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  • The internationally recognized limit for how  long a human embryo can be grown in a lab  

    國際公認的人類胚胎在實驗室中可以生長多長時間的限制

  • is 14 days. But in light of advancements that may  

    是14天。但是,鑑於可能出現的進步

  • now make it possible to culture embryos beyond  those 14 days, scientists and ethicists are discussing:  

    現在,科學家和倫理學家正在討論,使培養超過這14天的胚胎成為可能。

  • should growing human embryos inlab beyond this point be allowed?

    是否應該允許在實驗室中培養人類胚胎超過這一點?

  • Okay, hold up. What do we mean when we  talk about lab-grown embryos? Typically,  

    好吧,等一下。當我們談論實驗室培育的胚胎時,我們是什麼意思?通常情況下。

  • these are fertilized embryos that have been donated to scientific  research by in vitro fertilization clinics because  

    這些是由體外受精診所捐獻給科學研究的受精胚胎,因為

  • the embryo is no longer viable for an IVF treatmentThese embryos are different from embryoids.

    胚胎對於試管嬰兒治療來說不再是可行的。 這些胚胎與胚胎不同。

  • Embryoids are structures that resemble an early  human embryo but they lack some of the cell types and  

    胚胎是類似於人類早期胚胎的結構,但它們缺乏一些細胞類型和功能。

  • structure to develop into something fully viableThese are often created in a lab from embryonic  

    結構,以發展成完全可行的東西。 這些通常是在實驗室裡從胚胎中創造出來的。

  • stem cells, and they can be a useful tool for  studying lots of aspects of human development.

    幹細胞,它們可以成為研究人類發展的許多方面的有用工具。

  • One recent groundbreaking method uses another kind  of stem cell. Scientists take skin cells and hit  

    最近一種突破性的方法使用了另一種幹細胞。科學家們利用皮膚細胞,將其打入

  • rewind: they reverse them into pluripotent stem  cells, or cells that can essentially develop into  

    逆轉:他們將它們逆轉為多能幹細胞,或基本上可以發育為

  • any tissue type.  

    任何組織類型。

  • And by exposing them to the right environment,   those cells can be coaxed

    而通過將它們暴露在正確的環境中,這些細胞可以被哄騙。

  • into forming a structure that's really similar to

    形成一個真正類似於

  • the earliest stage of a human embryo, called  a blastocyst. But because these didn't develop  

    人類胚胎的最早階段,稱為囊胚。但是,由於這些沒有發育

  • from an actual embryo, they are not quite the same as  a real blastocyst, they are called blastoids instead.

    它們來自一個實際的胚胎,與真正的囊胚不完全相同,它們被稱為囊胚。

  • The existing 14-day limit on lab-mediated human  embryo or embryoid development was suggested after the first  

    現有的對實驗室介導的人類胚胎或胚胎體開發的14天限制是在第一次提出後提出的。

  • IVF babies were born in the 1970s. The media  started to refer to these individuals as 'test  

    20世紀70年代,試管嬰兒誕生了。媒體開始將這些人稱為 "試驗品"。

  • tube babies', and the scientific community wanted  to make it very clear that embryos were not being  

    科學界希望非常清楚地表明,胚胎並沒有被用於生產 "試管嬰兒"。

  • developed into fully viable fetuses in a test  tube. Instead, IVF is when an egg is fertilized  

    在試管中發育成完全可行的胎兒。相反,試管嬰兒是在卵子受精後

  • with sperm in a petri dish, and those fertilized  eggs usually grow for 2 to 5 days in a lab

    培養皿中的精子,而這些受精卵通常在實驗室中生長2至5天。

  • before being transferred to the patient's  uterusand that's technically a lab-grown embryo.

    在被轉移到病人的子宮之前,這在技術上是一個實驗室培育的胚胎。

  • Now, growing an embryo into a fully fledged baby  in a lab, something called ectogenesis, is still  

    現在,在實驗室裡將胚胎培育成一個成熟的嬰兒,即所謂的異體生成,仍然是

  • totally in the realm of science fiction. But after  the development of IVF, there was growing concern  

    完全屬於科幻小說的範疇。但是在試管嬰兒的發展之後,人們越來越擔心

  • that maybe developing embryos were being experimented on  or thrown away past certain points in development.

    也許正在發育的胚胎在發育的某些階段被實驗或被扔掉。

  • And as the debate rages worldwide  about when life begins, this is and was

    當全世界都在爭論生命何時開始的問題時,這就是,也曾經是。

  • understandably a very thorny issue. So a U.S. regulating body proposed  

    可以理解,這是一個非常棘手的問題。是以,美國的一個監管機構提議

  • the 14-day rule just as a guideline, and that limit  actually became a law in at least a dozen countries.

    14天的規則只是作為一個準則,而這個限制實際上在至少十幾個國家成為了法律。

  • Why 14 days in particular?  

    為什麼特別是14天?

  • That's the point at which an embryo develops  something called the primitive streak, which  

    那是一個胚胎髮展出一種叫做原始條紋的東西的點,它

  • is the beginning of the body differentiating into  its separate building blocks. It's also the point  

    是身體開始分化為其獨立的組成部分。這也是

  • at which becoming a twin is no longer possibleso that's where 'individuality' is assigned.

    在這一點上,成為雙胞胎不再可能,所以這就是 "個體性 "被分配的地方。

  • And until recently we didn't even know how  to keep human embryos or something similar  

    而直到最近,我們甚至不知道如何保存人類胚胎或類似的東西

  • alive in the lab longer than nine daysso this wasn't really that pressing of a question.   

    在實驗室裡活著的時間超過9天,所以這並不是一個真正緊迫的問題。

  • But 2016 was the year that a couple  research teams got all the way to 13 days.

    但2016年是幾個研究團隊一路走到13天的一年。

  • And ever since, the scientific community has been  grappling with how to deal with these advances  

    此後,科學界一直在努力解決如何處理這些進展的問題

  • in the face of the limit... or if the  limit should be changed altogether.  

    在面對限制時......或如果限制應該完全改變。

  • Because of the advancements in our ability to  grow these structures in the lab for longer,  

    因為我們在實驗室中生長這些結構的能力有了進步,可以更長時間地生長。

  • and the exciting developments in blastoid and  embryoid research, there's now the possibility  

    以及囊胚和胚胎研究方面令人振奮的發展,現在有可能

  • of investigating parts of human development  we've never had access to before. This could  

    調查我們以前從未接觸過的人類發展的部分。這可以

  • help us understand why some miscarriages  happen, or how some birth defects develop.

    幫助我們瞭解為什麼會發生一些流產,或者一些出生缺陷是如何形成的。

  • We'd be able to see the effects of all kinds of  chemicals and medications on embryonic development  

    我們將能夠看到各種化學品和藥物對胚胎髮育的影響

  • and maybe make IVF safer and more effective

    並可能使試管嬰兒更安全、更有效。

  • But would a new time limit only mean good things?

    但新的時間限制是否只意味著好事?

  • What about the possibility of  genetically modifying human embryos in  

    對人類胚胎進行基因改造的可能性如何?

  • new wayswe're gonna need to think about  that one REAL hard. And at what point can  

    新的方式--我們需要認真考慮這個問題。而在什麼時候可以

  • scientists ethically say that a blastocyst  is no longer a clump of cells and is instead,  

    科學家們在倫理上說,胚胎不再是一團細胞,而是。

  • a fetus? And what do we do with  a lab-grown embryo at that point?

    一個胎兒?而在這個時候,我們該如何處理實驗室培育的胚胎呢?

  • We're going to need plans in place for all of this.

    我們將需要為這一切制定計劃。

  • Ever since the 14-day rule was  first proposed in the 1970s,  

    自從1970年代首次提出14天規則以來。

  • experts in this field from scientists to  philosophers have known that we would one day  

    這個領域的專家,從科學家到哲學家都知道,我們有一天會

  • have to revisit this because of scientific  advancements. And that day has arrived.

    由於科學的進步,必須重新審視這個問題。而這一天已經到來。

  • The International Society for  Stem Cell Research, or the ISSCR,  

    國際幹細胞研究學會,即ISSCR。

  • released its updated guidelines for  culturing human embryos and embryoids.  

    發佈了其最新的人類胚胎和胚胎培養指南。

  • They are calling for a public conversation  with ethicists, scientists, and regulators

    他們呼籲與倫理學家、科學家和監管機構進行公開對話

  • about the social and ethical issues associated  with going past 14 days. How this may translate  

    關於過去14天的社會和道德問題。這可能如何轉化為

  • into legal changes in some countries remains to be seen, and lots of questions we talked about before remain unanswered.

    到一些國家的法律變化仍有待觀察,我們之前談到的很多問題仍未得到解答。

  • What do you think about extending the  14 day rule? If you're interested in these public

    你對延長14天規則有什麼看法?如果你對這些公共

  • conversations make sure you check out the link in our description for more details.

    對話,確保你查看我們描述中的鏈接,瞭解更多細節。

  • Make sure to subscribe to Seeker for all of your boundary-pushing biomedical news.

    請務必訂閱Seeker,瞭解所有推動生物醫學的新聞。

  • And if you have another stem cell  development you want us to cover on the channel,  

    如果你有其他的幹細胞發展,你希望我們在頻道上報道。

  • let us know. As always, thanks so much  for watching and I'll see ya next time.

    讓我們知道。一如既往,非常感謝您的觀看,我們下次再見。

The internationally recognized limit for how  long a human embryo can be grown in a lab  

國際公認的人類胚胎在實驗室中可以生長多長時間的限制

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為什麼科學家們可能會放棄對人類胚胎研究的14天限制? (Why Scientists Might Drop the 14-Day Limit on Human Embryo Research)

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    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 06 月 04 日
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