

    額外的測試還發現,100%的受傷Xenobots在15分鐘內完全癒合。

  • And then they just go back to what they were doing...just another walk in the microscopic park!

    然後他們就繼續做他們的工作......只是在微觀公園裡的又一次散步!"。

  • But what's the biggest upgrade of Xenobot 2.0? That has to be its ability to remember...

    但Xenobot 2.0最大的升級是什麼?那必須是它能夠記住...

  • which no Xenobot has been able to do before.

    之前沒有任何Xenobot能夠做到這一點。

  • This is done through an injection of mRNA into the frog embryo before harvesting the stem cell tissue.

    這是通過在收穫幹細胞組織之前將mRNA注入青蛙胚胎來實現的。

  • The mRNA is coded for a special fluorescent protein known as EosFP.

    該mRNA被編碼為一種特殊的熒光蛋白,稱為EosFP。

  • EosFP is naturally found in stony coral and emits green light.

    EosFP天然存在於石質珊瑚中,併發出綠光。

  • But when exposed to 390-nanometers of blue light, it will emit red light instead.

    但當暴露在390納米的藍光下時,它將發出紅光。

  • Researchers were able to prove the memory functionality by exposing a few Xenobots to this wavelength,

    研究人員通過將一些Xenobots暴露在這種波長下,能夠證明其記憶功能。

  • resulting in their emitting red light, while the unexposed bots remained green.

    導致它們發出紅光,而未暴露的機器人則保持綠色。

  • By proving that the bots can be engineered to record memory, scientists are hoping to use this feature in the future

    通過證明機器人可以被設計成記錄記憶,科學家們希望在未來使用這一功能

  • to not only detect light but also the presence of radioactive substances, chemical pollutants, and even diseases.

    不僅可以檢測到光,還可以檢測到放射性物質、化學汙染物,甚至疾病的存在。

  • And thinking even further into the future, the memory functionality could be used as a trigger within the bots to change their behavior in reaction to their environment.

    再往前想,記憶功能可以作為機器人內部的一個觸發器,以改變它們對環境的反應行為。

  • The real-life applications of these Xenobots seem endless, spanning everything from ocean cleanup to regenerative medicine.

    這些Xenobots在現實生活中的應用似乎是無止境的,跨越了從海洋清理到再生醫學的所有領域。

  • Researchers are now focusing on two things: the process of how cells communicate to form an organism,

    研究人員現在專注於兩件事:細胞如何溝通以形成一個有機體的過程。

  • and the genomes needed to create more advanced living robots in the future.

    以及在未來創造更先進的活體機器人所需的基因組。

  • In fact, the team behind Xenobot 2.0 launched the Institute for Computationally Designed Organisms

    事實上,Xenobot 2.0背後的團隊推出了計算設計生物體研究所。

  • to continue the development of living robots that can accomplish even more sophisticated tasks.

    以繼續開發能夠完成更復雜任務的活體機器人。

  • So, who knows what we'll see next...maybe Xenobot 3.0?

    是以,誰知道我們接下來會看到什麼......也許是Xenobot 3.0?

  • What would you like to see this little bot accomplish?

    你希望看到這個小機器人完成什麼?

  • Let us know down in the comments. And if you want to learn more about the team's first Xenobot, then check out our video on that here.

    請在評論中告訴我們。如果你想了解更多關於該團隊的第一個Xenobot,那麼請看我們的視頻。

  • Make sure to subscribe to Seeker for more mind-blowing science and thanks for watching. I'll see you next time.

    請務必訂閱Seeker,以獲得更多令人心動的科學知識,並感謝您的觀看。下一次見。

In 2020, the world saw its first glimpse of a living robot.

2020年,世界首次看到了活生生的機器人的影子。

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B1 中級 中文 機器人 細胞 幹細胞 青蛙 團隊 功能

世界上第一個 "活的 "機器人剛剛得到升級,迎接Xenobot 2.0 (The World’s First “Living” Robots Just Got an Upgrade, Meet Xenobot 2.0)

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    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 06 月 07 日
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